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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 06:19
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Project SC Butler: Day 178: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been

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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2019, 03:06
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Three key splits can be used to answer this question.
Split #1: Subject-verb agreement.
Split #2: Verb tense.
Split #3: idiomatic construction of ratio of x to y vs ratio of x with y

Option A: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

Subject 1: wages verb are improving, however, this subject verb pair is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Subject 2: [The ratio verb: have been. There is subject-verb disagreement. The subject is singular, while the verb is plural. We can therefore eliminate option A.

Option B: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings to those of men are roughly static since 1960.
Subject 2: the ratio Verb: are. Plural verb are is not appropriate for a singular subject, we can therefore eliminate option B.

Option C: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.
Subject 2: the ratio Verb: have been. Plural verb have been is not appropriate for a singular subject.

Option D: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with those of men is roughly static since 1960.
Subject 2: the ratio Verb: is[/i]. The singular verb [i]is agrees in number with the singular subject the ratio. Let's keep option D.

Option E: Option D: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings to those of men has been roughly static since 1960.

Split #2: verb tense.
The phrase since 1960 suggests that the verb has to be in the present perfect tense.
The use of simple present verb tense is is not correct in option D. We can, therefore, eliminate option D. The same verb tense error is present in option B as well, and this can be a ground to eliminate option B.

The right answer is option E. The verb has been is rightly in the present perfect tense. Options A and C also have the right tense.

Split #3: Idiomatic use of ratio of x to y vs ratio of x with y. Ratio of x with y is awkward, and cannot be correct. It does not make sense to say the ratio of x with y. The correct form should be ratio of x to y. Based on this, options A and D are incorrect.
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New post 15 Oct 2019, 06:20
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 178: Sentence Correction (SC2)




Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been[/quote]

Strip the sentence:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their [women's] earnings with[?] that [?] of men have been [?] roughly static since 1960.

Issues

The subject is ratio.
Earnings are plural.
Since is a "code word" in English. It tells us to use has/have + past participle (verbED), also known as present perfect.
The ratio of X TO Y is correct.

• Split #1: subject/verb agreement

The singular subject, ratio, requires a singular verb.

Options A, B, and C incorrectly use the plural verbs have been, are, and have been, respectively.

Eliminate A, B, and C

• Split #2: Since 1960 requires has been

GMAC tests this time/verb cue a decent bit: the word since means something that began in the past and continues into the present.
We use present perfect, this way:

has/have + past participle (verbED)

Present perfect tense bridges the past and the present.
It is called present "perfect" because some of the action has been "perfected," i.e. completed or finished.

Option D incorrectly uses the verb IS, which applies only to now.

The correct answer is E

• additional errors

The word "earnings" is plural. When we want to refer to earnings of men, we need "those" of men, not "that" of men. (option A is wrong)

Idiom: the ratio of Xs TO Ys (the ratio of women's earnings TO men's earnings)
The correct preposition is TO, not with. (answers A and D are incorrect)

Present tense are in option B is wrong not only because it is plural, but also because it is present tense.
We need has + been.

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minustark , welcome to SC Butler, and belated welcome to GMAT Club. :)

eakabuah , I am bumping you to Best Community Reply.
Kudos go to good explanations. Most of these explanations are excellent. Well done!
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New post 15 Oct 2019, 06:49
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 178: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here



Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been


Two important points to note in this question:
1. The sentence is explaining about "The RATIO" which is SINGULAR. So we have to use a Singular verb such as "has" or "is". So A, B and C can be eliminated for using plural verbs

2. A Ratio is always expresses as "Something" TO "Something" i.e. Men TO Woman, Males TO Females etc. So the usage of "TO" is necessary. So D can also be eliminated for using "with" instead of "to"

Only Option E correctly uses both a Singular Subject and "TO". So E should be the right answer.

Thanks.
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Oct 2019, 10:28
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First split, to vs with.

A ratio 1:2 is read as One is to two. Ratio comparisons are done using "to".

Hence, A and D are incorrect.

Second Split, singular Vs plural.

In this sentence "what has been roughly static?" - ratio has been roughly static. Hence the verb used to explain the singluar entit ratio should be singular. The correct usage is "has been".

Are and have been are plural.

Correct answer is E!!

[size=80][b][i]Posted from my mobile device[/i][/b][/size]

Originally posted by arcKnight on 15 Oct 2019, 08:07.
Last edited by arcKnight on 15 Oct 2019, 10:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 09:13
we have comparison so how that the ratio of their earnings to those of men is correct ; ratio is singular so "has" should be in the correct option
IMO E ; active voice
to those of men has been


generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 178: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here



Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 10:24
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Imo. E

This question checks comparison, SVA and verb rule(usage of since).

Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been - subject is ratio,which is singular, hence verb should be has been. SVA error. In addition to that, the construction for ratio is ....ratio of x to y...., not ratio of x with y. Earnings is plural, so those is required to convey the meaning of ...ratio of x's earnings to y's earnings.

B) to those of men are - subject is ratio,which is singular, hence verb should be singular. As since is used, indicating the action/event/effect is still happening, present perfect tense is required to convey proper meaning.

C) to those of men have been - subject is ratio,which is singular, hence verb should be has been. SVA error.

D) with those of men is - As since is used, indicating the action/event/effect is still happening, present perfect tense is required to convey proper meaning.

E) to those of men has been[/quote] - Seems no error. Correct.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 10:51
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IMO the correct asnwer is E

Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been - the ratio of their earnings - Singluar subject will take singular verb "has", INCORRECT

B) to those of men are - SVA error - Same as A

C) to those of men have been - SVA error - Same as A

D) with those of men is - Simple present tense will not work, we need perfect tense..due to this usage--->......."..........static since 1960."
-INCORRECT
E) to those of men has been - CORRECT
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New post 15 Oct 2019, 11:22
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Quote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been


Let's try to rewrite the sentence:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with earnings of men have been roughly static since 1960.

Now one thing to note is we are comparing earnings to earnings. So that eliminates. All other options use "those" which a correct pronoun.

The next thing to look for is the ratio. What has been static since 1960? the ratio which is singular.

So B and C are gone.

Quote:
D) with those of men is
E) to those of men has been


Let's say you did not notice "Since 1960" at the end of the sentence and did not realize we need perfect tense.

You know the ratio is of X to Y. Ratio is not X with Y.

For that reason E wins.

Now if you did read "Since 1960" then you already know answer is E. :)
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New post 15 Oct 2019, 12:20
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

What is the ratio of A to B? ratio of their earning to the earnings of men is . An AC that fits this form is the correct answer!

A) with that of men have been
Need 'to' for ratio instead of 'with' . ratio is singular. As wages are plural , we need 'those' pronoun

B) to those of men are
ratio is singular , hence 'are' is not correct

C) to those of men have been
ratio is singular , hence 'have' is not correct

D) with those of men is
Need 'to' for ratio instead of 'with'

E) to those of men has been
this option uses 'to' instead of 'with', correct pronoun 'those', and correct verb - has been

E is the answer!
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 16:30
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The comparison is between Earnnings, which is plural. So , it should be Those of and the noun here is Ratio, which is singular. This eliminates A, B, and C.

Since indicates a continuous activity, so has been should be used instead of is. That makes E the Correct answer.
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 19:10
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been

wages of women is currently static and has been static since forever. It is something that happens in the past and continue to present there for "has been" must be use

E
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2019, 21:17
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

The ratio of... should be 'to' not 'with'. So eliminate A and D.
Between B, C, E. It is the tense different. "Since 1960" indicates that the ratio performance in the past and still continue to be static. So, present perfect is needed here.
Also, the subject is 'the ratio', which is singular. So the correct answer choice is 'has been'

A) with that of men have been

B) to those of men are

C) to those of men have been

D) with those of men is

E) to those of men has been - CORRECT

Therefore E is the correct answer choice.
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New post 16 Oct 2019, 04:19
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been ( earnings is plural, so those required instead of that. so wrong )


B) to those of men are( since 1960 requires the present perfect to show its still in effect. so wrong )

C) to those of men have been( ratio is singular, it requires singular verb has . so wrong )


D) with those of men is( since 1960 requires the present perfect to show its still in effect. so wrong )


E) to those of men has been ( correct choice with those referring to plural earnings and has referring to singular ratio.)
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Re: Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2019, 05:52
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generis wrote:
Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics show that the ratio of their earnings with that of men have been roughly static since 1960.

A) with that of men have been
B) to those of men are
C) to those of men have been
D) with those of men is
E) to those of men has been


MEANING
Stats show that the ratio [sing] of their earnings [woman's earnings] to those [earnings] of men has been static since 1960;
What are we comparing? EARNINGS of Women x EARNINGS of MEN
What has been static since 1960? THE RATIO [singular]

A) "that" is singular, but "earnings" is plural, sva; "have been" plural, and "ratio" is singular, sva; since we are comparing data, then we are comparing x "TO" y, not x "WITH" y;
B) "are" is the wrong tense, "…since 1960" imps that the ratio since the past to the present date has been static, however, this is not guaranteed into the future, thus we need the present perfect;
C) "ratio [s]…have been [p]" sva;
D) "is" wrong tense, we need pres. perfect; comparing x "TO" y, not x "WITH" y;

Answer (E)
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New post 16 Oct 2019, 19:45
I have posted the official explanation [color=#ff0000]HERE[/color]
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Although women’s wages are improving, Department of Labor statistics s   [#permalink] 16 Oct 2019, 19:45
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