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Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds

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Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds. This early academic focus will undermine the social, emotional, and mental development associated with a carefree early childhood. Furthermore, the economic burden on the state to fund such an ambitious undertaking will be overwhelming in both the short-term and long-term, since the state has no way to offset the program’s costs.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the idea that universal preschool will be an economic burden on the state?

(A) Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool.

(B) Preschool educated children fare much better in kindergarten than do children without preschool.

(C) Part of the high cost of universal preschool stems from its requirement that preschool teachers must have a bachelor's degree and a teaching credential.

(D) The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

(E) Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
The argument posits that universal preschool is a poor idea for children and an overwhelming economic burden for the state. In order to weaken the idea that preschool is an economic burden, the answer choice must demonstrate that preschool somehow directly allows the state to save money in another capacity.

(A) This choice demonstrates an academic benefit of preschool, but not an economic benefit.

(B) Similar to answer choice A, this choice strictly refers to an academic benefit of preschool.

(C) This choice provides a partial explanation of why preschool is so expensive, but does not weaken the idea that preschool will be an economic burden on the state.

(D) This choice simply indicates that the funding for preschool can come from a variety of sources, but in no way undermines the economic burden that preschool imposes.

(E) CORRECT. This choice indicates that special education, an expensive public service, will be made less necessary by the introduction of universal preschool. Thus, spending money on preschool now will save money later.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by guerrero25 on 21 Jul 2014, 23:02, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 21:05
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Really good question. I feel E is best answer even though D was the contender but felt instead it strengthens the conclusion. I am no expert but here is my reasoning:

Conclusion: The economic burden on the state to fund such an ambitious undertaking will be overwhelming in both the short-term and long-term

Possible Assumption: Preschool because of its use of public funds will be a an economic burden without offsetting costs in any way.

We need to weaken this assumption i.e. find an answer that will justify preschool use of public funds offsetting the program costs in some way.

A)Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool. -- It doesn't really affect the program cost and public funds part and therefore doesn't affect the conclusion.

B) Preschool educated children fare much better in kindergarten than do children without preschool. --- Same as A

C)Part of the high cost of universal preschool stems from its requirement that preschool teachers must have a bachelor's degree and a teaching credential. -- Only part of the high cost explained but doesn't really weaken the conclusion in any way. Out

D)The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures. --This was a contender but we have no way of finding out whether sources, such as property taxes and bond measures, could also use public funds in some way. In other words, we will have to make some assumptions and therefore we will have to discard this option. Moreover, if the other sources make use of public funds , use of these other sources strengthens our conclusion slightly.

E)Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.--- Correct This one says that students not attending preschool will require special education, an expensive public service. Thus we see that the preschool indeed offsets the program cost indirectly by not requiring students to have special education and consequently preschool will not be an economic burden in short-term and long-term.


Please post the OA and OE.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 23:04
Nice logic . I fell for for D in the test . Check the The OA & OE in case you want to review .

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2014, 23:27
Thanks. Indeed a good question and quite representative of real GMAT CR question. Keep posting such questions as it helps people improve :-)
guerrero25 wrote:
Nice logic . I fell for for D in the test . Check the The OA & OE in case you want to review .

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2014, 03:27
Hi,

If the main concern is the economic burden, wouldn't option D be helpful in solving that (that too both in short and long term), and thereby, in weakening the conclusion? Option E resolves the issue in long term.

@guerrero25 : Please post the OE.

Thank you.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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guerrero25 wrote:
Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds. This early academic focus will undermine the social, emotional, and mental development associated with a carefree early childhood. Furthermore, the economic burden on the state to fund such an ambitious undertaking will be overwhelming in both the short-term and long-term, since the state has no way to offset the program’s costs.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the idea that universal preschool will be an economic burden on the state?

A)Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool.

B) Preschool educated children fare much better in kindergarten than do children without preschool.

C)Part of the high cost of universal preschool stems from its requirement that preschool teachers must have a bachelor's degree and a teaching credential.

D)The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

E)Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.



