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# Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead

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Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 20:14
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Question Stats:

51% (01:16) correct 49% (01:29) wrong based on 225 sessions

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Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above?

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis.

[Reveal] Spoiler:

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

This Inference problem demonstrates the importance of the "Must Be True" standard for GMAT inferences. With Inference problems, you want to attack the answer choices looking to exploit small flaws, and eliminate accordingly.

Choice A is too general and emphatic a conclusion. Even though vitamin C itself can help to prevent or treat these conditions, one cannot conclude that those who consume vitamin C will be less likely to contract those conditions. Consider a hypothetical: it could be that vitamin C alone would help, but that vitamin C is often present in sugar-containing foods and most people with high vitamin C levels are also guilty of a high sugar diet that leads to even quicker gum disease. Choice A may very well be true, but if you can create a hypothetical with a case in which it would not be true, you can eliminate it.

B is similar: it seems like it's probably true, since you're told that gingivitis "can lead to periodontitis" but you don't know that it's the only thing that can lead to the condition (as choice E suggests). Since you're unsure whether gingivitis is the only cause, or just one of multiple potential causes, you can eliminate both B and E.

Choice D is also not proven. There may be other plans that do not include vitamin C but that are extremely effective. Note the language in the last sentence of the stimulus, that vitamin C "can help to treat periodontitis." "Can help" is soft language that leaves plenty of room for another treatment program to be even more helpful.

Choice C is correct, in large part because of similarly soft language. If vitamin C can help treat the condition, that means that it must have helped at least some patients in treatment. That's an easy bar to get over, and since you know for a fact that vitamin C is helpful, you can clear that bar. Choice C is correct.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 21:36
[quote="ziyuen"]Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above?

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis.

i was torn between A and C ..
C is directly stated in the argument(last two word in the argument plays trick) but A need some level of assumption ...So i opted for C ...

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 23:04
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Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? (CLASSIFICATION: INFERENCE)

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
"Vitamin C can help prevent p", BUT what if there are other factors at play here?
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
"only" should catch your attention. this is an inference Q so be wary. not expressly written here. wrong.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
What is the only thing we know? that "studies show that diets high in vitamin C ...treat periodontitis". We know this is 100% true
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
same as A. What if there are other factors that come into play here? we don't know this for 100% certainty.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis. same as A. we don't know this for certain

i think main idea here is INFERENCE MEANS MUST BE 100% TRUE. there are a lot of tempting A/C here, but we're only expressly told a few things:
- G CAN LEAD to P.
- high quantity of vit C CAN HELP (not "will help" or "likely to help"...). (1) PREVENT G, and (2) TREAT P.

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Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 05:49
Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above?

A. People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
B. Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
C. Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
D. A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.E.
E. Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis.

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 06:17
This question has been posted already.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/gingivitis-i ... l#p1836464

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 06:20
gauravraos wrote:
Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above?

A. People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
B. Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
C. Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
D. A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.E.
E. Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis.

Topics merged. Please check the rules before posting.
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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 06:41
Option C.
As mentioned in second sentence, "studies show that diets high in Vit. C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis." -> treat periodontitis implies increasing vitamin C has helped at least some periodontitis patients in reducing the disease severity.

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 09:02
LakerFan24 wrote:
Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? (CLASSIFICATION: INFERENCE)

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
"Vitamin C can help prevent p", BUT what if there are other factors at play here?
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
"only" should catch your attention. this is an inference Q so be wary. not expressly written here. wrong.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
What is the only thing we know? that "studies show that diets high in vitamin C ...treat periodontitis". We know this is 100% true
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
same as A. What if there are other factors that come into play here? we don't know this for 100% certainty.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis. same as A. we don't know this for certain

i think main idea here is INFERENCE MEANS MUST BE 100% TRUE. there are a lot of tempting A/C here, but we're only expressly told a few things:
- G CAN LEAD to P.
- high quantity of vit C CAN HELP (not "will help" or "likely to help"...). (1) PREVENT G, and (2) TREAT P.

Nice explanation...deserve kudos...Could you please explain the option B again...is it eliminated due to the Only.

