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Today, many students choose to write the optional ACT essay. Some write it because a Writing section score is required by the colleges they are applying to. Others write it because they excel in essay-writing and want to showcase their skills to college admissions officials. If you plan to write the essay, you’ll want to become familiar with the types of writing prompts given on this exam.

The Different Types of ACT Essay Prompts

Each essay prompt on the ACT concerns a complex issue. For instance, one sample prompt released by the ACT concerns individual freedom and public health. Other writing prompts may deal with technology, the media, education, the arts, and other issues. Even if you don’t have a great deal of knowledge about the topic in the essay prompt, you can still write an essay that is organized, logical, and convincing. In fact, all of the information you need to complete the writing task is given to you in the prompt.

Your Task on the Essay

After reading the essay prompt, you’re given three perspectives on the issue. Your task is to develop your own perspective, then use evidence and examples to support it. Furthermore, you’re asked to analyze how your perspective is similar to or different from at least one of the given perspectives. Think about the possible counterarguments to your perspective and address them.

The individuals who grade your essay won’t be looking at whether you agreed or disagreed with the given perspectives: In fact, that part is irrelevant. Instead, they’ll be evaluating your essay based on its organization, use of supporting evidence, idea development, and language use. College admissions officials want to see a sample of your writing to find out if you can express your ideas in a coherent way. Many colleges will look at your ACT English, Reading, and Writing scores to get a full picture of your ability to interpret and communicate ideas.

Preparing for the Essay

The best way to prep for the essay on the ACT is to practice your writing skills. This includes working on organizing your ideas in the form of an outline before beginning your essay. Also, reading online newspaper and magazine articles gives you practice developing perspectives on current issues. You have only 40 minutes to write the ACT essay, so it’s a good idea to time your practice essays so you can establish a writing speed that doesn’t make you feel rushed. The professional ACT instructors at Veritas Prep have been where you are right now: They’ve prepared for and taken the ACT, including the essay. More importantly, each of our instructors earned a score on the ACT landing them in the 99th percentile. So when you sign up with Veritas Prep, you’ll be studying with tutors who have excellent teaching skills and impressive experience with the test.

Tips for Writing the Essay

The ACT essay is given on paper, so you’ll have space to jot down an outline and organize your thoughts. You’ll probably want to start writing your essay right away, but creating an outline is an effective strategy if you want to end up with a high score. Take the time to think about your perspective on the issue and make sure you have plenty of evidence to support it. Try to leave yourself with a few minutes at the end of the writing test so you can proofread and make small changes if necessary.

The instructors at Veritas Prep have the skills and knowledge to prepare you for the Writing section on the ACT along with the rest of the exam. We are familiar with the different types of ACT essay prompts and can guide you on the best approaches to them. Our strategies can help you to create an essay that fulfills all of the requirements necessary to achieve the highest score possible. We offer online courses that are convenient for high school students on the go, and we also have in-person ACT prep courses if you prefer that type of learning environment. Look at our FAQ page to find more information about our tutoring services, or give us a call or email to let us know how we can help you conquer the ACT essay!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

The United States H-1B visa program is changing again. The much-challenged program that has aimed to bring skilled foreign workers to the U.S. continues to be under pressure.

Of most critical importance to the world of MBA admissions is how this affects the ability for international students to secure employment post-graduation. Many international MBA applicants rely on the H-1B visa to offer them a chance to purse their dreams of working in the U.S. Without this visa, the viability of a U.S. MBA degree lessens for these international applicants.

Not surprisingly with every regime change in Washington, policy and legislation can be impacted. The new administration appears to be focusing on prioritizing jobs for Americans and this obviously puts the H-1B visa program in direct conflict. Although most of the minor changes and announcements are more cosmetic in nature, coming legislation is expected that will make it even more difficult to secure these work visas.

Major MBA employers like Microsoft, Facebook, IBM who also happen to be common recipients of the H-1B visas have prepared for the impending changes. Although, those with computer science and engineering background tend to be the largest recipients of these visas, MBAs also rely on them as well in great numbers. The above employers, and those in similar industries to tech, have already started to move hiring away from low level, cheaper visa recipients to more expensive, higher educated talent.

Even in the face of this changing focus by employers, the H-1B visa remains more difficult than ever to secure. With impending legislation expected to surface soon, the process will only become more difficult.

MBA applicants and students alike should evaluate this news and begin to take their future career plans into consideration. At this stage, this news should not ring any major alarms, as not much has materially changed as of yet, but international students and applicants who have plans to work in the U.S. should factor in the impact legislation could have on future career goals.

Applying to business school? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today, or take our free MBA Admissions Profile Evaluation for personalized advice for your unique application situation! As always, be sure to find us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+and Twitter.

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more articles by him here.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

If you follow the Veritas Prep blog, you have probably heard us talk about the importance of diagrams in many GMAT Quant questions – coordinate geometry, races, time-speed-distance problems, sets, etc. We even suggest you to make diagrams when they are not given on such questions.

But sometimes, the GMAT Testmakers give such diagrams that we wish we were not given the diagram at all. In fact, the addition of a diagram – something that often simplifies our questions – can take the difficulty of the question to a whole new level. By now you are probably thinking that I am surely exaggerating, so I will proceed with an example.

Try to figure this out: when the figure given below is cut along the solid lines, folded along the dashed lines, and then taped along the solid lines, the result is a model of a geometric solid.

Now, can you use your imagination and figure out what kind of a geometric solid you will get in this case? Don’t go ahead just yet – first, give it a shot for a few minutes:

To be honest, I have given it a try and it is certainly not easy. I will know for sure only when I actually carry out the aforementioned steps – cut the paper along the solid lines, fold along the dashed lines and then tape up along the solid lines. Without carrying out the steps I am not sure exactly what kind of a figure I will get.

So the test maker comes to our rescue here. Here is the complete question:

When the figure above is cut along the solid lines, folded along the dashed lines, and taped along the solid lines, the result is a model of a geometric solid. This geometric solid consists of two pyramids each with a square base that they share. What is the sum of number of edges and number of faces of this geometric solid?

(A) 10

(B) 18

(C) 20

(D) 24

(E) 25

The Testmaker specifies what kind of a figure we get – two pyramids, each with a square base that they share. Figuring this out in one minute without an actual paper and scissor at hand would need extraordinary skill. Many test-takers spend precious minutes trying to make sense of the given diagram, but in problems like this, it should be completely ignored because we already know what it will look like – two pyramids with a common square base.

This, we understand! We know what a pyramid looks like – triangular faces converge to a single point at the top with a polygon (often a square) base. We need two pyramids joined together at the base.

This is what the solid will look like:

Just the 4 triangular faces of each of the two pyramids (8 triangles total) will be visible. Since they will share the square base, the base will not be visible. Hence, the figure will have 8 faces.

Now let’s see how many edges there will be: to make the top pyramid, four triangular faces join to give four edges. To make the bottom pyramid, another four triangular faces join to give four more edges. The two pyramids join on the square base to give yet another four edges.

So all in all, we have 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 edges

When we sum up the faces and edges, we get 8 + 12 = 20

The question is much more manageable now. All we had to do was ignore the diagram given to us!

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

High school students who dream of earning a degree from Princeton University have a lot of steps to take in order to make that dream into reality. Students applying to Princeton must meet a variety of academic requirements. One of those requirements is a relatively high score on the SAT. Learn about average SAT scores for Princeton students. In addition, find out how high school students can achieve their best score on this important exam.

The Average SAT Score at Princeton

When looking at students accepted to Princeton, average SAT scores range around 2250 for the old version of the SAT (the average score for the new version of the SAT will probably be around 1520 – the school has yet to disclose this). This score places a student in the 99th percentile of test-takers. Again, this score is based on the scoring system for the current SAT – the highest possible score that a student can earn on the current version of the SAT is 1600.

