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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves

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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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After years of record drought, declines in water reserves in California are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in water reserves in California are driving many of its cities and towns

(B) water reserves in California have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven

(C) shrinking water reserves in California are driving many of its cities and towns

(D) shrinking water reserves in California are a drive for many of its cities and towns

(E) shrinking water reserves in California have declined to drive many of its cities and towns



Source: TTP Beta Testing

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Originally posted by MartyMurray on 03 Feb 2017, 06:37.
Last edited by MartyMurray on 03 Feb 2017, 13:27, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 07:51
Ouch - I forgot that 'its' can refer to "California’s reserves".
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 07:53
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MartyMurray I feel C is the correct answer not A. Please correct me.

After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in California’s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns.............declines in reserves is awkward construction for me.

(B) California’s reserves of water have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven......so that changes the meaning

(C) California’s shrinking water reserves are driving many of its cities and towns...........correct according to me. concise and simple.

(D) California’s shrinking water reserves are a drive for many of its cities and towns..........are a drive is awkward.

(E) California’s shrinking water reserves have declined to drive many of its cities and towns...........infinitive makes it sound intentional
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 12:00
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Nevernevergiveup wrote:
MartyMurray I feel C is the correct answer not A. Please correct me.

After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in California’s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns.............declines in reserves is awkward construction for me.

(B) California’s reserves of water have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven......so that changes the meaning

(C) California’s shrinking water reserves are driving many of its cities and towns...........correct according to me. concise and simple.

(D) California’s shrinking water reserves are a drive for many of its cities and towns..........are a drive is awkward.

(E) California’s shrinking water reserves have declined to drive many of its cities and towns...........infinitive makes it sound intentional


C has a meaning issue.

C conveys that the water reserves are driving the cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing. "shrinking" merely modifies "water reserves".

It is the shrinking of or decline OF the water reserves that is driving the cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

While A may not flow as well as C, A conveys the intended meaning, which is that the declines are driving the cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 12:33
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MartyMurray wrote:
After years of record drought, declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns

(B) California???s reserves of water have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven

(C) California???s shrinking water reserves are driving many of its cities and towns

(D) California???s shrinking water reserves are a drive for many of its cities and towns

(E) California???s shrinking water reserves have declined to drive many of its cities and towns



Source: TTP Beta Testing

When something is inside of preposition, then it can't be subject or agent. In A, the location of ''water and California???s reserves'' is inside of preposition. That means, 'water' and 'California???s reserves' can't be the subject. So, in A, ''its'' should be possessive pronoun of noun ''declines''. So, the use of ''its'' instead of ''California???s reserves'' is not faulty?
Thank you...
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 13:07
iMyself wrote:
MartyMurray wrote:
After years of record drought, declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns

(B) California???s reserves of water have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven

(C) California???s shrinking water reserves are driving many of its cities and towns

(D) California???s shrinking water reserves are a drive for many of its cities and towns

(E) California???s shrinking water reserves have declined to drive many of its cities and towns



Source: TTP Beta Testing

When something is inside of preposition, then it can't be subject or agent. In A, the location of ''water and California???s reserves'' is inside of preposition. That means, 'water' and 'California???s reserves' can't be the subject. So, in A, ''its'' should be possessive pronoun of noun ''declines''. So, the use of ''its'' instead of ''California???s reserves'' is not faulty?
Thank you...


Good point. Hmm. So maybe the wording would work as "water reserves in California". Then "California" could be the antecedent.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 13:15
MartyMurray wrote:
iMyself wrote:
MartyMurray wrote:
After years of record drought, declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in California???s reserves of water are driving many of its cities and towns

(B) California???s reserves of water have declined so that many of its cities and towns have been driven

(C) California???s shrinking water reserves are driving many of its cities and towns

(D) California???s shrinking water reserves are a drive for many of its cities and towns

(E) California???s shrinking water reserves have declined to drive many of its cities and towns



Source: TTP Beta Testing

When something is inside of preposition, then it can't be subject or agent. In A, the location of ''water and California's reserves'' is inside of preposition. That means, 'water' and 'California's reserves' can't be the subject. So, in A, ''its'' should be possessive pronoun of noun ''declines''. So, the use of ''its'' instead of ''California's reserves'' is not faulty?
Thank you...


Good point. Hmm. So maybe the wording would work as "water reserves in California". Then "California" could be the antecedent.

So, do you think that option A is ok without any mistakes?
Thanks...
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 13:22
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iMyself wrote:
MartyMurray wrote:
iMyself wrote:
When something is inside of preposition, then it can't be subject or agent. In A, the location of ''water and California's reserves'' is inside of preposition. That means, 'water' and 'California's reserves' can't be the subject. So, in A, ''its'' should be possessive pronoun of noun ''declines''. So, the use of ''its'' instead of ''California's reserves'' is not faulty?
Thank you...


