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According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer

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According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems were formed more than two billion years ago from magmatic fluids that originated from molten granite-like bodies deep beneath the surface of the Earth. This theory is contrary to the widely held view that the systems were deposited from metamorphic fluids, that is, from fluids that formed during the dehydration of wet sedimentary rocks.

The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth's surface and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods. Although these same methods still lead to an occasional discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression.

The challenge in exploration is therefore to unravel the subsurface geology of an area and pinpoint the position of buried minerals. Methods widely used today include analysis of aerial images that yield a broad geological overview; geophysical techniques that provide data on the magnetic, electrical, and mineralogical properties of the rocks being investigated; and sensitive chemical tests that are able to detect the subtle chemical halos that often envelop mineralization. However, none of these high-technology methods are of any value if the sites to which they are applied have never mineralized, and to maximize the chances of discovery the explorer must therefore pay particular attention to selecting the ground formations most likely to be mineralized. Such ground selection relies to varying degrees on conceptual models, which take into account theoretical studies of relevant factors.

These models are constructed primarily from empirical observations of known mineral deposits and from theories of ore-forming processes. The explorer uses the models to identify those geological features that are critical to the formation of the mineralization being modeled, and then tries to select areas for exploration that exhibit as many of the critical features as possible.
104. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) advocating a return to an older methodology
(B) explaining the importance of a recent theory
(C) enumerating differences between two widely used methods
(D) describing events leading to a discovery
(E) challenging the assumptions on which a theory is based



105. According to the passage, the widely held view of Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems is that such systems

(A) were formed from metamorphic fluids
(B) originated in molten granite-like bodies
(C) were formed from alluvial deposits
(D) generally have surface expression
(E) are not discoverable through chemical tests



106. The passage implies that which of the following steps would be the first performed by explorers who wish to maximize their chances of discovering gold?

(A) Surveying several sites known to have been formed more than two billion years ago
(B) Limiting exploration to sites known to have been formed from metamorphic fluid
(C) Using an appropriate conceptual model to select a site for further exploration
(D) Using geophysical methods to analyze rocks over a broad area
(E) Limiting exploration to sites where alluvial gold has previously been found



107. Which of the following statements about discoveries of gold deposits is supported by information in the passage?

(A) The number of gold discoveries made annually has increased between the time of the original gold rushes and the present.
(B) New discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be the result of exploration techniques designed to locate buried mineralization.
(C) It is unlikely that newly discovered gold deposits will ever yield as much as did those deposits discovered during the original gold rushes.
(D) Modern explorers are divided on the question of the utility of simple prospecting methods as a source of new discoveries of gold deposits.
(E) Models based on the theory that gold originated from magmatic fluids have already led to new discoveries of gold deposits.



108. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is easiest to detect?

(A) A gold-quartz vein system originating in magmatic fluids
(B) A gold-quartz vein system originating in metamorphic fluids
(C) A gold deposit that is mixed with granite
(D) A gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold
(E) A gold deposit that exhibits chemical halos



109. The theory mentioned in lines 1-5 relates to the conceptual models discussed in the passage in which of the following ways?

(A) It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming processes, and, hence, can support conceptual models that have great practical significance.
(B) It suggests that certain geological formations, long believed to be mineralized, are in fact mineralized, thus confirming current conceptual models.
(C) It suggests that there may not be enough similarity across Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems to warrant the formulation of conceptual models.
(D) It corrects existing theories about the chemical halos of gold deposits, and thus provides a basis for correcting current conceptual models.
(E) It suggests that simple prospecting methods still have a higher success rate in the discovery of gold deposits than do more modern methods.



110. According to the passage, methods of exploring for gold that are widely used today are based on which of the following facts?

(A) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are still molten.
(B) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are exposed at the surface.
(C) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.
(D) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are found in regions difficult to reach.
(E) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are unlikely to yield concentrated quantities of gold.



8. It can be inferred from the passage that the efficiency of model-based gold exploration depends on which of the following?

I. The closeness of the match between the geological features identified by the model as critical and the actual geological features of a given area
II. The degree to which the model chosen relies on empirical observation of known mineral deposits rather than on theories of ore-forming processes
III. The degree to which the model chosen is based on an accurate description of the events leading to mineralization
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III



Originally posted by betterscore on 27 Jul 2012, 11:32.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 04:25, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (175).
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2013, 23:20
7
2
104. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) advocating a return to an older methodology
The passage is all about the practical importance of the new theory. A is false.

(B) explaining the importance of a recent theory
CORRECT!

(C) enumerating differences between two widely
used methods
The difference was only mentioned in the first paragraph.

(D) describing events leading to a discovery
The events mentioned was the alluvial deposits exposed. But this was just an example and the major topic is about exploration of those with buried gold deposits. D is not the main point.