How to Achieve an Impressive SAT Score

When it comes to gaining admission to Princeton, SAT scores can carry weight with admissions officers. While there’s no official cutoff, a strong score can do nothing but help a strong application overall. Fortunately, there are several things students can do to prep for the test and earn an impressive score. One of the most valuable resources a student has is a practice test. A student can pinpoint which subjects they need to work on by examining the results of a practice test. This is an effective way for students to achieve the score they need to feel confident about applying to Princeton. Average SAT scores for Princeton students are high but may be achieved with persistent, focused study. At Veritas Prep, we offer students both online and in-person study options to help them prepare for the SAT. We recognize the level of study necessary for students who want to apply to Princeton: SAT scores can play a critical part in the final decision of admissions officers, after all. Our prep courses provide students with test-taking tips and strategies they can use to simplify questions and showcase their strengths in every subject on the SAT.

What Other Factors Are Considered by Admissions Officers at Princeton?

Certainly, an SAT score of 2250 or higher is a plus on any student’s application to Princeton. But a student’s SAT score is just one of many things considered by admissions officers. They also look at a student’s grades in high school as well as the types of classes taken by the individual. Did a student take advanced courses throughout high school? If so, this demonstrates a student’s intellectual curiosity and willingness to push their skills to the limit. A student’s application essay is another element that carries a lot of weight with admissions officers. In fact, a student’s essay gives officials insight into the person’s character and motivations. It allows admissions officers a look at the person behind the test scores and transcripts. Extracurricular activities and recommendation letters also play a part in the evaluation process. Princeton admissions officers are looking to fill all of the spots in a freshman class with students who are most likely to strive for great success at the school.

For students who want to go to Princeton, SAT requirements can seem daunting. Naturally, ambitious students want to do all they can to live up to the high academic standards set by the officials at Princeton. SAT subject tests are also a consideration for high school students who want to apply to this prestigious university. Admissions officers at Princeton recommend that applicants take two SAT subject tests. Students who want assistance preparing for the SAT as well as the SAT subject tests can get the help they need from our talented team of instructors at Veritas Prep. Each of our instructors scored in the top one percent of individuals taking the SAT. This means that high school students who work with our professional instructors are learning from the best! Along with solid academic assistance, our instructors are experts at supplying students with the support and encouragement they need to succeed. Contact Veritas Prep today and let us help you prepare for and master the SAT.

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Sometimes a GMAT Quant question will give us multiple ranges of values that apply to a single variable, and when this happens it can really take us for a ride. Evaluating these ranges to arrive at deductions can extremely confusing, so today we will look at some strategies for how to deal with such problems.

To start off, let’s take a look at an example problem:

If it is true that z < 8 and 2z > -4, which of the following must be true?

(A) -8 < z < 4

(B) z > 2

(C) z > -8

(D) z < 4

(E) None of the above

Given that z < 8 and 2z > -4, we know that z > -2. This means -2 < z < 8. z must lie within that range, hence z can take values such as -1, 0, 5, 7.4, etc.

Now, which of the given answer choices would hold true for ALL such values? Let’s examine each option and see:

(A) -8 < z < 4

We know that z may be more than 4, so this range does not hold true for all possible values of z.

(B) z > 2

We know that z may be less than 2, so this also does not hold true for all possible values of z.

(C) z > -8

No matter what value z will take, it will always be more than -8. This range holds true for all values of z.

(D) z < 4

We know that z may be greater than 4, so this does not hold for all possible values of z.

Our answer is C.

To understand this concept more clearly, let’s use a real life example:

We know that Anna’s weight is more than 120 pounds but less than 130 pounds. Which of the following is definitely true about her weight?

(A) Her weight is 125 pounds.

(B) Her weight is more than 124 pounds.

(C) Her weight is less than 127 pounds.

(D) Her weight is more than 110 pounds.

Can we say that her weight is 125 pounds? No – we just know that it is more than 120 but less than 130. It could be anything in this range, such as 122, 125, 127.5, etc.

Can we say that her weight is more than 124 pounds? This may be true, but it might not be true. Knowing our given range, her weight could very well be 121 pounds, instead.

Can we say her weight is less than 127 pounds? Again, this might not necessarily be true. Her weight could be 128 pounds.

Now, can we say that her weight is more than 110 pounds? Yes – since we know Anna’s weight is between 120 and 130 pounds, it must be more than 110 pounds.

This question uses the same concept as the first question! If you look at that question again, it will hopefully make much more sense. Now try solving this example problem:

If 1/55 < x < 1/22 and 1/33 < x < 1/11, then which of the following could be the value of x?

(i) 1/54

(ii) 1/23

(iii) 1/12

(A) Only (i)

(B) Only (ii)

(C) (i) and (ii)

(D) (ii) and (iii)

(E) (i), (ii) and (iii)

In this problem, we are given two ranges of x. We know that 1/55 < x < 1/22 and 1/33 < x < 1/11, so x is greater than 1/55 AND it is greater than 1/33. Since 1/33 is greater than 1/55 (the smaller the denominator, the larger the number), we just need to know that x will be greater than 1/33.

We are also given that x is less than 1/22 AND it is less than 1/11. Since 1/22 is less than 1/11, we really just need to know that x is less than 1/22.

Hence, the range for x should be 1/33 < x < 1/22. x could take all values that lie within this range, such as 1/32, 1/31, 1/24, 1/23, etc.

Looking at the answer choices, we can see that 1/54 and 1/12 (i and iii) are both out of this range. Therefore, our answer is B.

If we go back to our real life example, this is what the question would look like now:

We know that Anna’s weight is more than 110 pounds but less than 130 pounds. We also know that her weight is more than 115 pounds but less than 140 pounds. Which of the following is definitely true about her weight?

(A) Her weight is 112 pounds.

(B) Her weight is 124 pounds.

(C) Her weight is 135 pounds.

We are given that Anna’s weight is more than 110 pounds and also more than 115 pounds. Since 115 is more than 110, we just need to know that her weight is more than 115 pounds. We are also given that Anna’s weight is less than 130 pounds and also less than 140 pounds. Since 130 is less than 140, we just need to know that her weight is less than 130 pounds.

Now we have the following range: 115 pounds < Anna’s weight < 130 pounds. Only answer choice B lies within this range, so that is our answer.

We hope you see that evaluating ranges of numbers on GMAT questions is not difficult when we consider them in terms of a real life example. The same logic that we use in the simple weight problem is also applicable when algebraic data is given.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

On quite a few occasions, we at Veritas Prep find ourselves explaining the difference between the terms “few” and “a few” – a subtle, but very important distinction which has, on occasion, completely changed the meaning of a sentence. Hence, we realized that a post on this difference is warranted.

“Few”, when used without a preceding “a”, means “very few” or “none at all”. “Few” is a negative, which puts the quantity of what you are describing near zero.

On the other hand, “a few” is used to indicate “not a large number”. “A few” also indicates a small approximate number, but it is positive nonetheless.

The difference between the two is subtle, yet there are instances where the two can mean completely opposite things. For example, “I have a few friends” is the same as saying “I have some friends”. “I have few friends”, however, implies that I have only very few friends (as opposed to many). It can also imply that I don’t feel very well about it, and I wish I had more friends.

Also, note that there is a very common expression, “quite a few”, which looks like it could mean “rather few” or “very few”, but it does not. It actually means the exact opposite: “a large or significant number” or “many”. So saying, “I have quite a few friends,” is the same as saying “I have quite a lot of friends”.

Here are a few other simple examples:

A few people think that red wine is healthy.

This implies some people think that red wine is healthy.

Few people think that red wine is healthy.

This implies only very few people, a very small number, think that red wine is healthy; most think that it is not.

Quite a few people think that red wine is healthy.

This implies many people, a large number, think that red wine is healthy.

Let’s examine an official Critical Reasoning question in which confusion among these terms could lead to an incorrect answer:

Until now, only injectable vaccines against influenza have been available. They have been primarily used by older adults who are at risk for complications from influenza. A new vaccine administered in a nasal spray form has proven effective in preventing influenza in children. Since children are significantly more likely than adults to contract and spread influenza, making the new vaccine widely available for children will greatly reduce the spread of influenza across the population.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) If a person receives both the nasal spray and the injectable vaccine, they do not interfere with each other.

(B) The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do.

(C) Government subsidies have kept the injectable vaccines affordable for adults.

(D) Of the older adults who contract influenza, relatively few contract it from children with influenza.

(E) Many parents would be more inclined to have their children vaccinated against influenza if it did not involve an injection.

Let’s break down the argument of this passage first. We are given following premises:

Until now, only injections of the influenza vaccine were available.