I think E could do as student who attend preschool don't need more special education, as they get lot to learn in their early ages at preschool.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2016, 14:48
Narrows down to Option D and Option E since we are looking for something to prove that Universal PS will not be an economic burden

D:
The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

What if even though the taxes collected will be enough to fund the universal PS but still remain as an economic burden to the state. Doesn't give enough fodder to go against the stem.

E:

Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

Option states that students attending preschool can avoid an expensive public service. Since the service is expensive and funded by govt. it destroys the conc.


However, I had a query - the option talks about preschool and we are talking about Universal PS. Is it ok to make a general statement?

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 12:13
warriorguy wrote:
Narrows down to Option D and Option E since we are looking for something to prove that Universal PS will not be an economic burden

D:
The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

What if even though the taxes collected will be enough to fund the universal PS but still remain as an economic burden to the state. Doesn't give enough fodder to go against the stem.

E:

Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

Option states that students attending preschool can avoid an expensive public service. Since the service is expensive and funded by govt. it destroys the conc.


However, I had a query - the option talks about preschool and we are talking about Universal PS. Is it ok to make a general statement?


The link could be as follows:

If Universal preschools do not exist, then there are some who do not attend preschools at all. But when the concept of Universal preschools is implemented, then everyone will attend the preschool (hence the name Universal). This links your query with the question.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 12:34
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Narrows down to Option D and Option E since we are looking for something to prove that Universal PS will not be an economic burden

D:
The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

What if even though the taxes collected will be enough to fund the universal PS but still remain as an economic burden to the state. Doesn't give enough fodder to go against the stem.

E:

Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

Option states that students attending preschool can avoid an expensive public service. Since the service is expensive and funded by govt. it destroys the conc.


However, I had a query - the option talks about preschool and we are talking about Universal PS. Is it ok to make a general statement?


The link could be as follows:

If Universal preschools do not exist, then there are some who do not attend preschools at all. But when the concept of Universal preschools is implemented, then everyone will attend the preschool (hence the name Universal). This links your query with the question.



Thanks! Could there be more than one public preschool in that area? If yes, there is a chance that the other preschool's curriculum is not as ambitious as this one and hence not a burden to fund. Also, isn't Universal just a name? like the one where I studied was named Pune Institute - though it was in Mumbai :D

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 10:16
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Narrows down to Option D and Option E since we are looking for something to prove that Universal PS will not be an economic burden

D:
The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

What if even though the taxes collected will be enough to fund the universal PS but still remain as an economic burden to the state. Doesn't give enough fodder to go against the stem.

E:

Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

Option states that students attending preschool can avoid an expensive public service. Since the service is expensive and funded by govt. it destroys the conc.


However, I had a query - the option talks about preschool and we are talking about Universal PS. Is it ok to make a general statement?


The link could be as follows:

If Universal preschools do not exist, then there are some who do not attend preschools at all. But when the concept of Universal preschools is implemented, then everyone will attend the preschool (hence the name Universal). This links your query with the question.



Thanks! Could there be more than one public preschool in that area? If yes, there is a chance that the other preschool's curriculum is not as ambitious as this one and hence not a burden to fund. Also, isn't Universal just a name? like the one where I studied was named Pune Institute - though it was in Mumbai :D


Probably not. The first sentence indicates that it is a concept rather than a particular school.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2016, 15:52
The conclusion that needs to be weakened here is that the idea of universal preschool will be an economic burden on the state

"taxes" are more related than a student requiring a special education. How can one guess that a state is sponsoring special education?

And, let us assume a state is sponsoring special education. Let us also assume it costs for that state $100K a year. How do we know this same amount or less, without causing any economic burden on the state, is sufficient for the universal preschool?

Can someone argue?

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2016, 10:45
manhasnoname wrote:
The conclusion that needs to be weakened here is that the idea of universal preschool will be an economic burden on the state

"taxes" are more related than a student requiring a special education. How can one guess that a state is sponsoring special education?

And, let us assume a state is sponsoring special education. Let us also assume it costs for that state $100K a year. How do we know this same amount or less, without causing any economic burden on the state, is sufficient for the universal preschool?

Can someone argue?


