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# Veritas Prep CR Forum Expert - Karishma - Ask Me Anything about CR

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Manager
Joined: 13 Apr 2019
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29 Feb 2020, 08:19
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
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01 Mar 2020, 23:14
Guys, this is a CR thread so let's stick to only CR questions here. For other question types, feel free to tag me on the relevant post.
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Karishma
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03 Mar 2020, 20:50
1
Aviral1995 wrote:

Aviral1995
Here you go:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/an-archaeolo ... l#p2467239
https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-three-cen ... l#p2467257
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Karishma
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06 Mar 2020, 08:07

Hi Karishma,

“If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction,” said the biologist.

“So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation,” said the politician.

Which one of the following statements is consistent with the biologist’s claim but not with the politician’s claim?

(A) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
(B) Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
(C) Reforestation begins and the koala survives.
(D) Deforestation is slowed and the koala survives.
(E) Deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction.

My understanding -
Event A(disappearance of forest) -> will cause -> Event B(extinction of Koala)
Not Event B(extinction of Koala) -> Not event A(disappearance of forest)
Thus, if Koala is not extinct then deforestation is stopped. It can be deduced from the biologist's statement.

But how to infer that option B(Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.) is also a possibility from the same statement?
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Posts: 10497
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08 Mar 2020, 04:40
2
Rinng0 wrote:

Hi Karishma,

“If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction,” said the biologist.

“So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation,” said the politician.

Which one of the following statements is consistent with the biologist’s claim but not with the politician’s claim?

(A) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
(B) Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
(C) Reforestation begins and the koala survives.
(D) Deforestation is slowed and the koala survives.
(E) Deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction.

My understanding -
Event A(disappearance of forest) -> will cause -> Event B(extinction of Koala)
Not Event B(extinction of Koala) -> Not event A(disappearance of forest)
Thus, if Koala is not extinct then deforestation is stopped. It can be deduced from the biologist's statement.

But how to infer that option B(Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.) is also a possibility from the same statement?

Check this:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/if-the-fores ... l#p2471153

Let me know if something is still unclear.
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Karishma
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08 Mar 2020, 07:51
Rinng0 wrote:

Hi Karishma,

“If the forest continues to disappear at its present pace, the koala will approach extinction,” said the biologist.

“So all that is needed to save the koala is to stop deforestation,” said the politician.

Which one of the following statements is consistent with the biologist’s claim but not with the politician’s claim?

(A) Deforestation continues and the koala becomes extinct.
(B) Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.
(C) Reforestation begins and the koala survives.
(D) Deforestation is slowed and the koala survives.
(E) Deforestation is slowed and the koala approaches extinction.

My understanding -
Event A(disappearance of forest) -> will cause -> Event B(extinction of Koala)
Not Event B(extinction of Koala) -> Not event A(disappearance of forest)
Thus, if Koala is not extinct then deforestation is stopped. It can be deduced from the biologist's statement.

But how to infer that option B(Deforestation is stopped and the koala becomes extinct.) is also a possibility from the same statement?

Check this:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/if-the-fores ... l#p2471153

Let me know if something is still unclear.

Thanks Karishma, nice explanation. It is now clear to me.
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27 Mar 2020, 03:21

Thank you for your devotion to the community here. It's great to see you contribute every single request.
Since I learn GMAT by my self, I found the hard part of CR is how to understand Multi-Negation Structure

Example 1:
Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription , and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

The question type for this CR is weaken the conclusion.

To simplify this complex Conclusion, I negate:
"cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription" = "Can obtain antibiotics to treat illness only with a prescription"
The first part of conclusion is " this is unlikely" so the right answer for weaken = Can obtain antibiotics to treat illness only with a prescription
I chose B through POE but when look at what I have negated, it's contradict. What wrong here
And how to have good multi-negation
https://gmatclub.com/forum/microbiologist-a-lethal-strain-of-salmonella-recently-showed-up-in-a-221739.html

Example 2:
Question 3 of 1 RC, GMAT also tests comprehension by state
3) The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could not have spread the Black Death unless which of the following were true?
Since this is super confusing, i also simplify by negation:
Unless + true = if wrong
Could not + if wrong = could + true
-> the question is now: The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could have spread the Black Death if which of the following were true?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-black-death-a-severe-epidemic-that-ravaged-fourteenth-century-eur-153465.html