These injections were primarily used by older adults.

Now nasal sprays are available that prevent influenza in children.

Children are more likely to contract and spread influenza.

Conclusion: If nasal sprays are made available for children, it will greatly reduce the spread of influenza across the population.

Does something come to mind when you read this conclusion? What initially came to my mind was that if children are most likely to contract and spread influenza, they should have just been given the injections and that would have prevented the spread of disease across the population. Why is it that the availability of a nasal spray will prevent the spread of influenza but injections have not been able to do this?

We need to strengthen the argument, so we should focus on our conclusion and find out what will strengthen it the most. Let’s go through each of the answer choices:

(A) If a person receives both the nasal spray and the injectable vaccine, they do not interfere with each other.

If a person has already been given an injection, he or she is immune to influenza – taking the nasal spray on top of this will not have any impact on his or her immunity. This option is irrelevant to the argument, thus A cannot be our answer.

(B) The new vaccine uses the same mechanism to ward off influenza as injectable vaccines do.

This answer choice only says that the nasal sprays work in the same way the injections do. We are not told exactly why injections could not prevent the spread of influenza while the nasal spray will, so this option is also not correct.

(C) Government subsidies have kept the injectable vaccines affordable for adults.

This option tells us that the subsidies have kept injections affordable for all older adults, but it doesn’t say anything about the cost of the nasal spray. If, instead, this option stated, “Injections are very expensive but nasal spray is a cheap alternative”, it might have made a stronger contender, however we do not know whether cost is a factor that parents consider at all when getting their children vaccinate (to make this option the correct answer, we might even have to add something like, “Parents are not willing to get their kids immunized if the vaccine is very expensive”). As is, however, this answer choice is not correct.

(D) Of the older adults who contract influenza, relatively few contract it from children with influenza.

Here is the trick – many test takers feel that this option is like an assumption, and hence, it certainly strengthens the conclusion. “Few” is assumed to be “some”, so it seems to them that this option is saying, “Some older adults do contract influenza from children”. It certainly seems to be an assumption, since that is how the spread of influenza will reduce across the population of older adults.

We know, however, that “few” actually means “hardly any” or “near zero”. If few (near zero) older adults catch flu from children, it doesn’t strengthen the conclusion. If anything, it has the opposite effect since the older adults will be unaffected, and hence, it is unlikely that the spread of influenza will reduce across the population. Because of this, option D is not correct.

(E) Many parents would be more inclined to have their children vaccinated against influenza if it did not involve an injection.

Now this is what we are looking for – a reason why parents don’t give influenza shots to their kids but will be willing to give them nasal sprays. Parents don’t like to give shots to their kids (could be due pain associated with a shot or whatever, the reason why doesn’t really matter here), but now that a nasal spray version of the vaccine is available, they will be more inclined to get their kids vaccinated. This will probably help prevent the spread of influenza across the population. The correct answer, therefore, is E.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Good news! Starting July 11, 2017 the GMAT will allow you to select the order in which you take the sections of the test (from a menu of three options). You now have more control over your test-day experience and an opportunity to play to your strengths.

The bad news? Now in addition to the 37 Quant questions, 41 Verbal questions, 12 Integrated Reasoning questions, and Essay, you have one more question you have to answer. But don’t stress – here’s an analysis of how to make this important decision:

THE HEADLINE Most importantly: statistically, the order of the sections on the GMAT does not matter. GMAC ran a pilot program last year and concluded that reordering the sections of the exam had no impact on scores. So there is no way you can make this decision “wrong” – choosing Quant first vs. Verbal first (or vice versa) doesn’t put you at a disadvantage (or give you an advantage). The only impact that this option will have on your score is a psychological one: which order makes you feel like you’re giving yourself the best shot.

Also hugely important: make sure you have a plan well before test day. Selecting your sections has great potential to give you confidence on test day, but you don’t want the added stress of one more “big” decision on test day or even the day before. Make your plan at least a week before test day, take your final practice test(s) in the exact order you’ll use on the real thing, and save your decision-making capacity for test questions. A great option for this is the Veritas Prep practice tests, which are currently the only GMAT practice tests in the industry that let you customize the order of your test like the real exam.

THE ANALYSIS And now for the ever-important question on everyone’s mind: in what order should I take the sections? Make sure that you recognize that you only have three options:

Note that you don’t have the option to split up the AWA and IR sections, and that the AWA/IR block comes either first or last: Quant and Verbal will remain adjacent no matter what order you choose, so you can’t plan yourself a nice “break” in between the two.

Also, recognize that all test-takers are different. As there is no inherent, universal advantage to one order versus the other, your decision isn’t so much “Quant vs. Verbal” but rather “stronger subject vs. not-as-strong subject.” You can fill in the names “Quant” and “Verbal” based on your own personal strengths. For this analysis, we’ll use “Stronger” and “Not as Strong” to refer to your choice between Quant/Verbal, and “AWA/IR” as the third category.

YOU SHOULD TAKE THE AWA LAST Traditionally, one of the biggest challenges of the GMAT has been related to stamina and fatigue: it’s a long test, and by the end people are worn out. And over the last 5 years, the fast-paced Integrated Reasoning section has also proven a challenge – very few people comfortably finish the IR section, so it’s quite common to be a combination of tired and demoralized heading into the Quant section. Plus, let’s be honest: the IR and AWA scores just don’t matter as much as the Quant/Verbal scores, so if stamina and confidence are potentially limited quantities, you want to use as much of them as possible on the sections that b-schools care about most.

Who should take AWA/IR first?

Non-native speakers for whom the essay will be important. The danger of waiting until all the way at the end of the test to write the essay is that doing so increases the difficulty of writing clearly and coherently: you’ll just be really tired. If you need your AWA to shine and you’re a bit concerned about it as it is, you may want to attack it first.

Not-morning-people with first-thing-in-the-morning test appointments. If you got stuck with a test appointment that’s much earlier than the timeframe when you feel alert and capable, AWA/IR is a good opportunity to spend an hour of extended warmup getting into the day. If you have a later test appointment and still want a warmup, though, you’re better served doing a few practice problems before you head to the test center.

REASONS TO DO YOUR STRONGER SECTION (Q vs. V) FIRST 1) You like a good “warmup” to get started on a project. At work you typically start the day by responding to casual emails or reading industry news, because you know your most productive/creative/impactful work will come after you’ve taken a bit of time to get your head in the game. Playing to your strength first will let you experience early success so that your mind is primed for the tougher section to come.

2) You want to start with a confidence booster. Test-taking is very psychological – for example, studies show that test results are significantly impacted when examinees are prompted beforehand with reasons that they should perform well or poorly. Getting started with a section that reminds you that “you’re good at this!” is a great way to prime your mind for success and confidence.

3) You need your stronger section to carry your overall score. Those with specific score targets often find that the easiest way to hit them is to max out on their better score, gaining as many points as possible there and then hoping to scrounge up enough on the other section to hit that overall threshold. Doing your strength first may help you hit it while you’re fresh and gather up all those points before you get worn down by other sections. (Be careful, though: elite schools tend to prefer balanced scores to imbalanced scores, so make sure you consider that.)

REASONS TO DO YOUR WEAKER SECTION (Q vs. V) FIRST 1) You’re a fast starter. If like to hit the ground running on projects or workdays, you may want to deal with your biggest challenge first while you’re freshest and before fatigue sets in.

2) You hate having stress looming on the horizon. Similarly, if you’re the type who always did your homework immediately after school and always pays your bills the day you get them, there mere presence of the challenge waiting you could add stress through the earlier sections. Why not confront it immediately and get it over with?

3) Your test appointment is late in the day. If you’ve been waiting all day to get the test started, you’ve likely been anxious knowing that you have a major event in front of you. Warm up with some easier problems and review in the hour before the test and attack it quickly.

4) You’re retaking the test to specifically improve that section. In some cases, students are told that they can get off the waitlist or will only be considered if they get a particular section score to a certain threshold. If that’s you, turn that isolated section into a 75-minute test followed by a couple hours of formality, instead of forcing yourself to wait for the important part.