Good point. Hmm. So maybe the wording would work as "water reserves in California". Then "California" could be the antecedent.

So, do you think that option A is ok without any mistakes?
Thanks...


I am not 100% sure.

It may be that using a possessive noun as the antecedent of a possessive pronoun is considered ok, but I don't like using possessive nouns as antecedents for any type of pronoun. So I am going to edit it, changing "California's" to "California".

At that point, I believe, A will be 100% correct.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2017, 13:53
Thank you MartyMurray for editing the post and animate the problem.
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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 11:55
Okay, there has been a lot of modifications to the question and everything seems to be resolved.
But then Why A but not C (post edit)?
(A)declines in water reserves ......are driving away...
(C) shrinking water reserves....are driving away...
To me, there's not much difference in the meaning. Or, both convey fine things. What makes (A) better than (C)

sayantanc2k chetan2u daagh - what's your opinion?
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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1. But A says that the declines have a record drought. If declines had a record drought, it will mean that the water resources should be abounding.

What had a record drought? It is neither the decline nor the shrinkage alone. It is the water resources that suffered the record drought, IMO

2. On the sideline, "the decline" isn't the appropriate diction to describe shrinkage since decline's predominant meaning is to refuse politely.
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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Feb 2017, 07:39
PKay wrote:
Okay, there has been a lot of modifications to the question and everything seems to be resolved.
But then Why A but not C (post edit)?
(A)declines in water reserves ......are driving away...
(C) shrinking water reserves....are driving away...
To me, there's not much difference in the meaning. Or, both convey fine things. What makes (A) better than (C)

sayantanc2k chetan2u daagh - what's your opinion?


In my opinion both A and C are alright.

The original poster of the question explains why C is wrong here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/after-years- ... l#p1799675

But I am not quite in agreement with this explanation. A modified noun is not the same as the original noun. Consider the following sentence:
I am not afraid of a dog, but I am afraid of a barking dog.
Therefore, I feel "shrinking water reserves" in option C is not a problem.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 01:17
MartyMurray wrote:
After years of record drought, declines in water reserves in California are driving many of its cities and towns to implement mandatory rationing.

(A) declines in water reserves in California are driving many of its cities and towns


I've still confusion about the official answer (A). Option A says something like following example:
A) Changes in this SC edits by MartyMurray can give us an important point to discuss blah blah blah.....
A) Changes in this SC discusses in gmatclub forum can give an important point to blah blah blah....

I think the RED part should be something like below...
A) Changes in this SC edited by MartyMurray can give us an important point to discuss blah blah blah.....
A) Changes in this SC discussed in gmatclub forum can give an important point to blah blah blah....
In short, the word ''reserves'' should be replaced with adjective ''reserved'' to legit the official answer. Isn't it sayantanc2k, daagh, MartyMurray?
Also, I did not have a clear indication about the use of the pronoun ''its''. Is the pronoun ''its'' is being used for ''California'' or ''declines''?
Thank you my honorable expert.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 04:59
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Quote:
Also, I did not have a clear indication about the use of the pronoun ''its''. Is the pronoun ''its'' is being used for ''California'' or ''declines''?

How can the singular "its" be ever used for the plural "declines?"
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New post 20 Feb 2017, 05:14
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IMyself wrote

Quote:
A) Changes in this SC edits by MartyMurray can give us an important point to discuss blah blah blah.....
A) Changes in this SC discusses in gmatclub forum can give an important point to blah blah blah....



In order to understand your point in its perspective, it might help to know in what part of speech are the words "edits" or "discusses" used in your examples. While "edits" can be a plural noun, "discusses" can only be a present tense verb used for singulars. In the topic under issue, "reserves" is a clear plural noun. Therefore, it is rather difficult to make out what your second example tries to convey.
Could you pl. help?
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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 20 Feb 2017, 22:10
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There has been some great discussion going on regarding the antecedence of the pronoun in this topic. There is a view that grammatically, a noun that is inside of a preposition cannot act as the true reference of the pronoun. Here are some OG examples, which may be eye opening in the context.

1. Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasitic worm, is prevalent in hot, humid climates, and it has become more widespread as irrigation projects have enlarged the habitat of THE FRESHWATER SNAILS THAT ARE THE PARASITE'S HOSTS FOR PART OF ITS LIFE CYCLE.

