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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic

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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic consciousness lay at the heart of social reform in the United States throughout the Progressive Era, the period between the depression of 1893 and America's entry into the Second World War. Though largely disenfranchised except for school elections, white middle-class women reformers won a variety of victories, notably in the improvement of working conditions, especially for women and children. Ironically, though, child labor legislation pitted women of different classes against one another. To the reformers, child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed, but, as a number of women historians have recently observed, working-class mothers did not always share this view. Given the precarious finances of working-class families and the necessity of pooling the wages of as many family members as possible, working-class families viewed the passage and enforcement of stringent child labor statutes as a personal economic disaster and made strenuous efforts to circumvent child labor laws. Yet reformers rarely understood this resistance in terms of the desperate economic situation of working-class families, interpreting it instead as evidence of poor parenting. This is not to dispute women reformers' perception of child labor as a terribly exploitative practice, but their understanding of child labor and their legislative solutions for ending it failed to take account of the economic needs of working-class families.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A explain why women reformers of the Progressive Era failed to achieve their goals
B discuss the origins of child labor laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
C compare the living conditions of working-class and middle-class women in the Progressive Era
D discuss an oversight on the part of women reformers of the Progressive Era
E revise a traditional view of the role played by women reformers in enacting Progressive Era reforms
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


The view mentioned in the highlight text of the passage refers to which of the following?
A Some working-class mothers' resistance to the enforcement of child labor laws
B Reformers' belief that child labor and industrial home work should be abolished
C Reformers' opinions about how working-class families raised their children
D Certain women historians' observation that there was a lack of consensus between women of different classes on the issue of child labor and industrial home work
E Working-class families' fears about the adverse consequences that child labor laws would have on their ability to earn an adequate living
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


The author of the passage mentions the observations of women historians (the highlight text) most probably in order to
A provide support for an assertion made in the preceding sentence
B raise a question that is answered in the last sentence of the passage
C introduce an opinion that challenges a statement made in the first sentence of the passage
D offer an alternative view to the one attributed in the passage to working-class mothers
E point out a contradiction inherent in the traditional view of child labor reform as it is presented in the passage
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


The passage suggests that which of the following was a reason for the difference of opinion between working class mothers and women reformers on the issue of child labor?
A Reformers' belief that industrial home work was preferable to child labor outside the home
B Reformers' belief that child labor laws should pertain to working conditions but not to pay
C Working-class mothers' resentment at reformers' attempts to interfere with their parenting
D Working-class mothers' belief that child labor was an inhumane practice
E Working-class families' need for every employable member of their families to earn money
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


The author of the passage asserts which of the following about women reformers who tried to abolish child labor?
A They alienated working-class mothers by attempting to enlist them in agitating for progressive causes.
B They underestimated the prevalence of child labor among the working classes.
C They were correct in their conviction that child labor was deplorable but shortsighted about the impact of child labor legislation on working-class families.
D They were aggressive in their attempts to enforce child labor legislation, but were unable to prevent working-class families from circumventing them.
E They were prevented by their nearly total disenfranchisement from making significant progress in child labor reform.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


According to the passage, one of the most striking achievements of white middle-class women reformers during the progressive Era was
Againing the right to vote in school elections
Bmobilizing working-class women in the fight against child labor
Cuniting women of different classes in grassroots activism
Dimproving the economic conditions of working- class families
Eimproving women's and children's working conditions
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


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Last edited by JarvisR on 13 Aug 2015, 00:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2009, 09:47
DBAECE

OA please
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New post 30 Nov 2009, 10:01
12. D
13. B
14. A
15. E
16. C
17.E
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New post 02 Dec 2009, 09:43
Such passages scare me , :x could not understand them at one shot , and even after reading and wasting much of my time in them i get most of my answers wrong. :(

My take :

AACEDA

Somebody explain the answers as well please.
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2009, 10:52
11mba you have already provided oas :)
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2010, 13:22
Guys please be kind enough to post OA's..it saves time ..

OA's are
12-D
13-B
14-A
15-E
16-C
17-E
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New post 10 Dec 2010, 08:55
I got DBAECE
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New post 19 Dec 2010, 21:34
My ans are DBAEDE
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New post 16 Jun 2011, 08:09
Question #13. I beg your pardon but "child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed" as according to the answers IS NOT the line #17 but just lines 13-14. Line 17 is "Given the precarious finances of
working-class families ...". So I've got E instead of B. Why I am wrong?
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2015, 08:56
Time Taken: 12 mins.
The author of the passage mentions the observations of women historians (the highlight text) most probably in order to
A provide support for an assertion made in the preceding sentence
>> Ironically, though, child labor legislation pitted women of different classes against one another. To the reformers, child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed, but, as a number of women historians have recently observed, working-class mothers did not always share this view.
B raise a question that is answered in the last sentence of the passage
C introduce an opinion that challenges a statement made in the first sentence of the passage
D offer an alternative view to the one attributed in the passage to working-class mothers
E point out a contradiction inherent in the traditional view of child labor reform as it is presented in the passage
>> I went for this but then realized my mistake. There is no traditional view of CL presented in Para. Author mentions CL as case, which pitted women of different classes against one another.
What confused me was "women historians have recently observed".