(E) challenging the assumptions on which a theory
The passage is about the imporance of the recent theory. E is false.
is based


105. According to the passage, the widely held view of
Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems is that such
systems

In the first paragraph, widely held view points that it is from metamorphic fluids.
ANSWER: (A) were formed from metamorphic fluids



106. The passage implies that which of the following steps
would be the first performed by explorers who wish to
maximize their chances of discovering gold?

(A) Surveying several sites known to have been
formed more than two billion years ago
We don't know if all the sites with gold were formed within this time frame. This is OUT!

(B) Limiting exploration to sites known to have been
formed from metamorphic fluid
Metamorphic fluid refers to the old view. This is OUT!

(C) Using an appropriate conceptual model to select
a site for further exploration
This is the challenge. Selecting the site. CORRECT

(D) Using geophysical methods to analyze rocks
over a broad area
Geophysical methods is not supported by the author.

(E) Limiting exploration to sites where alluvial gold
has previously been found
The author admits to other possible areas with gold buried. This is false.


107. Which of the following statements about discoveries
of gold deposits is supported by information in the
passage?

(A) The number of gold discoveries made annually
has increased between the time of the original
gold rushes and the present.
No increase was mentioned. OUT!

(B) New discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be
the result of exploration techniques designed to
locate buried mineralization.
If modern explorers are using this technique then it's more likely new discoveries will be through this method. CORRECT.

(C) It is unlikely that newly discovered gold deposits
will ever yield as much as did those deposits
discovered during the original gold rushes.
We don't know about the amount of yield.

(D) Modern explorers are divided on the question of
the utility of simple prospecting methods as a
source of new discoveries of gold deposits.
This divide is not mentioned...

(E) Models based on the theory that gold originated
from magmatic fluids have already led to new
discoveries of gold deposits.
not mentioned....


108. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the
following is easiest to detect?

(D) A gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold
It is mentioned in the passage that this kind of deposits are easily found through prospecting method. CORRECT.




109. The theory mentioned in lines 1-5 relates to the
conceptual models discussed in the passage in which
of the following ways?

(A) It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming
processes, and, hence, can support conceptual
models that have great practical significance.
CORRECT.

(B) It suggests that certain geological formations,
long believed to be mineralized, are in fact
mineralized, thus confirming current conceptual
models.



(C) It suggests that there may not be enough
similarity across Archean-age gold-quartz vein
systems to warrant the formulation of
conceptual models.
The author is supporting the conceptual models. THis is false.

(D) It corrects existing theories about the chemical
halos of gold deposits, and thus provides a basis
for correcting current conceptual models.
Halos are one of these methods that is considered by the author as not always helpful.

(E) It suggests that simple prospecting methods still
have a higher success rate in the discovery of
gold deposits than do more modern methods.
This is opposite the author's belief.

110. According to the passage, methods of exploring for
gold that are widely used today are based on which of
the following facts?

(A) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are
still molten.

(B) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are
exposed at the surface.

(C) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are
buried and have no surface expression.
The passage is about exploration of buried gold deposits. this is the answer.

(D) Only one type of gold deposit warrants
exploration, since the other types of gold
deposits are found in regions difficult to reach.

(E) Only one type of gold deposit warrants
exploration, since the other types of gold
deposits are unlikely to yield concentrated
quantities of gold.
General Discussion
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2016, 06:48
1
i am not able to comprehend question number 107.
experts pl help me on this.

i was down to B and E but market E because
its mentioned that "The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth's surface and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods"
so recent theory has led to discovered gold.
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2018, 02:10
3
prateek176 wrote:
Skywalker18. could you please explain the solution to Q 109?

Hi prateek176,

Quote:
According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems were formed more than two billion years ago from magmatic fluids that originated from molten granite-like bodies deep beneath the surface of the Earth.


Well, basically, we are talking about gold and how it formed. We could make it more complicated, but really all we are talking about here is a new theory about how gold-quartz formed a long time ago. Let's leave it at that and move on.

Quote:
The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance.
Although these same methods still lead to an occasional discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression.

So now we learn that this theory will have practical importance. It will help in locating gold that is not on the surface. But this is not exactly what we are looking for. We need to find the conceptual models that relate to this new theory.

Quote:
to maximize the chances of discovery the explorer must, therefore, pay particular attention to selecting the ground formations most likely to be mineralized. Such ground selection relies to varying degrees on conceptual models, which take into account theoretical studies of relevant factors.
These models are constructed primarily from empirical observations of known mineral deposits and from theories of ore-forming processes.

In the bolded sentence we learn about the connection between the models and the theories. Notice that there is no direct mention of the theory first discussed in the passage. Rather, at this point, the author is telling us the connection between models and theories. And basically, we are told that in selecting a place to find minerals, people have to rely on conceptual models which are based on theories and other factors. So the theories form a base on which conceptual models can be built.