Thank you so much and look forward your return
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 10497
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28 Mar 2020, 00:27
2
kirudang wrote:

Thank you for your devotion to the community here. It's great to see you contribute every single request.
Since I learn GMAT by my self, I found the hard part of CR is how to understand Multi-Negation Structure

Example 1:
Microbiologist: A lethal strain of salmonella recently showed up in a European country, causing an outbreak of illness that killed two people and infected twenty-seven others. Investigators blame the severity of the outbreak on the overuse of antibiotics, since the salmonella bacteria tested were shown to be drug-resistant. But this is unlikely because patients in the country where the outbreak occurred cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription , and the country’s doctors prescribe antibiotics less readily than do doctors in any other European country.

The question type for this CR is weaken the conclusion.

To simplify this complex Conclusion, I negate:
"cannot obtain antibiotics to treat illness without a prescription" = "Can obtain antibiotics to treat illness only with a prescription"
The first part of conclusion is " this is unlikely" so the right answer for weaken = Can obtain antibiotics to treat illness only with a prescription
I chose B through POE but when look at what I have negated, it's contradict. What wrong here
And how to have good multi-negation
https://gmatclub.com/forum/microbiologist-a-lethal-strain-of-salmonella-recently-showed-up-in-a-221739.html

Example 2:
Question 3 of 1 RC, GMAT also tests comprehension by state
3) The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could not have spread the Black Death unless which of the following were true?
Since this is super confusing, i also simplify by negation:
Unless + true = if wrong
Could not + if wrong = could + true
-> the question is now: The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could have spread the Black Death if which of the following were true?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-black-death-a-severe-epidemic-that-ravaged-fourteenth-century-eur-153465.html

Thank you so much and look forward your return

Hey kirudang,

CR - There is no multi negation. Break down the sentence into two different sentences. Check the explanation here:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/microbiologi ... l#p2483280
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Karishma
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28 Mar 2020, 00:43
2
kirudang wrote:
Example 2:
Question 3 of 1 RC, GMAT also tests comprehension by state
3) The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could not have spread the Black Death unless which of the following were true?
Since this is super confusing, i also simplify by negation:
Unless + true = if wrong
Could not + if wrong = could + true
-> the question is now: The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could have spread the Black Death if which of the following were true?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-black-death-a-severe-epidemic-that-ravaged-fourteenth-century-eur-153465.html

Thank you so much and look forward your return

RC:

Unless = if ... not

A could not happen unless B happened.
same as
A could not happen if B did not happen.

So A could happen if B happened.

The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could not have spread the Black Death unless which of the following were true?
is
The passage suggests that Twigg believes that rats could have spread the Black Death if which of the following were true?
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Karishma
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06 Apr 2020, 19:48
Hi Karishma,

https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... 94368.html
1)Why E is wrong ; I found it as taking strongest stand for the pattern that Camarnian official stayed only 1 place and mostly managed 4 simulaneously
2) For B : I had doubts , as B talks only about early carrer so how can we r sure that it will give information of 30 years career pattern
3) How to handle questions when all choices looks incorrect or partially correct? Any Technique ?

Thanks a ton!
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06 Apr 2020, 22:59
2
deepverma wrote:
Hi Karishma,

https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... 94368.html
1)Why E is wrong ; I found it as taking strongest stand for the pattern that Camarnian official stayed only 1 place and mostly managed 4 simulaneously
2) For B : I had doubts , as B talks only about early carrer so how can we r sure that it will give information of 30 years career pattern
3) How to handle questions when all choices looks incorrect or partially correct? Any Technique ?

Thanks a ton!

Hey deepverma,

There you go: https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... l#p2490189
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09 Apr 2020, 23:12
Last year the rate of inﬂation was 1.2 percent, but for the current year it has been 4 percent. We can conclude that inﬂation is on an upward trend and the rate will be still higher next year.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above?

(A) The inﬂation ﬁgures were computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than all of the available data.

(B) Last year a dip in oil prices brought inﬂation temporarily below its recent stable annual level of 4 percent.

(C) Increases in the pay of some workers are tied to the level of inﬂation, and at an inﬂation rate of 4 percent or above, these pay raises constitute a force causing further inﬂation.

(D) The 1.2 percent rate of inﬂation last year represented a 10-year low.

(E) Government intervention cannot affect the rate of inﬂation to any signiﬁcant degree.