The passage suggests that which of the following was a reason for the difference of opinion between working class mothers and women reformers on the issue of child labor?
A Reformers' belief that industrial home work was preferable to child labor outside the home
B Reformers' belief that child labor laws should pertain to working conditions but not to pay
C Working-class mothers' resentment at reformers' attempts to interfere with their parenting
D Working-class mothers' belief that child labor was an inhumane practice
E Working-class families' need for every employable member of their families to earn money
>>the passage and enforcement of stringent child labor statutes as a personal economic disaster and made strenuous efforts to circumvent child labor laws. Yet reformers rarely understood this resistance in terms of the desperate economic situation of working-class families, interpreting it instead as evidence of poor parenting

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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2016, 20:09
Hi there,

I'm reviewing the responses for this particular question and am seeing a lot of inconsistencies. And where I see commonalities in users' responses, I disagree with them. Should this proper answer to this question not be as follows?


12) The primary purpose of this passage is to... D - Discuss an oversight on the part of women reformers of the Progressive Era
13) The view mentioned in line 17 ("Working class mothers did not always share this view, Given the precarious finances...") refers to which of the following? - B - Reformer's belief that child labor and industrial home work should be abolished
14) The author of the passage mentions the observations of women historians ("Working class mothers did not always share this view...") most probably in order to... A - Provide support for an assertion made in the preceding sentence lines (lines 10-12)
15) The passage suggests that which of the following was a reason for the difference of opinion between working class mothers and reformers? E - Working class families need for every employable member of their families to earn money
16) The author of the passage asserts which of the following about women reformers who tried to abolish child labor? C - They were correct in their conviction that child labor was deplorable but shortsighted about the impact child labor legislation had on working class families
17) According to the passage, one of the most striking achievements of middle-class women reformers during the progressive era was... E - improving women's and children's working conditions

To summarize: My argument is that the correct answers for this reading passage are as follows: D, B , A, E, C, E

While I like to discuss these topics, what I like more is a consistent answer at the end of the thread, so that other people (like myself), can take that as a validated answer by the community. When a thread is left like this with multiple and different responses, it doesn't us any good, and leaves things pretty vague. I look forward to your feedback, all.


Best,

Tim
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2016, 04:29
StrikerACM wrote:
Question #13. I beg your pardon but "child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed" as according to the answers IS NOT the line #17 but just lines 13-14. Line 17 is "Given the precarious finances of
working-class families ...". So I've got E instead of B. Why I am wrong?



I got that one wrong, too. And then I reread the question, they italicized the word "view" - so the question was actually referring to the quoted passage "did not always share this view" and the word "view" was on line 17. Lol, tricky?
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New post 06 Feb 2017, 06:50
Hi Friends and mikemcgarry,
"The author of the passage asserts which of the following about women reformers who tried to abolish child labor?
A They alienated working-class mothers by attempting to enlist them in agitating for progressive causes.
B They underestimated the prevalence of child labor among the working classes.
C They were correct in their conviction that child labor was deplorable but shortsighted about the impact of child labor legislation on working-class families.
D They were aggressive in their attempts to enforce child labor legislation, but were unable to prevent working-class families from circumventing them.
E They were prevented by their nearly total disenfranchisement from making significant progress in child labor reform"

I have a problem with D in this question. First I struggled C and D, although I got C eventually, but I have no idea what's problem with D,
I read the OA, it says "the reformers' activities involved prompted legislation; there is no evidence in the passage that the reformers themselves attempted to enforce these laws."

Would you please help how should I figure out it is "the reformers' activities, not reformers themselves

thanks in advance
have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2017, 17:23
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi Friends and mikemcgarry,
"The author of the passage asserts which of the following about women reformers who tried to abolish child labor?
A They alienated working-class mothers by attempting to enlist them in agitating for progressive causes.
B They underestimated the prevalence of child labor among the working classes.
C They were correct in their conviction that child labor was deplorable but shortsighted about the impact of child labor legislation on working-class families.
D They were aggressive in their attempts to enforce child labor legislation, but were unable to prevent working-class families from circumventing them.
E They were prevented by their nearly total disenfranchisement from making significant progress in child labor reform"

I have a problem with D in this question. First I struggled C and D, although I got C eventually, but I have no idea what's problem with D,
I read the OA, it says "the reformers' activities involved prompted legislation; there is no evidence in the passage that the reformers themselves attempted to enforce these laws."

Would you please help how should I figure out it is "the reformers' activities, not reformers themselves

thanks in advance
have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, this is case in which what you are missing is not really in the passage but in an understanding of how the real world works.

