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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p

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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 02:28
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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 12:34
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT


How I would attempt this one !!

QS-
personality => genes
genes => do not ordinarily change over time
personality => remains unchanged


1. historians understand => First World War
First World War => cannot change
historians' understanding => cannot change

looks fine !!

2. Market forces => influenced by governmental actions
change in the government's policies => change in the economy

out

3. some diseases => genetic causes
prevent such diseases => manipulating the genes

out

4. Getting regular exercise over long period => prevention of heart disease
getting regular exercise over a short period => contributes slightly

out

5. levels of certain hormones => control body temperature
one has a high fever => hormones elevated

out

A looks the most parallel
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 06:23
Super Easy question. Doesn't look official question.
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 14:35
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT


Hi, MartyTargetTestPrep, VeritasKarishma, GMATNinja, generis, DmitryFarber, AjiteshArun, jennpt

Which war they're talking about in red part?
Is it the war about First World War?
or,
Are they talking about Second World War?
or,
Is it the war between Bangladesh and Pakistan that happens in 1971?

How do someone convinced that the red part in choice A talks about First World War?

Thanks__
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 14:55
1
Hi AsadAbu

You need to be very sensitive to the definite article "the" in "the war." This means it must be referring to a particular war that has already been named. The only war that has already been named is the First World War, so that MUST be the war we are still talking about.

That's very different from "a war". The indefinite article "a" doesn't point to one special war; it can refer to any war.

Does that clear it up?
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 15:04
CounterSniper wrote:
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT


How I would attempt this one !!

QS-
personality => genes
genes => do not ordinarily change over time
personality => remains unchanged


1. historians understand historians' understanding of the war => First World War Happening something in that war
First World War Happening something in that war => cannot change
historians' understanding of that war => cannot change

looks fine !!


CounterSniper a little bit correction
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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 15:11
jennpt wrote:
Hi AsadAbu

You need to be very sensitive to the definite article "the" in "the war." This means it must be referring to a particular war that has already been named. The only war that has already been named is the First World War, so that MUST be the war we are still talking about.

That's very different from "a war". The indefinite article "a" doesn't point to one special war; it can refer to any war.

Does that clear it up?

Yes, I'm too much aware about the definite article (the), but the problem is in the use of "that". If the author indicates "First world war" by the use of "the" in the conclusion, why the author use the word "that" several times in the premise to indicate the same "first world war"?
Thanks__
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Re: A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 15:15
AsadAbu wrote:
CounterSniper wrote:
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT


How I would attempt this one !!

QS-
personality => genes
genes => do not ordinarily change over time
personality => remains unchanged


1. historians understand historians' understanding of the war => First World War Happening something in that war
First World War Happening something in that war => cannot change
historians' understanding of that war => cannot change

looks fine !!


CounterSniper a little bit correction

jennpt,
Is my understanding ok?
Thanks__
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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 22:41
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.

LSAT

I took the LSAT.
I have no reason to suspect that the question is not legitimate.
What is easy for one person may be hard for another.

• The flaw in the prompt

The mistake in the prompt is the move from
genes and personality are linked
to
genes determine personality, such that
whatever happens to genes over time must also happen to personality over time.

Linkage is mistaken for "wholly determining."

The prompt incorrectly generalizes from
G has some influence on P
G - - - -> P
to
G completely determines P, such that if G changes or does not, P will follow suit.
G = no change, therefore
P = no change
That determinative or causal relationship uses an unbroken arrow, this way:
If G does X → then P does X

Note:
-- that there is no hedging. Conclusion language is strong.
It follows that . . . personality . . . remains unchanged.
-- that no change is at issue.
-- the question says that "personality is linked to genes."
But genes came first. The influence runs in one direction, from genes to personality.
G - - - > P

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.

The way historians understand WWI, U, is related to events in WWI, E
Just as genes come before personality, war events E came before historians' understanding of those events.
E - - - > U
Events in WWI will not change.
E = no change
Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.
Hence U = no change
If E does X, then U does X.

That structure looks identical to that in the prompt. Keep.