HI KArishma.

I will present my understanding and hypothesis and then would request for your inputs.

Premise: LY inflation was 1.2% and for current year it HAS BEEN 4%( has been shows the year is not over).
Conclusion: Inflation is on an upward trend & will be still higher next year.
WHY? Because from last year till now inflation has increased so it will keep increasing

We need to weaken the argument by attacking the premise.

What if the inflation last year itself wasn't the right figure. OR what if there was some other MACRO factor which drove inflation down, and which can be seen as an aberration.

OUt of the options above, i chose (A). WHY? Inflation last year was for a subset of data and not representative of a whole. So may be inflation was not 1.2% at all. SO how can we say its on an upward trend since then?

I was confused between A and B as both match somewhat to my pre thinking.

Pls help me clear my doubt.
Thanks
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10 Apr 2020, 02:45
Hello Karishma,

PLs help me with the question below:

Mayor: In each of the past five years, the city has cut school funding and each time school officials complained that the cuts would force them to reduce expenditures for essential services. But each time, only expenditures for nonessential services were actually reduced. So school officials can implement further cuts without reducing any expenditures for essential services.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the mayor’s conclusion?

(A) The city’s schools have always provided essential services as efficiently as they have provided nonessential services.

(B) Sufficient funds are currently available to allow the city’s schools to provide some nonessential services.

(C) Price estimates quoted to the city’s schools for the provision of nonessential services have not increased substantially since the most recent school funding cut.

(D) Few influential city administrators support the funding of costly nonessential services in the city’s schools.

(E) The city’s school officials rarely exaggerate the potential impact of threatened funding cuts.

I Chose D over B:

Why Reject B-- Schools have enough money to support SOME non essential services(NES), Thats means may be one OR may be all NES. Cant be assumed that they have enough money for all- non certain

Why Chose D-- FEW administrators support the funding of costly NES. Hence they have an alternate source of money. Thus they can continue cutting NES expense.
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26 Apr 2020, 18:11

Hi

https://gmatclub.com/forum/although-par ... l#p2504985

Thanks
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27 Apr 2020, 10:22
Hi.
I have a doubt in the following statement b/w sufficient and necessary.
"The children go to the park when the sun is shining.
My question is that why is "children going to the park" not the sufficient condition, as it means that the sun must be shining, while Sun shining doesn't mean children will always go to the park if the sun shines. In the CR bible, "Sun shining" is given as the sufficient condition, which I don't understand.
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27 Apr 2020, 22:44
warrior1991 wrote:

Hi

https://gmatclub.com/forum/although-par ... l#p2504985

Thanks

There you go warrior1991:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/although-par ... l#p2506045
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27 Apr 2020, 22:47
Rachit4126 wrote:
Last year the rate of inﬂation was 1.2 percent, but for the current year it has been 4 percent. We can conclude that inﬂation is on an upward trend and the rate will be still higher next year.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion above?

(A) The inﬂation ﬁgures were computed on the basis of a representative sample of economic data rather than all of the available data.

(B) Last year a dip in oil prices brought inﬂation temporarily below its recent stable annual level of 4 percent.

(C) Increases in the pay of some workers are tied to the level of inﬂation, and at an inﬂation rate of 4 percent or above, these pay raises constitute a force causing further inﬂation.

(D) The 1.2 percent rate of inﬂation last year represented a 10-year low.

(E) Government intervention cannot affect the rate of inﬂation to any signiﬁcant degree.

HI KArishma.

I will present my understanding and hypothesis and then would request for your inputs.

Premise: LY inflation was 1.2% and for current year it HAS BEEN 4%( has been shows the year is not over).
Conclusion: Inflation is on an upward trend & will be still higher next year.
WHY? Because from last year till now inflation has increased so it will keep increasing

We need to weaken the argument by attacking the premise.

What if the inflation last year itself wasn't the right figure. OR what if there was some other MACRO factor which drove inflation down, and which can be seen as an aberration.

OUt of the options above, i chose (A). WHY? Inflation last year was for a subset of data and not representative of a whole. So may be inflation was not 1.2% at all. SO how can we say its on an upward trend since then?

I was confused between A and B as both match somewhat to my pre thinking.