The last line states: "special education, an expensive public service". This answers your first question.

As for your second question, it does not matter how much the state spends - this is not an assumption question. A must be true scenario is required only for assumption question. For strengthening and weakening just a could be true scenario would suffice.

Universal pre-school COULD offset the cost of special education: this "could" scenario is enough to weaken.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2017, 20:27
Hi expert,
Have some doubts with the correct option.
Conclusion : Univ preschool is a misguided use of public funds.
Prem1 : undermine some development associated with a carefree childhood
Prem2 : economic burden

Option E give us another piece of information that attending preschool make it less likely for students to require special education.Still,it is an economic burden to establish the univ preschool.Is it safe to assume that the money saved from not having to maintain special education will be used to offset the initial cost of univ preschool?

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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sleepynut wrote:
Hi expert,
Have some doubts with the correct option.
Conclusion : Univ preschool is a misguided use of public funds.
Prem1 : undermine some development associated with a carefree childhood
Prem2 : economic burden

Option E give us another piece of information that attending preschool make it less likely for students to require special education.Still,it is an economic burden to establish the univ preschool.Is it safe to assume that the money saved from not having to maintain special education will be used to offset the initial cost of univ preschool?


Yes, it is OK. For strengthening / weakening questions, a "must be true" scenario need not be satisfied - a "could be" scenario is sufficient to qualify an answer as correct. Option E presents a new fact that COULD make the conclusion wrong. Hence it is a valid weakening statement.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 00:22
the question is interesting. Because of "furthermore", the first sentences play no roles in find the answer for the question.

Let's look at the question and the main conclusion, the argument discusses how short-term and long-term benefits from the program will not "offset" the cost -> E is the answer.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 09:50
Imo E
If children are not preschooled then they would have to be in special education which is very expensive , hence E is the answer .
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New post 14 Jul 2017, 02:49
Hello
I will definitely go with first on i.e Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool.

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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2017, 04:20
seves10 wrote:
Hello
I will definitely go with first on i.e Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool.


Hello seves10 ,

Welcome to GMATClub :)

I can understand why you are saying so.

You are assuming that if they complete high school, they mat be beneficial to the economy. You are trying to link economy with high school completion.

This is wrong. We should not bring an outside assumptions to strengthen/weaken our point.

What happens if these students leaves the country? Shouldn't it be a loss?

I hope that makes sense. :)
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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds. This early [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2017, 06:58
guerrero25 wrote:
Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds. This early academic focus will undermine the social, emotional, and mental development associated with a carefree early childhood. Furthermore, the economic burden on the state to fund such an ambitious undertaking will be overwhelming in both the short-term and long-term, since the state has no way to offset the program’s costs.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the idea that universal preschool will be an economic burden on the state?

(A) Students who attend preschool are more likely to complete high school than students who do not attend preschool.

(B) Preschool educated children fare much better in kindergarten than do children without preschool.

(C) Part of the high cost of universal preschool stems from its requirement that preschool teachers must have a bachelor's degree and a teaching credential.

(D) The taxes necessary to fund universal preschool can come from a variety of sources, including property taxes and bond measures.

(E) Students who attend preschool are less likely to require special education, an expensive public service.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


The argument posits that universal preschool is a poor idea for children and an overwhelming economic burden for the state. In order to weaken the idea that preschool is an economic burden, the answer choice must demonstrate that preschool somehow directly allows the state to save money in another capacity.

(A) This choice demonstrates an academic benefit of preschool, but not an economic benefit.

(B) Similar to answer choice A, this choice strictly refers to an academic benefit of preschool.

(C) This choice provides a partial explanation of why preschool is so expensive, but does not weaken the idea that preschool will be an economic burden on the state.

(D) This choice simply indicates that the funding for preschool can come from a variety of sources, but in no way undermines the economic burden that preschool imposes.

(E) CORRECT. This choice indicates that special education, an expensive public service, will be made less necessary by the introduction of universal preschool. Thus, spending money on preschool now will save money later.
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Re: Universal preschool is a misguided use of public funds. This early   [#permalink] 15 Oct 2017, 06:58
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