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Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes

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Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.


(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
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Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2016, 20:18
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nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


1) Split is LIKE vs SUCH AS
we are not comparing extreme weather changes with heavy rains and heat wave, so LIKE is wrong usage..
heat wave and heavy rains are EXAMPLE of weather changes, so SUCH AS is correct
ONLY D and E are left

2) D changes the meaning ...
It is not heavy flooding that cause rain BUT heavy rain that causes heavy flooding..
Also usage of present participle 'causing' is not correct in D

ans E
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2017, 16:57
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Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

Issues: Modifiers | Meaning

Analysis:
1. The clause "Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes" is an independent clause followed by 2 examples of extreme weather changes.
2. Looking at the options there is a split between "such as" and "like". "such as" should be used to enumerate examples.

I have highlighted the errors below:

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,
- If you remove "like the heavy rains...", the sentence reads ".... extreme weather changes, which ? and the heat wave". - Fragment

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,
- Structure issue which leads to non-sensical statement [same as (A)]

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,
- "like" used to introduce examples

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,
- "heavy flooding that led to rains" is non-sensical.

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,
- Corrects all the issues
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 01:11
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


Is this OG question. the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction. Is usage of which right in this question.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 14:00
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abrakadabra21 wrote:
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


Is this OG question. the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction. Is usage of which right in this question.


The modifier touch rule has some exceptions. Some essential modifiers, especially prepositional modifiers, may come in between a modifier and the noun it refers to.

Here the relative clause modifier " which was also the cause ......" refers to "heat wave". Another essential prepositional modifier " in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States" has dropped in between the clause modifier and the noun it refers to. Such usage is acceptable if the meaning is not ambiguous.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2016, 13:57
What about parallelism with "and" ?

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States


chetan2u wrote:
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


1) Split is LIKE vs SUCH AS
we are not comparing extreme weather changes with heavy rains and heat wave, so LIKE is wrong usage..
heat wave and heavy rains are EXAMPLE of weather changes, so SUCH AS is correct
ONLY D and E are left

2) D changes the meaning ...
It is not heavy flooding that cause rain BUT heavy rain that causes heavy flooding..
Also usage of present participle 'causing' is not correct in D

ans E
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2016, 07:26
cuhmoon wrote:
What about parallelism with "and" ?

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States



Parallelism is alright. Have you already come across the twice in, once out rule?

Both the structures below are correct:

"in the" / "United States" within the parallel structure (twice in): (in the Northeastern Unite States) AND (in the Midwestern United States)... correct.

"in the" / "United States" outside the parallel structure (once out): in the (Northeastern) AND (Midwestern) United States.... correct.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2016, 18:13
Aha.. Got this one.. Thanks!

But I was referring to parallelism with the previous sentences..

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States... should be parallel to something in the previous sentence,

Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

of is this a FANBOYS construction?

IC, AND, IC ?


sayantanc2k wrote:
cuhmoon wrote:
What about parallelism with "and" ?

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States



Parallelism is alright. Have you already come across the twice in, once out rule?

Both the structures below are correct:

"in the" / "United States" within the parallel structure (twice in): (in the Northeastern Unite States) AND (in the Midwestern United States)... correct.

"in the" / "United States" outside the parallel structure (once out): in the (Northeastern) AND (Midwestern) United States.... correct.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2016, 07:52
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cuhmoon wrote:
Aha.. Got this one.. Thanks!

But I was referring to parallelism with the previous sentences..

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States... should be parallel to something in the previous sentence,

Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

of is this a FANBOYS construction?

IC, AND, IC ?


sayantanc2k wrote:
cuhmoon wrote:
What about parallelism with "and" ?

and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States



Parallelism is alright. Have you already come across the twice in, once out rule?

Both the structures below are correct:

"in the" / "United States" within the parallel structure (twice in): (in the Northeastern Unite States) AND (in the Midwestern United States)... correct.

"in the" / "United States" outside the parallel structure (once out): in the (Northeastern) AND (Midwestern) United States.... correct.


The parallelism is between "extreme weather changes" and "the heat wave".
Global warming is said to be responsible for 2 things:
1. extreme weather changes
AND
2. the heat wave
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2017, 13:28
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


What this sentence is actually trying to convey, or express if you will, is that both a particular set of heavy rains and a particular heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States are examples of extreme weather changes that caused destruction. The term "such as" denotes an example " Graduate level exams such as the GMAT and LSAT are significantly more difficult than undergraduate level college entrance exams such as the SAT and ACT." Now, we can eliminate A, B and C. What is the difference between D and E? Answer choice D alters the original menaing of the sentence- the original sentence is written so as to convey that heavy rains caused a particular outcome.