A. the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycle
B. the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts in part of their life cycle
C. freshwater snails which becomes the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycles
D. freshwater snails which become the hosts of the parasite during the parasite's life cycles
E. parasite's hosts, freshwater snails which become their hosts during their life cycles
The correct answer is A, in which the pronoun 'its' refers to the parasitic worm, which is inside the prepositional phrase "by a parasitic worm"


2. In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

The correct choice is A, wherein the pronoun 'they' refers to "some types of pine tree" which per se is within the prepositional phrase "in some types of pine tree"

3. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of
The correct answer is A. The antecedence of 'it' is CIA, which is an object noun. It might be noted that CIA is not the doer or the agent of the action.
So what is the takeaway? IMO, we shouldn't be overly prudish about pronoun reference. Not that grammar is unimportant, but all the same, grammar has to be validated by logic in the final.
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Originally posted by daagh on 20 Feb 2017, 06:50.
Last edited by daagh on 20 Feb 2017, 22:10, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 20 Feb 2017, 11:22
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I think meaning issue is more important when solving gmat problem.in choice A , it precisely describe intended meaning .
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After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 13:48
sayantanc2k wrote:
PKay wrote:
Okay, there has been a lot of modifications to the question and everything seems to be resolved.
But then Why A but not C (post edit)?
(A)declines in water reserves ......are driving away...
(C) shrinking water reserves....are driving away...
To me, there's not much difference in the meaning. Or, both convey fine things. What makes (A) better than (C)

sayantanc2k chetan2u daagh - what's your opinion?


In my opinion both A and C are alright.

The original poster of the question explains why C is wrong here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/after-years- ... l#p1799675

But I am not quite in agreement with this explanation. A modified noun is not the same as the original noun. Consider the following sentence:
I am not afraid of a dog, but I am afraid of a barking dog.
Therefore, I feel "shrinking water reserves" in option C is not a problem.


You have almost convinced me, but still I think that at the very least "declines in water reserves" more clearly expresses the point, which is that the declines in or the shrinking OF the reserves have driven the cities and towns to implement rationing.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2017, 02:48
daagh wrote:
There has been some great discussion going on regarding the antecedence of the pronoun in this topic. There is a view that grammatically, a noun that is inside of a preposition cannot act as the true reference of the pronoun. Here are some OG examples, which may be eye opening in the context.

1. Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasitic worm, is prevalent in hot, humid climates, and it has become more widespread as irrigation projects have enlarged the habitat of THE FRESHWATER SNAILS THAT ARE THE PARASITE'S HOSTS FOR PART OF ITS LIFE CYCLE.

A. the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycle
B. the freshwater snails that are the parasite's hosts in part of their life cycle
C. freshwater snails which becomes the parasite's hosts for part of its life cycles
D. freshwater snails which become the hosts of the parasite during the parasite's life cycles
E. parasite's hosts, freshwater snails which become their hosts during their life cycles
The correct answer is A, in which the pronoun 'its' refers to the parasitic worm, which is inside the prepositional phrase "by a parasitic worm"


2. In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

The correct choice is A, wherein the pronoun 'they' refers to "some types of pine tree" which per se is within the prepositional phrase "in some types of pine tree"

3. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of
The correct answer is A. The antecedence of 'it' is CIA, which is an object noun. It might be noted that CIA is not the doer or the agent of the action.
So what is the takeaway? IMO, we shouldn't be overly prudish about pronoun reference. Not that grammar is unimportant, but all the same, grammar has to be validated by logic in the final.

It's ok, but the use of ''its'' instead of ''California'' is really confusing in A to me. My intuition says that 'California' is not the actual referent of pronoun 'its'.
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Re: After years of record drought, declines in California’s reserves  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2017, 03:01
daagh wrote:
IMyself wrote

Quote:
A) Changes in this SC edits by MartyMurray can give us an important point to discuss blah blah blah.....
A) Changes in this SC discusses in gmatclub forum can give an important point to blah blah blah....



In order to understand your point in its perspective, it might help to know in what part of speech are the words "edits" or "discusses" used in your examples. While "edits" can be a plural noun, "discusses" can only be a present tense verb used for singulars. In the topic under issue, "reserves" is a clear plural noun. Therefore, it is rather difficult to make out what your second example tries to convey.
Could you pl. help?

My thinking says that the word ''reserves'' is being used as ''adjective'' in the official correct sentence. So, for that reason, I drew some examples in which 'edited' and 'discussed' has been used as 'adjective'. If the word 'reserves' is being used as 'plural countable noun', then the use of 'reserves' is ok to me. But, how ''reserves'' is used as countable noun. Longman Dictionary says that the word ''decline'' is countable and plural when it is related with sales, profits, and production (become less). So, my question is how the word 'declines' is related with THESE things in this official sentence?
Thank you...
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