5) You crammed for it. We’ve all been there: your biology midterm is at 11am but you have to go to a history class from 9-10:30, and all the while you’re sitting there worried that you’re losing the information you memorized last night. If you’re worried about remembering certain formulas, rules, or strategies, you might as well use them immediately before you get distracted. Note: this does not mean you should cram for the GMAT! But if you did, you may want to apply that short-term memory as quickly as possible.

CAN’T DECIDE? THE CASE FOR DOING VERBAL FIRST If the above reasons leave you conflicted, Veritas Prep recommends doing the Verbal section first. The skills required on the Verbal section are largely about focus – noting precision in wording, staying engaged in bland reading passages, switching between a variety of different topics – and focus is something that naturally fades over the course of the test. The ability to take the Verbal section when you’re most alert and able to concentrate is a terrific luxury.

Ultimately it’s best that you choose the order that makes you personally feel most confident, but if you can’t decide, most experts report that they would personally choose Verbal first.

SUMMARY Because, statistically, the order of the sections doesn’t really matter, the only thing that matters in your section order is what makes you feel most confident and comfortable. So recognize that you cannot make a bad decision! What’s important is that you don’t let this decision add stress or fatigue to your test day. Make your decision at least 2 practice tests before the real thing, considering the advice above, and then don’t look back. The section selection option is a great way to ensure that your test experience feels as comfortable as possible, so, whatever you choose, believe in your decision and then go conquer the GMAT.

Getting ready to take the GMAT? Prepare for the exam with a computer-adaptive Veritas Prep practice test – the only test in the industry that allows you to practice section selection like the real exam! And as always, be sure to follow us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+, and Twitterfor the latest in test prep and MBA admissions news.

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25 Jun 2017, 09:19

Hi! Thanks for looking into my post! I really need great advice. I took GMAT last week and got 460 (Q:42 and V: 13 and IR:3). And i have taken TOEFL today. i got this score after rigorous 2.5 months hard work and risking my job side wise. It is not possible for me to take Gmat again. I really need admission in 2018 January intake in US. However, i have strong profile: CGPA: 8.25 ECE Engg. from reputed college in India Work Ex: 4.5 in Capital market IT firm Designation: Consultant and Team lead Even worked onshore in one of the top 100 investment bank in Europe for 3 months each in last two successive years. Hobby of painting, writing poems and beauty & fashion blogs. I am interested in normal MBA program like general management, HR or luxury management. Please suggest me possible colleges, any other MBA program and procedure? I really need assistance.

Today, let’s discuss a few useful properties of primitive Pythagorean triples. A primitive Pythagorean triple is one in which a, b and c (the length of the two legs and the hypotenuse, respectively) are co-prime. So, for example, (3, 4, 5) is a primitive Pythagorean triple while its multiple, (6, 8, 10), is not.

Now, without further ado, here are the properties of primitive Pythagorean triples that you’ll probably encounter on the GMAT:

I. One of a and b is odd and the other is even.

II. From property I, we can then say that c is odd.

III. Exactly one of a, b is divisible by 3.

IV. Exactly one of a, b is divisible by 4.

V. Exactly one of a, b, c is divisible by 5.

If you keep in mind the first primitive Pythagorean triple that we used as an example (3, 4, 5), it is very easy to remember all these properties.

we will see that these properties hold for all primitive Pythagorean triples.

Now, let’s take a look at an example GMAT question which can be easily solved if we know these properties:

The three sides of a triangle have lengths p, q and r, each an integer. Is this triangle a right triangle?

Statement 1: The perimeter of the triangle is an odd integer.

Statement 2: If the triangle’s area is doubled, the result is not an integer.

We know that the three sides of the triangle are all integers. So if the triangle is a right triangle, the three sides will represent a Pythagorean triple. Given that p, q and r are all integers, let’s use the properties of primitive Pythagorean triples to break down each of the statements.

Statement 1: The perimeter of the triangle is an odd integer.

Looking at the properties above, we know that a primitive Pythagorean triple can be represented as:

(Odd, Even, Odd) (The first two are interchangeable.)

Non-primitive triples are made by multiplying each member of the primitive triple by an integer n greater than 1. Depending on whether n is odd or even, the three sides can be represented as:

However, the perimeter of a right triangle can never be odd because:

Odd + Even + Odd = Even

Even + Even + Even = Even

Hence, the perimeter will be even in all cases. (If the perimeter of the given triangle is odd, we can say for sure that it is not a right triangle.) This statement alone is sufficient.

Statement 2: If the triangle’s area is doubled, the result is not an integer.

If p, q and r are the sides of a right triangle such that r is the hypotenuse (the hypotenuse could actually be either p, q, or r but for the sake of this example, let’s say it’s r), we can say that:

The area of this triangle = (1/2)*p*q

and

Double of area of this triangle = p*q

Double the area of the triangle has to be an integer because we are given that both p and q are integers, but this statement tells us that this is not an integer. In that case, this triangle cannot be a right triangle. If the triangle is not a right triangle, double the area would be the base * the altitude, and the altitude would not be an integer in this case.

This statement alone is sufficient, too. Therefore, our answer is D.

As you can see, understanding the special properties of primitive Pythagorean triples can come in handy on the GMAT – especially in tackling complicated geometry questions.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

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If you plan to sign up for the SAT, you probably know that the Essay section of the test is optional. Though you may not be excited about taking the extra time on test day to complete the Essay section, it may be a good idea.

Some colleges will ask for an SAT Essay score, so it’s smart to check the admissions requirements of the colleges you’re interested in before you make this decision. Some students write the SAT essay so they have the score in case it’s needed for a last-minute addition to their college list.

If you decide to take the SAT Essay section, there are a few tips to keep in mind so you can submit the most impressive sample of your writing, especially considering that like every other section of the test, the Essay section is timed. Even if you apply to take the SAT with extended time due to a disability, you’ll need to complete your essay within a limited amount of time, so it’s important that you manage your time wisely.

Create a Writing Schedule for Test Day

The SAT with essay time included lasts for a total of three hours and 50 minutes. You are given exactly 50 minutes to write your essay. Fifty minutes may not seem like enough time to write an essay, but it is if you adhere to a writing schedule.

This writing schedule doesn’t have to be on paper; you can make a mental schedule. You should dedicate five to ten minutes to reading the prompt and making an outline for your essay on scrap paper. Next, spend about 30 to 35 minutes writing your essay. This leaves you with approximately five to ten minutes for proofreading your work. After the timed Essay section begins, look at the clock or your watch to remind yourself that you should be finished making your outline within ten minutes of that time. Before you start to write your essay, glance at your watch and remind yourself that you should be finishing up approximately 35 minutes from that point.

A mental writing schedule can keep you from running short on time and rushing to finish. This is a useful strategy if you’re taking the SAT with extended time, too; you’ll just need to modify this schedule based on whether you’re receiving time and a half or double time to complete the Essay section.

Use Your Outline to Refocus

There are lots of reasons why it’s smart to take the time to make an outline before starting your essay. One of the best reasons to make an outline is that you can use it to refocus yourself if your mind wanders during the writing process. Looking at the organized ideas and details included in your outline can get your mind back on the right track. Also, your outline helps you to avoid forgetting any important points that can be the difference between a high-scoring essay and one that doesn’t represent your true talents.

Follow the Basic Essay Format

When you opt to take the SAT with writing time, you may wonder how to set up your essay. It’s best to use the basic essay format: You’re no doubt already familiar with the format, and it’s a good template for an essay that asks you to evaluate an author’s argument.

The Importance of Writing Practice Essays

The most effective way to remember these tips while completing the SAT Essay section is to practice them ahead of time. When starting your practice essay, check your watch to get an idea of how quickly you must work to read the prompt and finish an outline in ten minutes or less. After practicing a few times, you’ll develop a rhythm for your essay-writing that allows you to adhere to your schedule and finish without hurrying. The time you spend practicing also gives you a chance to become familiar with the topics found in SAT prompts so when you take the SAT with writing time, you aren’t venturing into unfamiliar waters.

At Veritas Prep, we are here to help students like you get the highest possible score on the Essay section of the SAT. We understand how to approach the Essay along with every other section, and our instructors can help you meet or exceed your goals for taking the SAT with essay time. We’ll evaluate your practice essay and provide you with tips on how you can achieve a high score in each of the three areas evaluated by SAT graders. We want you to score 8’s across the board on your SAT essay! Contact us today to get the strategies, guidance, and support you need to master the SAT Essay section.