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 10:52
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Chemerical71 wrote:
LakerFan24 wrote:
Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? (CLASSIFICATION: INFERENCE)

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
"Vitamin C can help prevent p", BUT what if there are other factors at play here?
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
"only" should catch your attention. this is an inference Q so be wary. not expressly written here. wrong.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
What is the only thing we know? that "studies show that diets high in vitamin C ...treat periodontitis". We know this is 100% true
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
same as A. What if there are other factors that come into play here? we don't know this for 100% certainty.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis. same as A. we don't know this for certain

i think main idea here is INFERENCE MEANS MUST BE 100% TRUE. there are a lot of tempting A/C here, but we're only expressly told a few things:
- G CAN LEAD to P.
- high quantity of vit C CAN HELP (not "will help" or "likely to help"...). (1) PREVENT G, and (2) TREAT P.

Nice explanation...deserve kudos...Could you please explain the option B again...is it eliminated due to the Only.

Multiple reasons could lead to Periodontitis. In the stem, it is given that gingivitis lead to periodontitis. We don't know if that is the only cause. There could be other causes too. The question asks us to find out which of the following option is best supported by the statements above. Thus B won't be best suited. The key word is "only".

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2017, 07:47
warriorguy wrote:
Chemerical71 wrote:
LakerFan24 wrote:
Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead to periodontitis, a condition that leads to tissue destruction in the gums and even to tooth loss. Studies show that diets high in vitamin C can help to both prevent gingivitis and treat periodontitis.

Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? (CLASSIFICATION: INFERENCE)

(A) People whose diets are high in vitamin C are less likely to contract periodontitis than those whose diet are low in vitamin C.
"Vitamin C can help prevent p", BUT what if there are other factors at play here?
(B) Periodontitis is a condition only contracted by those who have previously contracted gingivitis.
"only" should catch your attention. this is an inference Q so be wary. not expressly written here. wrong.
(C) Increasing the amount of vitamin C in one’s diet has helped some periodontitis patients reduce the severity of that condition.
What is the only thing we know? that "studies show that diets high in vitamin C ...treat periodontitis". We know this is 100% true
(D) A periodontitis treatment plan that does not include vitamin C is less effective than a plan that does.
same as A. What if there are other factors that come into play here? we don't know this for 100% certainty.
(E) Some people suffering from periodontitis do so without having contracted gingivitis. same as A. we don't know this for certain

i think main idea here is INFERENCE MEANS MUST BE 100% TRUE. there are a lot of tempting A/C here, but we're only expressly told a few things:
- G CAN LEAD to P.
- high quantity of vit C CAN HELP (not "will help" or "likely to help"...). (1) PREVENT G, and (2) TREAT P.

Nice explanation...deserve kudos...Could you please explain the option B again...is it eliminated due to the Only.

Multiple reasons could lead to Periodontitis. In the stem, it is given that gingivitis lead to periodontitis. We don't know if that is the only cause. There could be other causes too. The question asks us to find out which of the following option is best supported by the statements above. Thus B won't be best suited. The key word is "only".

Official Explanation from Veritas Prep -

This Inference problem demonstrates the importance of the "Must Be True" standard for GMAT inferences. With Inference problems, you want to attack the answer choices looking to exploit small flaws, and eliminate accordingly.

Choice A is too general and emphatic a conclusion. Even though vitamin C itself can help to prevent or treat these conditions, one cannot conclude that those who consume vitamin C will be less likely to contract those conditions. Consider a hypothetical: it could be that vitamin C alone would help, but that vitamin C is often present in sugar-containing foods and most people with high vitamin C levels are also guilty of a high sugar diet that leads to even quicker gum disease. Choice A may very well be true, but if you can create a hypothetical with a case in which it would not be true, you can eliminate it.

B is similar: it seems like it's probably true, since you're told that gingivitis "can lead to periodontitis" but you don't know that it's the only thing that can lead to the condition (as choice E suggests). Since you're unsure whether gingivitis is the only cause, or just one of multiple potential causes, you can eliminate both B and E.

Choice D is also not proven. There may be other plans that do not include vitamin C but that are extremely effective. Note the language in the last sentence of the stimulus, that vitamin C "can help to treat periodontitis." "Can help" is soft language that leaves plenty of room for another treatment program to be even more helpful.

Choice C is correct, in large part because of similarly soft language. If vitamin C can help treat the condition, that means that it must have helped at least some patients in treatment. That's an easy bar to get over, and since you know for a fact that vitamin C is helpful, you can clear that bar. Choice C is correct.
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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2017, 11:18
I am confused why C is the answer. The passage states that it prevents gingivitis and treat periodontitis. Option C talks about reducing severity of periodontitis.

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Re: Gingivitis is a disease that occurs around the teeth and that can lead   [#permalink] 23 Oct 2017, 11:18
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