B. Market forces are to some degree influenced by governmental actions. Hence, a change in the government's policies could result in a change in the economy.
Governmental actions - - - > market forces
Change in gov't actions COULD = change in economy

Out. The shift from market forces to economy is enough to reject the choice after having seen A.
In addition, this argument uses the tentative could.
Finally, the argument is reasonable. The prompt and A are not.

C. It is well known that some diseases have genetic causes. Therefore, it should be possible to prevent such diseases by manipulating the genes that cause them.

Genes cause some diseases.
G → some D
Manipulate G = should be possible to prevent some D
Out. This option discusses change. The prompt and option A discuss NO change.
In addition, this argument uses the hypothetical should be possible.
Finally, the argument is reasonable. The prompt and A are not.

D. Getting regular exercise over a long period contributes to the prevention of heart disease. Therefore, getting regular exercise over a short period contributes slightly to the prevention of heart disease.

Long time E - - - -> part in preventing heart disease

Therefore
short time E - - - -> SLIGHT role in preventing heart disease
Out. Prompt and Answer A talk about no change over time.
This option talks about change over time: how much and how little.
This answer veers into "extent of linear causality."
It is a fact that long term exercise plays a role in preventing heart disease.
That causality is factual. It is also not overdetermined.
The prompt and answer A conflate linkage with causality.

E. The levels of certain hormones control body temperature. Therefore, if one has a high fever, the levels of one's hormones must be elevated as well.
H levels → body temperature
Therefore, high body temperature (high fever) = high levels of H

• Out. This option discusses change, not lack thereof.
Nor is this option parallel to the prompt.
Levels of certain hormones are not merely linked to body temperature.
The former control the latter. That part is a fact, not a bad assumption.
(That's the flawed and unstated assumption in the prompt.)
Finally, this option contains the classic logic mistake. A → B does not equal B → A
How the levels control body temperature is not clear.
We cannot reason backwards from high body temperatures to high levels of certain hormones.
There is no reverse causality.

The answer is A.
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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 22:42
1
AshutoshB wrote:
A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a person's genes do not ordinarily change over time, it follows that a person's personality remains unchanged with the passing of time.

Which one of the following is most closely parallel in its reasoning to the flawed reasoning in the argument above?

A. The way historians understand the First World War is related to what happened in that war. But what actually happened in that war cannot change. Therefore, historians' understanding of the war cannot change.


AsadAbu wrote:
jennpt wrote:
Hi AsadAbu

You need to be very sensitive to the definite article "the" in "the war." This means it must be referring to a particular war that has already been named. The only war that has already been named is the First World War, so that MUST be the war we are still talking about.

That's very different from "a war". The indefinite article "a" doesn't point to one special war; it can refer to any war.

Does that clear it up?

Yes, I'm too much aware about the definite article (the), but the problem is in the use of "that". If the author indicates "First world war" by the use of "the" in the conclusion, why the author use the word "that" several times in the premise to indicate the same "first world war"?
Thanks__

AsadAbu , your instincts are good.
The author's use of that for two sentences to point specifically to WWI,
followed by the author's use of the to refer to WWI, is inconsistent—but not unclear.

That is, at issue is historians' understanding of the First World War, of that war (and no other).

Suppose that the last sentence had no article:
Therefore, historians' understanding of war cannot change.
In that case option A would be a hot mess.

Option A would indeed be perfect if the last sentence used "that."
But "the" war can mean absolutely nothing other than WWI in this context.

Both that and the refer to particular, specific, and unique things.

The
Used to refer to a person, place, or thing that is unique. From Oxford Dictionary Online, here.

That
Referring to a specific thing previously mentioned, known, or understood. From Oxford Dictionary Online, here.

The war cannot mean any war. The war cannot mean some random war.
The war means, quite literally, a defined war—and in particular, the one we've just been reading about.

See my response above.
Multiple choice = eliminate 4 bad answers.
Do not look for one correct answer.
Sure, keep a seemingly good answer, but do not stop reading.

Compared to A, the other answers are not even close to the prompt.

Articles in English can be really hard.
Trust your instincts about the bigger logical picture.
(I am not sure because of embedding, but I think that you might have written
the linkages in the wrong direction.)

You are definitely right on the SC part. :-D
The inconsistency is oversight or purposely misleading.
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A person's personality is linked to that person's genes. And since a p   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2019, 22:42
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