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Today, we will not begin our post as we usually do by introducing the topic we intend to discuss. Instead, we will directly ask you to think about a question. The reason is this – when faced with similar questions on the GMAT without any preface, we often struggle to identify the concept being tested, which is the starting point of our efforts. Our post today focuses on how to observe the keywords in the question stem, and how to know where to go from there.

Take a look at this example Quant question:

The length and width of a rectangle are integer values. What is the area of the smallest such rectangle that can be inscribed in a circle whose radius is also an integer?

(A) 12

(B) 24

(C) 36

(D) 48

(E) 60

Now here is the problem – the question stem does not give us any numbers! We don’t know any dimensions of the rectangle or the circle, yet the answer choice options are very specific numbers! So how do we begin? The smallest positive integer is 1, so should we start by testing the radius of the circle as 1, and then try to go on from there? And if 1 doesn’t work, then move on to 2, 3, 4… etc?

No – we are not a computer algorithm and on top of that, the GMAT only gives us around 2 minutes to figure out the answer. With this in mind, the question should enough clues to make all all of that trial and error testing unnecessary. So if plugging in numbers isn’t the way to go, how should we start solving this problem?

Now, the moment we read “rectangle inscribed in a circle”, what comes to mind is that a rectangle has 90 degree angles, and hence, the diagonal of the rectangle is the diameter of the circle (an arc that subtends a 90 degree angle at the circumference is a semicircle). The rectangle inside of the circle will look something like this:

Now we can see that we have a circle with a diameter (AB) and 90 degree angles subtended in each semicircle (angle AMB and angle ANB).

Essentially then, we have two right triangles (triangle AMB and triangle ANB) that share the hypotenuse AB. Also, it’s important to note that each side of these triangles is an integer – since we know the radius of the circle is an integer, the diameter has to be an integer too. This should make us think of Pythagorean triples!

Whenever all three sides of a right triangle are integers, they will form a Pythagorean triple. Can you have a right triangle with all integer sides such that the length of one side is 1? No. There are no Pythagorean triples with 1 as a side. The smallest Pythagorean triple we know of is 3, 4, 5 (so there can be no right triangle with all integer sides such that the length of one side is 2, either).

We already know Pythagorean triples are the lengths of the sides of right triangles where all sides are integers. What we need to internalize is that ONLY Pythagorean triples are the lengths of sides of right triangles where all sides are integers. You cannot have a right triangle with all integer sides but whose sides are not a Pythagorean triple.

This means that the smallest right triangle with all integer sides is a 3, 4, 5 triangle.

Now note that in the given question, the hypotenuse is the diameter of the circle. We are given that the radius of the circle is an integer, so the diameter will be twice an integer, i.e. an even integer.

So we know the hypotenuse is an even integer, but as we discussed last week, the hypotenuse of a primitive Pythagorean right triangle must be odd. So this triangle must be a non-primitive Pythagorean triple. The smallest such triple will be twice of 3, 4, 5, i.e. the triangle will have sides with lengths 6, 8, 10.

This means the sides of the rectangle must be 6 and 8, while its diagonal must have a length of length 10. The area of the rectangle, then, must be 6*8 = 48. The answer is D.

Finally, at the end of the post we have figured out that this post is a continuation of last week’s post on properties of Pythagorean triples! We hope you enjoyed it!

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

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There are certain themes that crop up in Critical Reasoning questions so often that it’s worthwhile to treat these problem types as their own sub-categories. One category that shows up with greater frequency in each new edition of the Official Guide is one that I’ll christen, “The tainted experiment.”

The logic of these arguments is always rooted in the notion that we can only trust the results of the experiment if we have a legitimate control group, and there aren’t any other confounding variables that we’ve failed to account for. Spoiler alert: typically in GMAT questions, we will find such confounding variables tainting the experiment’s predictive value.

Imagine, for example, that you’re testing a drug designed to alleviate headaches. You have two groups of subjects: a control group that takes a placebo and an experimental group that receives the drug. The results of the experiment show that the control group has a higher rate of headaches than the group receiving the medication. Time to rejoice, notify the delighted shareholders, and move this drug to market as quickly as possible? Well, maybe.

But now imagine that the control group consisted largely of stressed-out, sleep-deprived college students living near construction sites, and the experiment group consisted of retired yoga instructors. Suddenly we’ve got other variables to contend with. Yes, it’s possible that the effectiveness of the drug is what accounts for the differential in headache incidence between the two groups. But it’s just as likely that other environmental factors are responsible. A good experiment would have controlled for these factors.

The upshot: whenever you see a question that involves an experiment with a control group, always ask yourself if there are variables that the experimenters have failed to account for.

Here’s a good example of such an argument:

In Colorado subalpine meadows, nonnative dandelions co-occur with a native ﬂower, the larkspur. Bumblebees visit both species, creating the potential for interactions between the two species with respect to pollination. In a recent study, researchers selected 16 plots containing both species; all dandelions were removed from eight plots; the remaining eight control plots were left undisturbed. The control plots yielded significantly more larkspur seeds than the dandelion-free plots, leading the researchers to conclude that the presence of dandelions facilitates pollination (and hence seed production) in the native species by attracting more pollinators to the mixed plots.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the researchers’ reasoning?

A) Bumblebees preferentially visit dandelions over larkspurs in mixed plots.

B) In mixed plots, pollinators can transfer pollen from one species to another to augment seed production.

C) If left unchecked, nonnative species like dandelions quickly crowd out native species.

D) Seed germination is a more reliable measure of a species’ ﬁtness than seed production.

E) Soil disturbances can result in fewer blooms, and hence lower seed production.

This is a classic experiment argument. There are two populations: plots that contain both dandelions and larkspurs, and plots that have had all the dandelions removed, and thus contain only larkspurs. We’re told that the plots containing both types of flowers produced more larkspur seeds than the plots containing only larkspurs, thus validating the contention that the presence of dandelions has a positive benefit on larkspur seed yields.

Fortunately, the GMAT is pretty predictable. If we’re trying to weaken the conclusion derived from an experiment comparing two populations – a control group and an experimental group – we’re looking for a confounding variable. The initial hypothesis is that the presence of dandelions promotes seed production in larkspurs. An alternative hypothesis is that an environmental factor we haven’t yet considered accounts for the differential in larkspur seed production in the two groups, so that’s what we’re on the lookout for when we examine each of the answer choices.

A) Which flower bees prefer sheds no light on the validity of the experiment. A is out.

B) This answer option would be entirely consistent with the hypothesis that dandelions promote larkspur seed production. We’re trying to weaken the argument. B is also out.

C) This answer choice makes no sense. We’ve already been told that the plots containing both types of flower produce more larkspur seeds – we never want to contradict a premise. C is no good.

D) This tells us nothing about whether it is the presence of dandelions that’s helping promote larkspur seed production. D gets kicked to the curb.

E) If removing the dandelions disrupts the soil, perhaps it’s the disrupted soil, rather than the absence of dandelions, that accounts for the lower larkspur production in the plots where the dandelions have been removed. We’ve got our confounding variable – E is the answer.

Takeaway: On Critical Reasoning questions on the lookout for the tainted experiment. If you’re trying to weaken an argument regarding an experiment containing a control group and an experimental group, the key will be determining which answer choice provides a confounding variable, and thus, an alternative explanation for the conclusion given.

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Today, we will look at a Geometry concept involving parallel lines and transversals (a line that cuts through two parallel lines). This is the property:

The ratios of the intercepts of two transversals on parallel lines is the same.

Consider the diagram below:

Here, we can see that:

“a” is the intercept of the first transversal between L1 and L2.

“b” is the intercept of the first transversal between L2 and L3.

“c” is the intercept of the second transversal between L1 and L2.

“d” is the intercept of the second transversal between L2 and L3.

Therefore, the ratios of a/b = c/d. Let’s see how knowing this property could be useful to us on a GMAT question. Take a look at the following example problem:

In triangle ABC below, D is the mid-point of BC and E is the mid-point of AD. BF passes through E. What is the ratio of AF:FC ?