109. The theory mentioned in lines 1-5 relates to the conceptual models discussed in the passage in which of the following ways?

(A) It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming processes, and, hence, can support conceptual models that have great practical significance.
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2019, 22:52
Hey could someone help me understand the correct answer for the last question? i just cant seem to crack that one
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2019, 18:04
krishsaisree wrote:
Hey could someone help me understand the correct answer for the last question? i just cant seem to crack that one



8. It can be inferred from the passage that the efficiency of model-based gold exploration depends on which of the following?

I. The closeness of the match between the geological features identified by the model as critical and the actual geological features of a given area
Last para: "The explorer uses the models to identify those geological features that are critical to the formation of the mineralization being modeled, and then tries to select areas for exploration that exhibit as many of the critical features as possible"
Hence option I looks correct

II. The degree to which the model chosen relies on empirical observation of known mineral deposits rather than on theories of ore-forming processes
Last para: "These models are constructed primarily from empirical observations of known mineral deposits and from theories of ore-forming processes"
No comparison between empirical obs and ore-forming theory is made, hence incorrect

III. The degree to which the model chosen is based on an accurate description of the events leading to mineralization
Last para: "These models are constructed primarily from empirical observations of known mineral deposits and from theories of ore-forming processes"
Empirical observation means verifiable or observable or experienced...Empirical approach also refers to the scientific method of inquiry and observation through experiments....If description of events leading to mineralization is inaccurate the model will fail

Hence I and III are only correct based on the passage

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) I and III only
(E) I, II, and III


Please hit kudos if you like
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According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 22:05
1
Can anyone please help me to resolve my doubt related to Question -7?

Question-7

110. According to the passage, methods of exploring for gold that are widely used today are based on which of the following facts?

(A) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are still molten.
(B) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are exposed at the surface.
(C) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.
(D) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are found in regions difficult to reach.
(E) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are unlikely to yield concentrated quantities of gold.

Relevant portion of the passage:
The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth's surface and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods. Although these same methods still lead to an occasional discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression.

My analysis relevant to option C of Question-7.
Here, Last line shows the contrast that though current methods have identified (because of coincidence) some deposits that do not have surface expression, most deposits that are undetected are buried and have no surface expression. This meaning does not convey that current methods are based on this facts. Information given in the last line of 2nd paragraph is to show the reason why current method are not able to detect those deposits that do not have surface expression and why the recent discovery is important. There is no explicit or no implied connection which convey that current theory is based on this fact, i.e. Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.

Then why C is the correct answer.

Thanks in advance.
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New post 30 Sep 2019, 03:37
the first question is hard.
the passage is hard to find the main idea. at first, recent theory is declared important. but there are a long paragraph to show that recent theory is important.

first, the passage say that most deposits are not discovered. the method to find out potential place is taking sample, using air photo and so on. then all methods depend on finding out the mineralized places. this finding depend on "ore forming process theory" , which is recent thory.
so, the recent theory is key because it help the models which show minerallized places, which give high chance of finding gold.

the importance of the recent theory is explained in long paragraphs, which is hard to understand.
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2019, 20:25
Balkrishna wrote:
Can anyone please help me to resolve my doubt related to Question -7?

Question-7

110. According to the passage, methods of exploring for gold that are widely used today are based on which of the following facts?

(A) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are still molten.
(B) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are exposed at the surface.
(C) Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.
(D) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are found in regions difficult to reach.
(E) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits are unlikely to yield concentrated quantities of gold.

Relevant portion of the passage:
The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth's surface and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods. Although these same methods still lead to an occasional discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression.

My analysis relevant to option C of Question-7.
Here, Last line shows the contrast that though current methods have identified (because of coincidence) some deposits that do not have surface expression, most deposits that are undetected are buried and have no surface expression. This meaning does not convey that current methods are based on this facts. Information given in the last line of 2nd paragraph is to show the reason why current method are not able to detect those deposits that do not have surface expression and why the recent discovery is important. There is no explicit or no implied connection which convey that current theory is based on this fact, i.e. Most of the Earth's remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.

Then why C is the correct answer.

Thanks in advance.


As I see it, most of the Gold that was easy to find has already been found. So nowadays only accoasionally someone finds gold because its visible on the surface. This implies that if anything is found nowadays, it is buried gold. (As stated in the sentence you successfully identified: ,most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression)

Thus, the whole reason why these new methods exist is because they wanna find the gold. Well, since Gold can´t really be found anymore by seeing it on the surface, they have to find gold that is buried. So basically, all the theory, tactics and technology used is in order to find the buried gold. Which means, it is based on the fact that gold is underneath the surface. If it weren´t, the whole thing would be useless since they could just look for visible traces on the surface

Hope it helps! Kudos appreciated!
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Re: According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems wer   [#permalink] 29 Nov 2019, 20:25
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