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The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d

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The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 11:53
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The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of dolphin behavior. Even though cetaceans, which are marine animals including dolphins, whales, and porpoises, are widely considered intelligent species, conclusions about the type and extent of dolphin intelligence have not yet been reached. However, there are several things that we do know about the ways in which dolphins communicate and behave in groups.

Researchers study the level of communication among dolphins because communication systems can offer insight into an animal’s intelligence. Dolphins produce two primary types of vocalizations called clicks and whistles. Dolphins generally use clicks for the purposes of echolocation and whistles for communication. Dolphins emit clicks as rapid broadband bursts that are sent out into their environment and then echo back, giving them information about their surroundings. Whistles differ from clicks by being sent out as narrow-band frequency modulated signals, which are for communications such as contact calls. Strong evidence supports the idea that dolphins use signature whistles to identify and call to each other.

One hypothesis called the “acoustic flashlight” hypothesis maintains that dolphins may be able to learn passively about their surroundings by listening in on the echolocative inspections of other dolphins. Scientists are researching this idea by looking at how dolphins participate in postural pointing, an activity that humans perform when they point a finger to direct another person towards an object or location.

Communication is also an important part of how dolphins behave in groups, which can range in size from a pair of dolphins to a pod of hundreds of individuals. Researchers have noticed that large packs rely on a highly organized method of communication when responding to predators, such as sharks. When a group of dolphins reacts to an unexpected disturbance, it will quickly move in near-unison to avoid the threat. In this way, dolphins rely on visual and auditory cues to communicate their location and to interpret the locations of others in the pod.

It can be inferred from the passage that a dolphin would use clicks instead of whistles to:

A. call to another member of the same pod
B. locate a possible route through an underwater obstacle
C. communicate a perceived threat to other dolphins
D. contact other dolphins when separated from a group
E. identify itself to another calling dolphin

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (B). Paragraph 2 discusses how dolphins use clicks and whistles. Notice that the passage states that dolphins "generally use clicks for the purposes of echolocation and whistles for communication." Since we are being asked to infer when a dolphin would use clicks, we're looking for an answer choice that offers an example of when a dolphin would want to locate something and eliminate examples of when a dolphin would want to communicate.



According to the passage, rapid communication enables dolphins to:

A. work in unison to locate food sources
B. move quickly as a group to escape a perceived threat
C. establish relationships quickly with their peers
D. have more highly organized hunting patterns
E. establish their territories when other cetaceans are present

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (B). The phrase "according to the passage" provides a clue to look directly to the passage for the answer. Notice that paragraph 4 discusses an example when dolphins move "quickly in near-unison to avoid a threat." This example explains how dolphins use rapid communication to move as a group to escape.



It can be inferred from the passage that if another animal does not have a communication system as highly advanced as that of a dolphin, then:

A. the other animal will be less likely to survive a shark attack
B. the other animal is probably a whale or porpoise
C. the other animal probably does not travel in a group with others of its kind
D. the other animal does not engage in postural pointing
E. the other animal is likely considered less intelligent than the dolphin

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (E). This question is testing our ability to make a general inference about dolphin communication and dolphin intelligence. Notice that the first sentence in paragraph 2 states that "researchers study the level of communication among dolphins because communication systems can offer insight into an animal’s intelligence." It can be inferred from this statement that dolphins are considered highly intelligent because they have a highly organized communication system. Therefore, if an animal does not have a communication system as highly advanced as a dolphin's, then the other animal is likely considered less intelligent than the dolphin.



Which of the following is the function of the first paragraph?

A. to contrast the communication styles of dolphins with those of other cetaceans
B. to define an abstract idea in order to simplify the discussion that follows
C. to introduce the passage’s focus on how the dolphins communicate and behave in groups
D. to explain the cause of an event that the following paragraphs discuss in detail
E. to show the consequences of a mistake made in earlier research

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (C). This question is testing your ability to determine how one part of the passage relates to the whole. In general, the first paragraph of most essays will introduce the main idea. The first paragraph introduces the topic of the passage, namely that "there are several things that we do know about the ways in which dolphins communicate and behave in groups." The remainder of the passage discusses dolphin communication and behavior.



The author of this passage is primarily concerned with:

A. contrasting dolphin communications with those of other cetaceans
B. defining the term “cetacean intelligence” by offering an example of dolphin communication
C. offering an example of how dolphins used highly-developed communication patterns to escape predators
D. explaining how dolphins communicate and behave in groups
E. providing an in-depth analysis of a disputed claim

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (D). Notice that each of the passage's paragraphs discuss some aspect of dolphin communication and behavior. The final paragraph explains how dolphins communicate in groups. The final sentence of the first paragraph establishes this focus, saying: "...there are several things that we do know about the ways in which dolphins communicate and behave in groups."



The passage suggests that postural pointing provides evidence of a dolphin’s ability to:

A. mimic a similar human action
B. learn by listening to the clicks made by other dolphins
C. comprehend visual cues such as light and shadow
D. respond more intelligently to auditory cues than do other cetaceans
E. rapidly react to perceived threats

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B
[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
The correct answer is (B). The word "suggests" in the question offers a clue telling you that the correct answer may not be stated directly in the passage but rather implied. Paragraph 3 states that the "acoustic flashlight" hypothesis relates to a dolphin's ability to "learn passively about their surroundings by listening in on the echolocative inspections of other dolphins." Notice that paragraph 2 states that dolphins use clicks "for the purposes of echolocation." Therefore, it can be inferred that dolphins learn by listening to the clicks of other dolphins since dolphins use clicks for the purposes of echolocation. Paragraph 3 also states that scientists are researching "this" idea (the acoustic flashlight theory) by looking at how dolphins participate in postural pointing, so it can be inferred that postural pointing provides evidence of a dolphin's ability to learn by listening to the clicks made by other dolphins.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA

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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 26 Sep 2017, 02:16, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 12:01
msk0657

I have tried to format the questions but couldn't
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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 18:28

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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2017, 02:17
broall wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
msk0657

I have tried to format the questions but couldn't


The question looks good now

Could you provide the source of this question?


Thanks for formatting the question, source has been added
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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2017, 23:14
#3 is a good question.
Thanks for sharing.

But in question #2

The passage only tell us a correlation between
"Highly organized method" and "quick move"

Where can I find a clue for "rapid communication"

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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2017, 01:51
For question Number 5

The author of this passage is primarily concerned with:

A. contrasting dolphin communications with those of other cetaceans
B. defining the term “cetacean intelligence” by offering an example of dolphin communication
C. offering an example of how dolphins used highly-developed communication patterns to escape predators
D. explaining how dolphins communicate and behave in groups
E. providing an in-depth analysis of a disputed claim

Can someone explain why D is the answer and not B?

My reasoning is that option B includes even the first paragraph and gives an all round idea about what the author is concerned about. In the first para he tells about the cetacean intelligence and rest of the paragraphs tells us about how dolphins communicate and react

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Re: The study of cetacean intelligence has added to our understanding of d   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2017, 01:51
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