(A) 1:1

(B) 1:2

(C) 1:3

(D) 2:3

(E) 3:4

Here, the given triangle is neither a right triangle, nor is it an equilateral triangle. We don’t really know many properties of such triangles, so that will probably not help us. We do know, however, that AD is the median and E is its mid-point, but again, we don’t know any properties of mid-points of medians.

Instead, we need to think outside the box – parallel lines will come to our rescue. Let’s draw lines parallel to BF passing through the points A, D, and C, as shown in the diagram below:

Now we have four lines parallel to each other and two transversals, AD and AC, passing through them.

Consider the three parallel lines, “line passing through A”, “BF”, and “line passing through D”. The ratio of the intercepts of the two transversals on them will be the same.

AE/ED = AF/FP

We know that AE = ED since E is the mid point of AD. Hence, AE/ED = 1/1. This means we can say:

AE/ED = 1/1 = AF/FP

AF = FP

Now consider these three parallel lines: “BF”, “line passing through D”, and “line passing through C”. The ratio of the intercepts of the two transversals on them will also be the same.

BD/DC = FP/PC

We know that BD = DC since D is the mid point of BC. Hence, BD/DC = 1/1. This means we can also say:

BD/DC = 1/1 = FP/PC

FP = PC

From these two calculations, we will get AF = FP = PC, and hence, AF:FC = 1:(1+1) = 1:2.

Therefore, the answer is B. We hope you see that Geometry questions on the GMAT can be easily resolved once we bring in parallel lines.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

Applying to an MBA program can be a consuming experience, both mentally and physically. The whole process of applying to business school can be YEARS in the making for some. So, for many, even the thought of going through such a rigorous and time consuming process more than once, can feel daunting. Depending on what is causing you to consider applying again can really influence the outcome of your decision. Just know, you are not alone, many candidates find themselves in a similar situation every year.

Let’s explore the two most common reasons why a candidate may consider reapplying to an MBA program that rejected them:

1) You Were Not Admitted Anywhere

Not receiving admission to any of the schools you applied to can be a really challenging thing to deal with, especially after all of those months of hard work. Many applicants are disillusioned after receiving the bad news and it can be tough to think through next steps. However, not receiving admission in a given application year is not necessarily an indication of your ability to secure admission in another year.

The key here is to spend some time and evaluate your application strategy and submitted package. You want to determine whether you put together the best application package. If you feel like there may have been some issues or there may be other opportunities to improve your profile, then reapplying is probably a good decision.

One other thing to consider is also whether you applied to the right schools. Focusing on what your school list next year should look like given your qualifications is a great first step.

2) You Are Not Happy With the Schools You Were Admitted to:

Some applicants actually do secure admission at some of their target programs but for one reason or another still may consider applying again next year. The most common rationale here is if there is a belief that there are better opportunities at higher ranked programs. This is a tough position to be in, because it is really hard to gauge the likelihood of admission, especially at more selective programs. Reapplying here takes a lot of self-confidence, but ultimately it is about avoiding any potential regret on missed opportunities at more prestigious programs.

Another scenario that can happen here is for an applicant to receive admission to a part-time program but having more interest in full-time programs. In this scenario, an applicant will consider foregoing the part-time offer in lieu of pursuing a full-time offer. Full-time programs tend to be more selective than their part-time counterparts so receiving admission to a part-time program is not always an indicator of the likelihood of success with full-time programs.

Applying to business school? Call us at 1-800-925-7737 and speak with an MBA admissions expert today, or take our free MBA Admissions Profile Evaluation for personalized advice for your unique application situation! As always, be sure to find us on Facebook, YouTube, Google+and Twitter.

Dozie A. is a Veritas Prep Head Consultant for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. His specialties include consulting, marketing, and low GPA/GMAT applicants. You can read more articles by him here.

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Say “x” gives you a remainder of 2 when divided by 6. What will be the remainder when x + 1 is divided by 6?

Go back to the divisibility concepts discussed above. When x balls are split into groups of 6, we will have 2 balls leftover. If we are given 1 more ball, it will join the 2 balls and now we will have 3 balls leftover. The remainder will be 3.

What happens in the case of x + 6 – what will be the remainder when this is divided by 6? This additional 6 balls will just make an extra group of 6, so we will still have 2 balls leftover.

What about the case of x + 9? Now, of the extra 9 balls, we will make one group of 6 and will have 3 balls leftover. These 3 balls will join the 2 balls leftover from x, giving us a remainder of 5.

Now, what about the case of 2x? Recall that 2x = x + x. The number of groups will double and so will the remainder, so 2x will give us a remainder of 2*2 = 4.

On the other hand, if x gives us a remainder of 4 when divided by 6, then 2x divided by 6 will have a remainder of 2*4 = 8, which gives us a remainder of 2 (since another group of 6 will be formed from the 8 balls).

Let’s consider the tricky case of x^2 now. If x gives us a remainder of 2 when it is divided by 6, it means:

x = 6Q + 2

x^2 = (6Q + 2)*(6Q + 2) = 36Q^2 + 24Q + 4

Note here that the first and the second terms are divisible by 6. The remainder when you divide this by 6 will be 4.

We hope you understand how to deal with these various cases of remainders. Let’s take a look at a GMAT sample question now:

If z is a positive integer and r is the remainder when z^2 + 2z + 4 is divided by 8, what is the value of r?

Statement 1: When (z−3)^2 is divided by 8, the remainder is 4.

Statement 2: When 2z is divided by 8, the remainder is 2.

This is not our typical, “When z is divided by 8, r is the remainder” type of question. Instead, we are given a quadratic equation in the form of z that, when divided by 8, gives us a remainder of r. We need to find r. This question might feel complicated, but look at the statements – at least one of them gives us data on a quadratic! Looks promising!

Statement 1: When (z−3)^2 is divided by 8, the remainder is 4

(z – 3)^2 = z^2 – 6z + 9

We know that when z^2 – 6z + 9 is divided by 8, the remainder is 4. So no matter what z is, z^2 – 6z + 9 + 8z, when divided by 8, will only give us a remainder of 4 (8z is a multiple of 8, so will give remainder 0).

z^2 – 6z + 9 + 8z = z^2 + 2z + 9

z^2 + 2z + 9 when divided by 8, gives remainder 4. This means z^2 + 2z + 5 is divisible by 8 and would give remainder 0, further implying that z^2 + 2z + 4 would be 1 less than a multiple of 8, and hence, would give us a remainder of 7 when divided by 8. This statement alone is sufficient.

Let’s look at the second statement:

Statement 2: When 2z is divided by 8, the remainder is 2

2z = 8a + 2

z = 4a + 1

z^2 = (4a + 1)^2 = 16a^2 + 8a + 1

When z^2 is divided by 8, the remainder is 1. When 2z is divided by 8, the remainder is 2. So when z^2 + 2z is divided by 8 the remainder will be 1+2 = 3.

When z^2 + 2z + 4 is divided by 8, remainder will be 3 + 4 = 7. This statement alone is also sufficient. Because both statements alone are sufficient, our answer is D.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

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As a high school junior, you may find it helpful to make a list of the standardized tests you must take before applying to colleges. The ACT and the SAT are likely to be at the top of your list. In addition, you may be thinking about taking one or two SAT subject tests.

Many preferred colleges express interest in seeing students’ SAT subject test scores, while others have made them a requirement. Researching the specific admissions requirements of the colleges you plan to apply to is a wise idea. If you find that some of the colleges on your wish list require these test scores, the next logical question is, “Which SAT subject tests should I take?”

A Look at the SAT Subject Tests

Each of these tests measures your level of skill in a certain subject. You can take an SAT subject test in literature, U.S. history, Spanish, math, physics, chemistry and several other subjects. Regardless of which test you choose, you are given one hour to complete it. You can take as many as three SAT subject tests on the same day.

Which SAT Subject Tests Should I Take?

If you have a favorite subject you excel in, it’s a good idea to take an SAT subject test on that topic. For instance, if you’ve always performed well in American history classes, then take the SAT subject test in U.S. History. Take a moment to check out the complete list of SAT subject test options to determine the appropriate choices for you.

Which SAT Subject Tests Are Easiest?

