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# Eminent economists believe that among the most

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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:00
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:13
First decision point is Reducing/ reduction.
Reducing is not parallel with high debt levels , defaulting loans which are noun phrases. So reduction would be the best choice.

Then it comes to option D and E.
Decrease in is parallel to the rest of the listed phrases.

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16 Jul 2019, 08:15
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing of unemployment rates means action is done by subject and this is not consistent with the list.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreases is wrongly used the 'reducing ' is parallel to the other items in the list though.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct parallelism followed and correct 'decrease' is used meaning, 'signs of looming ...ARE'
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Reduction in tax revenues is action done by a subject and thus is not parallel structure
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax is an action taken by someone and this is not parallel.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:18
This is a list anchored by nouns and noun pherases. Reducing is not appropriate because it is better communicated with the action noun reduction, this gets you down to e D and E. Similarly Decreasing should be in the the form decrease. E accomplished both of these things.

Hence, the correct answer is E

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:22
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Decreasing of unemployment is not correct.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Missing comma and decreases in unemployment is not correct verb form to be used.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct. Parallelism is correct in this statement.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Reduction in tax revenues is incorrect usage and decreasing of unemployment is also incorrect.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. reduction in tax revenues is incorrect form.
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 22:29
Parallelism -
high debt levels is a noun, so the others forming the parallel structure should also begin with nouns or noun forms.

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and action noun

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and verb

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and action noun

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
In this case 'decrease in' is better than 'decreasing of'

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct

Option E

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Originally posted by prashanths on 16 Jul 2019, 08:22.
Last edited by prashanths on 16 Jul 2019, 22:29, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:25
2

most prominent signs are....
obviously reducing does not fit, so, A,B and C can be eliminated.
out of D and E, decreasing of is no correct to express the sign. furthermore, looking at parallelism, reduction...and decrease is the right parallel structure.

so E it is

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:29
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Before moving to the answer choices, let's understand the meaning of the sentence.
According to Eminent economists - most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
1)high debt levels
2)reduction in tax revenues
3)decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

This is a classic question of parallelism and hence all the things mentioned must be parallel.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and a decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is the correct answer.

Another way for POE is: Decrease of incorrect. A decrease in is correct since it is referring to rates.

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:30
high debt levels, defaulting loans - These are the nouns mentioned in the sentence. The next part of the sentence should be parallel with this.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 10:55
1
Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

This is a parallelism question wherein all the parallel elements are noun forms
SPLIT : "reducing tax revenues" vs " reduction in tax revenues"
"reducing tax revenues" is wrong as it is not a noun phrase. Option A, B, C are out.
POE:
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Incorrect grammar
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> comma missing before and. Also incorrect parallelism
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Incorrect grammar
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--> Perfect Parallelism and also grammatically correct

Originally posted by techloverforever on 16 Jul 2019, 08:30.
Last edited by techloverforever on 16 Jul 2019, 10:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:41
E has to be the correct answer.

Among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are reduction and decrease - - - is parallel

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:42
1
Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Meaning: economists believe that the most prominent signs of looming recession are {a list of things…}

First of all, the intent is that a "reduction in tax revs" or a reduction in tax collected is a sign, not "reducing tax revs" which means for instance, tax reform, etc… (this could be a good thing for the economy); so, (A,B,C) out.

Secondly, "decreasing of rates" is nonsense, the intent is that another sign is a "decrease in" or a fall in unemployment rates; so (D) out.

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16 Jul 2019, 08:43
Here concept tested is of parallel structure, and idiom :
reducing tax revenues is wrong compared with reduction in tax revenues

A. reducing tax revenues and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels :
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

A,b,c are out for useage of reducing tax revenues
E is out for not maintaining parallel structure between reduction and decrease
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:45
C IMO

This is clearly a llism question. In the list, first two elements of the list are nouns - "high debt levels" and "defaulting loans". So upcoming elements have to be nouns as well. So "reducing tax revenue" is better than "reduction in tax revenue".

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

"decreasing of unemployment" is unidiomatic, "decrease in unemployment" is better.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

"decreases in unemployment" doesn't make much sense

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Correct

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"reduction in tax revenues" is worse off than "reducing tax revenues" to make list ll

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"reduction in tax revenues" is worse off than "reducing tax revenues" to make list ll
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:48
high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments (Modifier+noun), defaulting loans and other delinquencies (Modifier+noun+Others), reducing tax revenues (Verb+noun) , and decreasing of unemployment rates (Verb -due to are before start of parallel structure + preposition+ noun) to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect for parallelism error as explained above)
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as Option A (are reducing + are decreases)
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error - verb (are reducing tax revenues) affects parallel structure
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as option A (are decreasing)
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct

IMO E
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:51
Sentence is mentioning a list of signs of recession for an economy. Check for parallelism in each item along with other mistakes.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Here 'decreasing of' is not parallel to 'reducing' and 'defaulting' (which are acting as gerund)

B.reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Subject-verb agreement error here due to usage of singular verb 'decreases' for plural 'unemployment rates'.

C.reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Note that the 'list' starts with 'high debt levels' and 'decrease in' still follows the parallel structure.

D.reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Use of reduction(an adverb) is not parallel with other items in the list.

E.reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Same problem as option D.

Hence option C.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:52
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

The issue is with the list in the sentence. these lists must be parallel in structure and convey intended meaning

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Use of phrase " decreasing of unemployment" is incorrect. This acts as Modifier and hence distorts the meaning.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreasesin unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
use of the verb form - decreases- is also incorrect.
and - is not separated by comma.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Corrects all the errors. CORRECT CHOICE

D. reductionin tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Introduced a new error - reduction in tax revenues. reducing is appropriately used.
Maintains same error - decreasing

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Introduced a new error - reduction in tax revenues. reducing is appropriately used.

IMO C
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 04:18
3
1
The structure of the sentence: ...signs of looming recession are A, a1 and a2, B, and C.

A, B, and C are three signs of looming recession:
A - high debt levels
B - reduction in tax revenues
C - decrease in unemployment rates

a1 and a2 are two example of A.
a1 - defaulting loans
b1 - other delinquencies

In other words defaulting loans and other delinquencies are two examples of high debt levels. The first item A of the list is a regular noun. Accordingly, in order to maintain the parallelism we want B and C to be regular nouns too. With this in mind let’s analyze answer choices.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates

Both reducing and decreasing are not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable. Note that reducing tax revenues is not the same thing as declining tax revenues. Reducing is not a modifier as declining is. Reducing is a simple gerund here. Decrease is more close to noun than decreasing is.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Reducing is not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable. Decrease is uncountable when we talk about an amount of something.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Reducing is not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Decrease is more close to noun than decreasing is.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Both reduction and decrease are close to regular nouns and thus can be parallel to levels.

Hence E
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 16 Jul 2019, 08:56.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 17 Jul 2019, 04:18, edited 2 times in total.
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16 Jul 2019, 08:57

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Breaks the parallelism, reducing & decreasing are verbs & these are not parallel with the nouns mentioned earlier.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as A; though now decrease in unemployment rates is used as noun but reducing is still not parallel
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here it is reversed, reduction in tax revenues is now parallel but decreasing of unemployment rates is not.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 08:57
Lets get straight to the options

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Deacreasing of ...is a prepositional.pharse ,not parallel

Decreasing of unemployment rates is not idiomatic

Reducing tax revenue is also awkward ( seems they are reducing now )

Not A for sure

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

S-v error of decreases for rates ??

Then reducing tax again

Not B

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Everything is fine except "reducing "

Gone C

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Decreasing of rates ?? Again

Gone D

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Everything is good

All is fine

E for.me

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 08:57

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