Thus
"E"
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2017, 05:45
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,



I hate to spam the thread with my thoughts but this is for my disbelievers friends, who blindly believe "which" clause, as a nonessential modifier, refers to exact preceding word. Here which refers to the subject of previous clause which is "the heat wave".

Further, this is the non-underlined part of the sentence and hence cant be debated!

Something to keep in mind when looking for "which" and finding its correct preceding antecedent.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2017, 06:33
Imo E
such as is correct here as we are giving example .
D is wrong for the meaning
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New post 16 Jul 2017, 06:39
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Damn good explanation by anox; on the dot
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 05:35
mikemcgarry, @e-gmat, and GMATNinja

In choice E, comma+causing modifies heavy rains that led...... or the next action flooding?

Thanks
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2018, 01:46
Shiv2016 wrote:
mikemcgarry, @e-gmat, and GMATNinja

In choice E, comma+causing modifies heavy rains that led...... or the next action flooding?

Thanks


As per MGMAT SC guide Comma plus verb ing modifier i.e. an advrebial modifier

1. Will answer questions, such as HOW, WHEN, WHERE, or WHY an action occured and the answer will point to something else than noun.
2. Points to the right verb or clause as long as it is not structurally closer to some other verb or clause.


statement E - structure = Global warming is said ......, such as A {modifier 1}, and B {modifier 2}
In which A = Heavy Rains and B = Heat wave

Now lets us treat

A {Modifier 1} - this modifier itslef has two modifiers attached

Heavy rains [RELATIVE PRONOUN MODIFIER = that led to flooding....California ,causing....damages,]

Here " that = Heavy rains " so that we can write

Heavy Rains led to flooding ....... California , {COMMA+ING MODIFIER = , causing more than ...damages}

Now by asking question " How was damage caused " the answer would be "by flooding" not by the doer of the action i.e. Heavy Rains.
what happened when Heavy rains led to flooding ? the answer would be "it caused damage"

So in this case we can say that the comma+ing modifier is showing the result of an action. { cause - flooding ; result - damage }

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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 11:04
sayantanc2k wrote:
abrakadabra21 wrote:
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:3
Page: 247
Difficulty:



Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,


Is this OG question. the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction. Is usage of which right in this question.


The modifier touch rule has some exceptions. Some essential modifiers, especially prepositional modifiers, may come in between a modifier and the noun it refers to.

Here the relative clause modifier " which was also the cause ......" refers to "heat wave". Another essential prepositional modifier " in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States" has dropped in between the clause modifier and the noun it refers to. Such usage is acceptable if the meaning is not ambiguous.



my doubt is related to option D
the -ing noun modifier:is the touch rule exception allowed here too?
because referring to the head of the noun phrase "rains throughout the state of California " does make sense
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 01:20
Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes, which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $ 2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California, and the heat wave in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction.

(A) which, like the heavy rains that caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding throughout the state of California,

(B) which, like the heavy rains that throughout the state of California caused more than $2 billion in damages and led to flooding,

(A) & (B) have incorrect modifier "which" following ",".
"Extreme weather changes, which ... that caused" has no main verb supporting the sentence structure.

(C) like the heavy flooding that, because of rains throughout the state of California, caused more than $2 billion in damages,
Like is not used to introduce examples on GMAT.

(D) such as the heavy flooding that led to rains throughout the state of California causing more than $2 billion in damages,
distort the intended meaning. flooding does not lead to rain.

(E) such as the heavy rains that led to flooding throughout the state of California, causing more than $2 billion in damages,

If you take out all the modifiers, this is essentially what the sentence boils down to:
Global warming is responsible for extreme weather changes, such as the heavy rain, and the heat wave.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2018, 01:38
IMO E. However, just outside the box the non-underlined part of the question contains "Northeastern and Midwestern United States, which was also the cause of a great amount of damage and destruction." We know that comma followed by which modifies the closest noun before the comma. Isn't it meaning that USA is the cause of great amount of damage and destruction rather than heat wave itself? Correct me if um wrong.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 18:58
Can some please show more details on this ?
The phrase which, like the heavy rains incorrectly suggests that the extreme weather is something different from the heavy rains and the heat wave

OG explanation A   The relative pronoun, which, is without a verb. The phrase which, like the heavy rains incorrectly suggests that the extreme weather is something different from the heavy rains and the heat wave, and that each of these three phenomena separately caused damage and destruction.
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2019, 10:01
EducationAisle

To the comma + verb-ing example.

In option E, "causing" is modifying the closest dependent clause subject "heavy rains" not the main subject "global warming". Am I correct in my understanding? Verb-ing + comma modifies closest clause subject

Crazy how I thought I knew most rules, seems there are more rules!
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Re: Global warming is said to be responsible for extreme weather changes   [#permalink] 25 Aug 2019, 10:01

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