The answer to this question is different for each student depending on their academic talents. For example, if you’ve always excelled in your physics classes, then you would likely find the SAT subject test in physics to be the easiest. Another student whose favorite subject is English would probably find it easy to complete the questions on the SAT subject test in literature. In truth, it’s best to stop wondering which SAT subject tests are easiest: Instead, focus on choosing the tests that will give you the opportunity to highlight your skills in your favorite subjects.

Reasons to Take SAT Subject Tests

There are several reasons why SAT subject test scores are important to colleges during the admissions process. For one, a high score on an SAT subject test shows that you have a thorough understanding of the subject. This shows that you’re a student who is persistent and dedicated to your studies. Plus, your score gives officials an indication of whether you’re ready to tackle college-level classes. Another reason why SAT subject test scores are important is they help college officials place you in courses that will challenge you, so you won’t end up in an introductory course when you’re at a higher level.

Preparing for These Tests

After you decide which SAT subject tests to take, it’s time to start the prep work. Answering practice questions is an excellent way to prepare for a subject test. A practice test allows you to become familiar with the test format and the difficulty of the questions you’ll encounter. One helpful tip is to time your practice test so you know how quickly you must work in order to finish the test in one hour. Ideally, you want to develop a comfortable test-taking rhythm so you don’t feel rushed. The results of your practice SAT subject test can help you figure out what skills to focus on during your study time.

Studying for an SAT subject test is a lot more efficient when you partner with an experienced instructor. The instructors in our SAT subject test tutoring program are experts in the subjects they teach. We provide strategies that help you to improve in your weakest areas while further strengthening your strongest skills. Our professional tutors give you the support you need to showcase your skills in your chosen subjects!

At Veritas Prep, our SAT subject test preparation courses are a combination of top-notch instruction and effective study resources. If you have any questions, check out our FAQ section to find answers. Of course, you can call or email us for further information. Let us play a part in your SAT subject test success!

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“I am going into my Senior year of high school. What can I do to prep for college this summer?” Sound familiar? Summer is halfway over, and while you’ve been out with friends swatting away mosquitos and dipping your feet into pools, Veritas Prep has been here gathering the most important information about what you should be doing to prep for the last year of high school!

We had a chance to catch up with Stephanie Fernandez, former Assistant Director of Admissions for Northwestern University, and she has some tips and tricks to help keep you motivated this summer and to eliminate stress when the regular school year starts up again. Trust us, it’ll be here before you know it! Stephanie broke down the things you should be doing into two major categories: application work and involvement work.

Application Work Stephanie says, “get a jump start on visiting as many colleges as financially possible. If you go to the schools, you can get the best vibe. Colleges can sound great on paper, but visiting is the best thing you can do to help you refine your target school list.” Whew. Great advice indeed. Maybe you grew up wearing a University of Michigan sweatshirt, and then you go there and realize… “Oh my god! It’s even better than I expected! Go blue!” (I might be a bit biased, but you get the point.)

Additionally, Stephanie suggests that you start working on the Common App Personal Statement. If you aren’t applying to schools that utilize the Common App, start on any of their essays that have been released early. As soon as school starts, you will be busy juggling extracurricular activities, spending time with your friends, homework, classes, and all of the other obligations you deal with throughout the academic year – too many responsibilities to give these essays your full attention. Starting over the summer will really eliminate a lot of stress as you head into your senior year.

Also, there’s this wacky idea that Senior year isn’t difficult because you’ll be graduating soon, however remember that it’s really important to maintain the grades and the participation/involvement that you’ve been able to achieve historically. Admissions Committees do not like to see that you’ve arrived at your Senior year and started to slack off.

Involvement Work Stephanie reminded us that Admissions Committees are most interested in your involvement during the school year because then they can see how you balance all of your activities with usual responsibilities, which is a skill you’ll definitely need to be able to do in college. That being said, Admissions Committees do not want to see that you’ve been doing nothing. They want to see some type of progress over the summer.

Stephanie gave us some great suggestions for how students about to enter their Senior Year should spend time over the summer, and we’re going to pass them along to you. You can:

1) Get a part-time job.

2) Find research labs at nearby universities to assist with research.

3) Secure an internship in anything that interests you. This doesn’t have to be related to your major (interning at an art gallery will not prevent you from eventually becoming a doctor)!

4) Give back to your community. Keep in mind, however, that over-doing your volunteer work right before applications are due can make it look like you are trying to pad your application. Make any volunteer or community involvement you do authentic.

5) Test out a career you are considering by finding a professional to shadow.

6) Get involved with sports camps, summer team practice, or personal training. Working with your team over the summer is a great use of time – use this opportunity to establish yourself as a leader of the team (if you haven’t already). Helping the coach schedule meetings or run practices is another good way to establish yourself as a leader.

As a last reminder, if you haven’t already secured your letters of recommendation (which we recommend you do at the end of your Junior year, if possible), connect with your teachers when school starts up again in the fall, and be sure to ask them for help right away.

That’s it! A special thanks to Stephanie Fernandez for allowing us to interview her about this topic. We’ve gotten a lot of questions from applicants just like you about this topic, and she helped us address these concerns!

Oh, another fun fact, Stephanie now works as one of Veritas Prep’s College Admissions Consultants, so if you need help getting into your dream school, be sure to check-out our variety of college consulting services. Our team of Admissions Consultants are industry experts. Not only are they strong coaches and mentors throughout the application process, but they have former admissions experience evaluating applicants on behalf of some of the most selective schools in the world. If you want more personalized advice about how to begin your college application process, using a College Admissions Consultant is the best way to have it!

Okay, that’s all folks! Now put down the Snapchat and get to work!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

We have examined how to deal with polygons when you encounter them on a GMAT question in a previous post. Today, we will look at a relatively difficult polygon question, however we would like to remind you here that the concepts being tested in this question are still very simple (although we won’t give away exactly which concepts they are yet). First, take a look at the question itself:

The hexagon above has interior angles whose measures are all equal. As shown, only five of the six side lengths are known: 10, 15, 4, 18, and 7. What is the unknown side length?

(A) 7

(B)10

(C) 12

(D) 15

(E) 16

There are various ways to solve this question, but each takes a bit of effort. Note that the polygon we are given is not a regular polygon, since the side lengths are not all equal. The angles, however, are all equal. Let’s first find the measure of each one of those angles using the formula discussed in this previous post.

(n – 2)*180 = sum of all interior angles

(6 – 2)*180 = 720

Each of the 6 angles = 720/6 = 120 degrees

Though we would like to point out here that if you see a question such as this one on the actual GMAT exam, you should already know that if each angle of a hexagon is equal, each angle must be 120 degrees, so performing the above calculation would not be necessary.

Method 1: Visualization

This is a very valid approach to obtaining the correct answer on this GMAT question since we don’t need to explain the reasoning or show our steps, however it may be hard to comprehend for the beginners. We will try to explain it anyway, since it requires virtually no work and will help build your math instinct.

Note that in the given hexagon, each angle is 120 degrees – this means that each pair of opposite sides are parallel. Think of it this way: Side 4 turns on Side 18 by 120 degrees. Then Side 15 turns on Side 4 by another 120 degrees. And finally, Side 10 turns on Side 15 by another 120 degrees. So Side 10 has, in effect, turned by 360 degrees on Side 18.

This means Side 10 is parallel to Side 18.

Now, think of the 120 degree angle between Side 4 and Side 15 – it has to be kept constant. Plus, the angles of the legs must also stay constant at 120 degrees with Sides 10 and 18. Since the slopes of each leg of that angle are negatives of each other (√3 and -√3), when one leg gets shorter, the other gets longer by the same length (use the image below as a visual of what we’re talking about).

Hence, the sum of the sides will always be 15 + 4 = 19. This means 7 + Unknown = 19, so Unknown = 12. Our answer is C.

If you struggled to understand the approach above, you’re not alone. This method involves a lot of intuition, and struggling to figure it out may not be the best use of your time on the GMAT, so let’s examine a couple of more tangible solutions!

Method 2: Using Right Triangles

As we saw in Method 1 above, AB and DE are parallel lines. Since each of the angles A, B, C, D, E and F are 120 degrees, the four triangles we have made are all 30-60-90 triangles. The sides of a 30-60-90 triangle can be written using the ratio 1:√(3):2.