Let's talk a very different issue in US history. In the 1960s, there were massive civil rights demonstrations, and in a great triumph for democracy, these demonstrators succeeded in getting civil rights legislation. You see, the way at least American society works is---before the law has been passed, the demonstrators have a lot of work to do. They have to continue to make the argument and attempt to sway public opinion. Once the law is passed, the job of those demonstrators is 100% done. They go home. Now that there's a law, it's entirely up to the police and the courts to enforce the law. That's a very different job. Police and courts simply enforce whatever the law is. By contrast, demonstrators and activists are trying to change what is the law. Two completely different jobs. This is very clear from background knowledge.

I realize that this all might be a bit unfamiliar to you, since you grew up in China. I will say, insofar as the GMAT has passages about American history, and especially if you ever plan to come to business school in the USA, it would be very good to have at least a passing familiarity with the various US civil right movements of the past century. Despite it's profession of equality when it was founded 200+ years ago, the USA has had atrocious inequalities of race, gender, etc. in its history, and even in 2016, it is far from a perfect equality for everyone. I think that sad fact is very important for every foreign citizen coming to live in the US to appreciate.

All of this is implied in this this passage. The women reformers were concerned with getting a law passed: we are a bit unclear on exactly how they made their case, but somehow, they succeed in getting this law passed. Once a law is passed, it's the job of the police and the courts to enforce the law. It's not explicitly stated in the passage, but again it's good background knowledge to know that, unlike in 2016, absolutely no woman was a police officer or a judge in the USA in the late 1800s. Of course these women were not involved in enforcing the law once it had been passed. After all, enforcing the law is a very very different job from getting a new law passed.

How does it work in China? Presumably the people who make the law and the people who enforce the law are usually not the same people, right? Similarly, if someone gets the government to change the law, that same person is not out there enforcing the law, right?

This sense of what happens in the real world is crucial for understanding GMAT CR and RC. See:
[urlhttps://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/gmat-critical-reasoning-and-outside-knowledge/]GMAT Critical Reasoning and Outside Knowledge[/url]
A similar logic applies to the GMAT RC.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2017, 22:53
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, this is case in which what you are missing is not really in the passage but in an understanding of how the real world works.

Let's talk a very different issue in US history. In the 1960s, there were massive civil rights demonstrations, and in a great triumph for democracy, these demonstrators succeeded in getting civil rights legislation. You see, the way at least American society works is---before the law has been passed, the demonstrators have a lot of work to do. They have to continue to make the argument and attempt to sway public opinion. Once the law is passed, the job of those demonstrators is 100% done. They go home. Now that there's a law, it's entirely up to the police and the courts to enforce the law. That's a very different job. Police and courts simply enforce whatever the law is. By contrast, demonstrators and activists are trying to change what is the law. Two completely different jobs. This is very clear from background knowledge.

I realize that this all might be a bit unfamiliar to you, since you grew up in China. I will say, insofar as the GMAT has passages about American history, and especially if you ever plan to come to business school in the USA, it would be very good to have at least a passing familiarity with the various US civil right movements of the past century. Despite it's profession of equality when it was founded 200+ years ago, the USA has had atrocious inequalities of race, gender, etc. in its history, and even in 2016, it is far from a perfect equality for everyone. I think that sad fact is very important for every foreign citizen coming to live in the US to appreciate.

All of this is implied in this this passage. The women reformers were concerned with getting a law passed: we are a bit unclear on exactly how they made their case, but somehow, they succeed in getting this law passed. Once a law is passed, it's the job of the police and the courts to enforce the law. It's not explicitly stated in the passage, but again it's good background knowledge to know that, unlike in 2016, absolutely no woman was a police officer or a judge in the USA in the late 1800s. Of course these women were not involved in enforcing the law once it had been passed. After all, enforcing the law is a very very different job from getting a new law passed.

How does it work in China? Presumably the people who make the law and the people who enforce the law are usually not the same people, right? Similarly, if someone gets the government to change the law, that same person is not out there enforcing the law, right?

This sense of what happens in the real world is crucial for understanding GMAT CR and RC. See:
[urlhttps://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/gmat-critical-reasoning-and-outside-knowledge/]GMAT Critical Reasoning and Outside Knowledge[/url]
A similar logic applies to the GMAT RC.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi mikemcgarry, thanks so much indeed.
I've heard that , in USA, the demonstrators would do their jobs before the law passed, but I have never combined my heard with this question.

For law, as a generally citizen, I have narrow knowledge about it , as I know, the people who maintain the what the law is and the people who make what is the law are different.

Have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2017, 20:45
[quote="JarvisR"]Time Taken: 12 mins.
The author of the passage mentions the observations of women historians (the highlight text) most probably in order to
A provide support for an assertion made in the preceding sentence
>> Ironically, though, child labor legislation pitted women of different classes against one another. To the reformers, child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed, but, as a number of women historians have recently observed, working-class mothers did not always share this view.



Hi

I have question here about why A is correct.

I see the highlighted sentence is starting from BUT even though yo are mentioning it is supporting the preceding sentence, Do yo think we should look for one sentence before
[color=#6ecff6]
Ironically, though, child labor legislation pitted women of different classes against one another
.
Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic   [#permalink] 09 May 2017, 20:45
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