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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp

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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:05
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A
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D
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Question Stats:

63% (01:24) correct 37% (01:37) wrong based on 198 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 149: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.


(A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

(B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve

(C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve

(D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

(E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement

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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:06
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 149: Sentence Correction (SC2)



At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.

Quote:
(A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

• if federal action WERE taken is constructed in the subjunctive
• the result clause, then, can only be in present conditional tense (would/could/might + bare infinitive)
-- Correct: If THIS thing were to happen, then THAT thing could happen
-- Wrong: If THIS thing were to happen, then THAT thing "can" happen
Eliminate A

Quote:
(B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve

• The year is 1926. We need a past tense verb.
• option B uses "is." Only zero and Type 1 conditionals (general truths and predictions made in the present, respectively) can use simple present in the IF clause
• This situation is not a general truth or a prediction made in the present
• Wrong: If THIS thing happens, then THAT thing IS
Eliminate B

(C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve [NO WORKING VERB]
If taking federal action to improve does not have a working verb
• the meaning is silly—read carefully. It sounds as though the airplane itself is taking federal action
Eliminate C

Quote:
(D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

• Spot on.
If federal action WERE taken, then the airline could reach its full potential.
KEEP

Quote:
(E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement

• modal verbs never go in the IF clause
Wrong: If federal action would be taken . . .
• not parallel.
In the non-underlined portion we have maintain. Maintain and improvement are not parallel.
"Improve," as in correction option D, is parallel to maintain.
Eliminate E.

The answer is D

• NOTES

We have a hypothetical in the past.
The aviation leaders hypothesized that if the federal government were to take action, "the airplane" (air travel) could reach its full potential.

We need
IF THIS thing were to happen, then THAT thing would / could happen.

Option D gives us that structure.

COMMENTS

This one will be short.
For a good source about conditionals and hypotheticals, take a look at THIS POST.

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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 22:27
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IMO D

At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.

If "if clause" is in past tense then the "independent clause" can take the words "could", "would", etc

Only option-D follows this rule



A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 00:18
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 149: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.


A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement


Can Vs Could - Could is required as the sentence is part of "Then clause"
The If clause will require a "were + action" Hypothetical situation

A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - Can - tense error Incorrect

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve - Is taken - tense error Incorrect

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve - if taking - no verb in if clause

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - Correct

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement - To improve and to maintain conveys the meaning better + would be tense error
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 01:41
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IMO correct option is D

At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.


Option A,B & C is not correct because of "can", "if were" portrays a correct hypothetical situation & could is the better option to employ here.

A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - Incorrect

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve - Incorrect

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve - Incorrect

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - Correct

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement - Incorrect - "the improvement" is not parallel with verb "maintain"
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 02:27
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Rule for If...then... constructions -
1. If simple present, then simple present/future
2. If simple past, then simple past or could/would
3. If past perfect, then would have verb

Correct answer is D.



At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.


A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - "could" should be used. (incorrect)

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve - with could simple past tense should be used in the if condition. (incorrect)

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve - "if taking" no verb is present (incorrect)

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - (Correct)

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement - with could, simple past tense should be used in the if condition. (incorrect)
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 04:37
A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve
"Can" is incorrectly used here.

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve
"is" is a wrong tense in the "if condition" sentence.

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve
"taking" makes no sense

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve
CORRECT

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement
"would be" is wrong
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New post Updated on: 11 Aug 2019, 00:14
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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.




A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve ( if were , then could/would should be used, can is wrong)

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve ( conditional if + simple past , then could .so wrong if clause it should have was/were

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve ( wrong due to no verb in the if clause)

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve ( correct ussage, in the if clause if it is hypothesis or wish ( then subjunctive) then were should be used. and if were, then could is perfect usage hence correct choice)


( one doubt here, this condition is only in past tense right, whether it works in present tense and future tense also???????)

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement ( if construction is wrong. would be wont come in if clause)
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Originally posted by ccheryn on 10 Aug 2019, 08:14.
Last edited by ccheryn on 11 Aug 2019, 00:14, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 10:07
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 149: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here

At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.

Sentence Structure
Subject - Verb
      At the urging of aviation industry leaders,
        who( aviation industry leaders) believed
          that the airplane could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards,
    the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.

Issues:
    A prediction-done in the present mandates the usage of WILL/CAN/MAY. - Depends on the context.
    A prediction-done in the past mandates the usage of WOULD/COULD/MIGHT. - Depends on the context.

    A hypothetical-situation/wish demands the usage of base-form of the verb.
    Ex:
      If I were the God of thunder, I would annihilate Thanos, The Mad Titan, using the storm-breaker.

    A, B and E Improper verb-form

Answer choice analysis:
    A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve
      Improper verb-form

    B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve
      Improper verb-form

    C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve
      Missing verb-form

    D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve
      Great. D is the champ!

    E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement
      Improper verb-form

TakeAway:
A couple of useful links to sharpen the concept -

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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 13:55
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At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airplane can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve and maintain safety standards, the Air Commerce Act was passed into law on May 20, 1926.


A) can only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve

B) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action is taken to improve

C) could only reach full commercial potential if taking federal action to improve

D) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action were taken to improve - correct conditional tense

E) could only reach its full commercial potential if federal action would be taken for the improvement
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 20:54
Federal action is singular so a, d gone, c is awkard, e distorts parallelism in improving, hence, b is the answer

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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2019, 02:04
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Re: At the urging of aviation industry leaders, who believed that the airp   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2019, 02:04
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