AT = 7.5*√3 and ME = 2*√3, so the distance between the sides of length 10 and 18 is 9.5*√3. We know that DN = 3.5*√3, so BP = (9.5*√3) – (3.5*√3) = 6*√3.

Since the ratios of our sides should be 1:√(3):2, side BC = 2*6 = 12. Again, the answer is C. Let’s look at our third and final method for solving this problem:

Method 3: Using Equilateral Triangles

First, extend the sides of the hexagon as shown to form a triangle:

Since each internal angle of the hexagon is 120 degrees, each external angle will be 60 degrees. In that case, each angle between the dotted lines will become 60 degrees too, and hence, triangle PAB becomes an equilateral triangle. This means PA = PB = 10. Triangle QFE and triangle RDC also become equilateral triangles, so QF = QE = 4, and RD = RC = 7.

Now note that since angles P, Q, and R are all 60 degrees, triangle PQR is also equilateral, and hence, PQ = PR.

PQ = 10 + 15 + 4 = 29

PR = 10 + BC + 7 = 29

BC = 12 (again, answer choice C)

Note the geometry concepts that we used to solve this problem: regular polygon, parallel lines, angles, 30-60-90 right triangles, and equilateral triangles. We know all of these concepts very well individually, but applying them to a GMAT question can take some ingenuity!

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors

The questions in the English section on the ACT measure your grammar, usage, and punctuation skills along with others. As you study for this part of the test, it’s a good idea to review the basic rules of grammar and create some practice sentences. Additionally, learn a few basic ACT English rules of thumb as you prep for the test to maximize your chances of a high score.

1) Look for Subject and Verb Agreement

Looking for agreement between the subject and verb in a sentence is one of the most important ACT grammar rules to remember. As an example, in the sentence, “The horse runs through the field,” “horse” is a singular subject and “runs” is a singular verb. You might also say, “The horses run through the field,” which would pair the plural subject “horses” with the plural verb “run.” If an underlined portion of a passage has a subject and verb that disagree, then it’s time to look to the answer options for a replacement.

2) Read the Entire Sentence Before Answering

The English section on the ACT consists of several passages, and each passage contains underlined words or sentences. Your task is to read the question connected with each underlined portion to find the best answer option. If you think the sentence is correct as is, you can also choose “no change.” You may be tempted to focus on the underlined portion of a passage while ignoring the rest of it, but this is a mistake. Make it a point to read the entire sentence as well as the paragraph. Examining the context in which the underlined word or phrase appears can help you recognize the best answer option.

3) Use the Answer Options to Your Advantage

One of the easiest ACT English rules to remember is to scan the answer options before reading the question. Do the answer options have anything in common? Perhaps all of the options look the same except for adjustments in punctuation or spelling. Does one answer option seem wordy while another is succinct? Scanning the answer options can help you determine the specific skill being tested. Once you know what the question is asking, you are more likely to end up with the correct answer.

4) Check for Agreement Between the Pronoun and Antecedent

Checking for agreement between the pronoun and antecedent is one of the most basic ACT grammar rules to keep in mind. As an example, consider the sentence, “Catherine read her report to the class.” In this sentence, “Catherine” is the antecedent and the word “her” is the pronoun. If a sentence has a plural antecedent, then the pronoun needs to be plural as well. These two parts of speech must agree for a sentence to be correct.

5) Look for Clear and Concise Sentences

As you practice ACT English questions, get into the habit of looking for clear, concise sentences. The creators of the ACT want to know if you can state ideas in a succinct way. For instance, you may see three answer options that all convey the same meaning, but one of those options is short and to the point while the other two seem to have unnecessary and redundant words thrown in. For example, “He made the decision to walk to work on account of the dozens of people already on the bus” is an idea that can be conveyed with fewer words: “He decided to walk to work because the bus was crowded.” Often, the correct answer option is the least complicated one.

At Veritas Prep, all of our ACT tutors achieved a minimum score of 34 out of 36 on the exam. This means that our tutors really know what they’re talking about! Students who study with us learn strategies and tips from experts who have practical experience with the ACT. In addition, you’ll get to work with someone who can provide encouragement as test day approaches: After all, they’ve been in your shoes. When you sign up for ACT instruction, you can choose to participate either online or in person. We make it easy to fit our quality ACT tutoring services into your busy schedule of activities. Contact Veritas Prep and sign up for one of our excellent ACT courses today!

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Here is an often-repeated complaint we hear from test takers – Data Sufficiency questions that deal with number properties are very difficult to handle (even for people who find problem-solving number properties questions manageable)! They feel that such questions are time consuming and often involve too many cases.

Here is our advice – when solving number properties questions, imagine a number line. It reminds us that numbers behave differently “between 0 and 1”, “between -1 and 0”, “less than -1”, and “more than 1”, and that integers occur only at regular intervals and that there are infinite numbers in between them. The integers are, in turn, even and odd. Also, 0, 1 and -1 are special numbers, hence it is always a good idea to consider cases with them.

Let’s see how thinking along these lines can help us on a practice Data Sufficiency question:

If a and b are non-zero integers, is a^b an integer?

Statement 1: b^a is negative

Statement 2: a^b is negative

The answer to this problem does not lie in actually drawing a number line. The point is that we need to think along these lines: -1, 0, 1, ranges between them, integers, negatives-positives, even-odd, decimals and how each of these comes into play in this case.

What we know from the question stem is that a and b are non-zero integers, which means they occur at regular intervals on the number line. To answer the question, “Is a^b an integer?”, let’s first look at Statement 1:

Statement 1: b^a is negative

For a number to be negative, its base must be negative. But that is not enough – the exponent should not be an even integer. If the exponent is an even integer, the negative signs will cancel out. Since a and b are integers, if a is not an even integer, it must be an odd integer.

We know that the sign of the exponent is immaterial as far as the sign of the result is concerned (since a^(-n) is just 1/a^n). For b^a to be negative, then we know that b must be a negative integer and a must be an odd integer. Does this help us in deducing whether a^b is an integer? Not necessarily!

If b is negative, say -2, a^(-2) = 1/a^2. a could be 1, in which case 1/a^2 = 1 (an integer), or a could be 3, in which case 1/a^2 = 1/9 (not an integer). Because there are two possible answers, this statement alone is not sufficient.

Let’s look at Statement 2:

Statement 2: a^b is negative

Again, the logic remains the same – for a number to be negative, its base must also be negative and the exponent should not be an even integer. If the exponent is an even integer, the negative signs will cancel out. Since a and b are integers, if b is not an even integer, it must be an odd integer. Again, we know that the sign of the exponent is immaterial as far as the sign of the result is concerned (since a^(-n) is just 1/a^n).

For a^b to be negative, then we know that a must be a negative integer and b must be an odd integer. a could be -1/-2/-3/-4… etc, and b could be 1/3/5… or -1/-3/-5.

If a = -1 and b = 1, then a^b = -1 (an integer). If a = -2 and b = -3, then a^b = (-2)^(-3) = 1/(-2)^3 = -1/8 (not an integer). This statement alone is also not sufficient.

We hope you see how we are using values of 1 and -1 to enumerate our cases. Now, let’s consider using both statements together:

a is a negative, odd integer, so it can take values such as -1, -3, -5, -7, …

b is a negative, odd integer too, so it can also take values such as -1, -3, -5, -7, …

If a = -1 and b = -1, then a^b = -1 (an integer)

If a = -3 and b = -3, then a^b = (-3)^(-3) = -1/27 (not an integer)

Even using both statements together, we do not know whether a^b is an integer or not. therefore, our answer is E.

Thinking of a number line and knowing what it represents will help you tackle many Data Sufficiency questions that are about number properties.

Karishma, a Computer Engineer with a keen interest in alternative Mathematical approaches, has mentored students in the continents of Asia, Europe and North America. She teaches the GMAT for Veritas Prep and regularly participates in content development projects such as this blog!

ForumBlogs - GMAT Club’s latest feature blends timely Blog entries with forum discussions. Now GMAT Club Forums incorporate all relevant information from Student, Admissions blogs, Twitter, and other sources in one place. You no longer have to check and follow dozens of blogs, just subscribe to the relevant topics and forums on GMAT club or follow the posters and you will get email notifications when something new is posted. Add your blog to the list! and be featured to over 300,000 unique monthly visitors