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Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the

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Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 08:28
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Question Stats:

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Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the last two months, but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at the highest level in six months.

(A) have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at

(B) have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to

(C) have not been eager at investing the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in thief portfolios to

(D) were not eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels the cash levels in their portfolios at

(E) were not eager at investing the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 21:17
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lotrgandalf wrote:
Why instead of should not be preferred?

Actually more than looking at a grammatical reason for that, let's look at the meaning difference between instead and instead of.

Samuel bought a laptop instead of a desktop.
- This means that Samuel bought a laptop; he did not buy a desktop.

Samuel did not buy a laptop; instead he bought a desktop.
- This means that Samuel bought a desktop; he did not buy a laptop.

This underlines the typical difference between instead and instead of:

a) X instead of Y: X was done, Y was not
b) X instead Y: X was not done, Y was done

In the sentence under consideration, Y was done (raise the cash levels in their portfolios). Hence, meaning-wise, it makes sense to use instead.

The grammatical difference between instead and instead of has been well covered by Abhishek already: instead is an Adverb (which means instead should be followed by a clause) and instead of is a preposition (well, because it ends with preposition of:)).

lotrgandalf wrote:
Also, please tell me why E is incorrect.

Again, even we don't explore the exact reason for choosing present perfect (have not been eager) over simple past (were eager), hopefully it is clear from the meaning of the sentence that two events happened in the same chronological sense in the last two months:

i) Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength
ii) Fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money

So, since both these events happened in the same chronological sense, both should be in the same tense. Since event i) is in the non-underlined portion (and is in present perfect), event ii) should also be in present perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of instead, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 08:41
Difference between instead and instead of?
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New post 25 Apr 2016, 09:13
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inakihernandez wrote:
Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the last two months, but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at the highest level in six months.

A: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at

B: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to

C: have not been eager at investing the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in thief portfolios to

D: were not eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels the cash levels in their portfolios at

E: were not eager at investing the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to


Between 'instead of' and 'instead', 'instead' should be used in this case, because 'instead of' changes the meaning completely. Using this, we can eliminate A, C and D.

Now, between B and E, usage of 'eager at' is unidiomatic. This leaves B as the answer.
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 10:05
Why instead of should not be preferred?
Can you please tell me the usage of instead?
Also, please tell me why E is incorrect.
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New post 25 Apr 2016, 10:16
Please help daagh

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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2016, 10:22
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lotrgandalf wrote:
Why instead of should not be preferred?
Can you please tell me the usage of instead?
Also, please tell me why E is incorrect.



As far as my understanding goes

Instead of is a Preposition - Generally the structure is X instead of Y (Noun / Noun Phrase )

Instead acts as an adverb - Modifying the actions of the fund Managers


Further option (B) maintains parallelism correctly -

Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the last two months, but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to the highest level in six months.

The action of the last 2 months is in the present context so, usage of the past tense will not be correct here....

Will definitely like to hear from daagh
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New post 25 Apr 2016, 21:34
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rahulkashyap wrote:
Please help daagh

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Hi,
Both instead and instead of are correct when used in their correct places..

here the meaning conveyed is --
but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at the highest level in six months.
But NOT X, instead of Y..
it basically conveys neither of two, whereas the Q is meant to convey any one of the two was done as against the other..


so two ways could ..
1) but X was done , instead of Y..
2) but X was not done, instead y was done..

Our answer is of the (2) type.. It is more to do with meaning than grammatical construction
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New post 23 Jun 2017, 03:29
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A: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at

B: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to

C: have not been eager at investing the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in thief portfolios to

D: were not eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels the cash levels in their portfolios at

E: were not eager at investing the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to


raise the cash level at the highest... ?? :roll:
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2017, 23:44
Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the last two months, but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at the highest level in six months.

A: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at

B: have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to

C: have not been eager at investing the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in thief portfolios to

D: were not eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels the cash levels in their portfolios at

E: were not eager at investing the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2018, 05:29
inakihernandez wrote:
Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the last two months, but fund managers have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at the highest level in six months.

(A) have not been eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios at

(B) have not been eager to invest the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to

(C) have not been eager at investing the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels in thief portfolios to

(D) were not eager to invest the new money, instead of preferring to raise the cash levels the cash levels in their portfolios at

(E) were not eager at investing the new money, instead preferring to raise the cash levels in their portfolios to


HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , sayantanc2k ,

In this SC Is Have & were both correct? Can you help me to analyze this SC. I understand there is difference b/w instead & instead of..
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 05:49
in the pattern of
main clause + comma+doing

a few , not all prepositions can stand before "doing" to make a specific sense. why. this is grammar rule.

"instead of" is not a prepostion, so, it can not stand before "doing". and even, if it is a preposition, it can not stand before "doing". many preposition, can not stand in this special position, for example, "because of" can not.

"instead of" is conjunction, which connect two similar entities. A instead of B. it is easy

"instead" is an adverb. it can modify verb, do-ed, or doing. this is simple.

so, in here. "instead of" is wrong.
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Re: Cash flows to stock and bond mutual funds have gained strength in the &nbs [#permalink] 29 Jul 2018, 05:49
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