Pls help me clear my doubt.
Thanks

Rachit4126
Discussed here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/last-year-th ... l#p2496542

Also note that if the same method of measurement has been used for all measurements, they are comparable. Until and unless we are told that the method is insufficient or incorrect, there is no reason to doubt it.
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27 Apr 2020, 23:19
Rachit4126 wrote:
Hello Karishma,

PLs help me with the question below:

Mayor: In each of the past five years, the city has cut school funding and each time school officials complained that the cuts would force them to reduce expenditures for essential services. But each time, only expenditures for nonessential services were actually reduced. So school officials can implement further cuts without reducing any expenditures for essential services.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the mayor’s conclusion?

(A) The city’s schools have always provided essential services as efficiently as they have provided nonessential services.

(B) Sufficient funds are currently available to allow the city’s schools to provide some nonessential services.

(C) Price estimates quoted to the city’s schools for the provision of nonessential services have not increased substantially since the most recent school funding cut.

(D) Few influential city administrators support the funding of costly nonessential services in the city’s schools.

(E) The city’s school officials rarely exaggerate the potential impact of threatened funding cuts.

I Chose D over B:

Why Reject B-- Schools have enough money to support SOME non essential services(NES), Thats means may be one OR may be all NES. Cant be assumed that they have enough money for all- non certain

Why Chose D-- FEW administrators support the funding of costly NES. Hence they have an alternate source of money. Thus they can continue cutting NES expense.

Discussed here Rachit4126
https://gmatclub.com/forum/mayor-in-eac ... l#p2506807
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27 Apr 2020, 23:28
1
AyuPathak wrote:
Hi.
I have a doubt in the following statement b/w sufficient and necessary.
"The children go to the park when the sun is shining.
My question is that why is "children going to the park" not the sufficient condition, as it means that the sun must be shining, while Sun shining doesn't mean children will always go to the park if the sun shines. In the CR bible, "Sun shining" is given as the sufficient condition, which I don't understand.

AyuPathak

The "if/when" condition is the sufficient condition.

If A, then B.
A is sufficient for B to happen.

When the sun shines, children go to the park.

The sun shining is sufficient for children to go to park. Yes, every time the sun shines, they go to the park. You are not to judge how it is possible. The statement tells us that they do.

Can you say that "children going to the park" is sufficient for the sun to shine? No. For that, the following should be true:
If the children go to the park, the sun shines.

On the other hand, if you are given:
Only if the sun shines, the children go to the park.

Now, sun shining is necessary but not enough for children to go. When the sun shines, they may or may not got but if they do go, it means the sun is shining.

Check this: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2012/1 ... tatements/
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Updated on: 29 May 2020, 07:02
https://gmatclub.com/forum/veritas-prep ... l#p2348776
varotkorn wrote:

In Strengthening Question, when I negate an option and the negated version weakens the conclusion, will that option be considered a correct strengthener?

Thank you for all your replies

varotkorn

Not necessarily. The option could be neutral but negating it could weaken the conclusion. To look for a strengthener, negating does not help because strengtheners are not necessary for the conclusion to hold. Even if they don't hold, the conclusion could still hold. The only time we use negating is in assumption questions. That said, I prefer to look for a gap between premises and conclusion in assumption questions. Negating can get too tiresome so I use it in very few questions.

I've found that the OE for this Strengthen question https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-spacing- ... 59671.html states that:
Quote:
One way to approach this [strengthen] question is to ask yourself, "If this option were FALSE, would the hypothesis be LESS likely to be true?

(IMO, FALSE = negate & LESS likely to be true = WEAKEN)
In a way, OE implies that if the NEGATED version WEAKENS the conclusion, that option will be considered a correct strengthener.
This is similar to what I had in mind when I asked Ma'am before. The highlighted portions of OE and my previous question posted topmost are of quite similar ideas.

I'm very confused here.

Side note: some expert also uses the negation in Strengthen Question (https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/blog ... reasoning/). Two quotes below are from the aforementioned link:
Quote:
So let’s say the opposite of each statement were true

Quote:
This reasoning also works in Weakening or Assumption type questions. If my job is to weaken the conclusion, then I want to find evidence that would strengthen the conclusion and then prove that this is not true.

_________________

Originally posted by varotkorn on 30 Apr 2020, 02:31.
Last edited by varotkorn on 29 May 2020, 07:02, edited 2 times in total.
Veritas Prep CR Forum Expert - Karishma - Ask Me Anything about CR   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2020, 02:31

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