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GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s

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GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States. Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government; virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families, where the mother’s role was crucial. Thus,according to Kerber, motherhood became pivotal to the fate of the republic, providing justification for an unprecedented attention to female education. Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends. Historians’ reliance on Kerber’s “republican motherhood” thesis may have obscured the presence of these trends, making it difficult to determine to what extent the Revolution really changed women’s lives.

1) According to the passage, within the field of educational history, Thomas Woody’s 1929 work was

A. innovative because it relied on newspaper advertisements as evidence
B. exceptional in that it concentrated on the period before the American Revolution
C. unusual in that it focused on educational attitudes rather than on educational practices
D. controversial in its claims regarding educational opportunities for boys
E. atypical in that it examined the education of girls

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


2) According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?

A. Women assuming the sole responsibility for instilling political virtue in children
B. Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue
C. The family serving as one of the primary means by which children were imbued with political virtue
D. The family assuming many of the functions previously performed by schools and churches
E. Men an women assuming equal responsibility for the management of schools, churches, and the family

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?

A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


4) According to the passage, Kerber maintained that which of the following led to an increase in educational opportunities for women in the United States after the American Revolution?

A. An unprecedented demand by women for greater educational opportunities in the decades following the Revolution
B. A new political ideology calling for equality of opportunity between women and men in all aspects of life
C. A belief that the American educational system could be reformed only if women participated more fully in that system
D A belief that women needed to be educated if they were to contribute to the success of the nation’s new form of government
E. A recognition that women needed to be educated if they were to take an active role in the nation’s schools and churches.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2016, 03:42
Approx <10 mins, had some interruptions in between
Ans: 1. E
2. C
3. B :(
4. D

I thought I was wrong for Q3, but found to be the same answer as mine :o in other forum of GC pblished in 2007. Please clarify which one is right. Also there is no OA for Q1.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States. Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government; virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families, where the mother’s role was crucial. Thus,according to Kerber, motherhood became pivotal to the fate of the republic, providing justification for an unprecedented attention to female education.Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends. Historians’ reliance on Kerber’s “republican motherhood” thesis may have obscured the presence of these trends, making it difficult to determine to what extent the Revolution really changed women’s lives.

3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

Karber's Points from the passage:-
- Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States.

Woody’s points from the passage:-
- Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception.
- Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750.

With reference to the phrases highlighted above in red & green, the educational opportunities did exist for both boys and gurl prior to the revolution, but the surge of educational opportunities came only after the revolution. Which means women took interest in pursuing educational opportunities

The correct ans is A)
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States. Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government; virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families, where the mother’s role was crucial. Thus,according to Kerber, motherhood became pivotal to the fate of the republic, providing justification for an unprecedented attention to female education.Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends. Historians’ reliance on Kerber’s “republican motherhood” thesis may have obscured the presence of these trends, making it difficult to determine to what extent the Revolution really changed women’s lives.

3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

LINDA )
1) Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States.

Linda's study concluded that revolution changed the education system for women (revolution happened in 1775-1783)

THOMAS WOODY)
1) Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view
2) Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education.

Woody's study tells that changed started happening almost 20 years before the revolution and that revolution has not played an important role in more efforts to educate woman.

NOW DEPENDING ON HOW YOU INTERPRET THE QUESTION AS :- INFERENCE or MUST BE TRUE the answer will change

IF YOU THINK THE QUESTION IS ASKING YOU FIND INFERENCE THEN THE ANSWER IS A
REASON :- Education opportunities were equal before and after the revolution. But women only started getting educated after the Revolution. It means earlier woman were not interested in education but after war they become interested in education . Meaning that that women's interest changed in education during the 18th century.
ANSWER IS A:- The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century


IF YOU THINK THE QUESTION IS MUST BE TRUE THEN THE ANSWER IS B
REASON:- Because based on the information given in the passage it can be safely said that Linda considered [u]revolution
to be the main factor of increased woman education, whereas Woody does not consider revolution as the chief cause of woman education but only as an accelerator to the cause.
ANSWR IS B The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution.

I will finish this answer as soon as i figure what "suggests" means in the question .

p.s:- Just figured this question. Suggests here implies "INFERENCE" . THE CORRECT ANSWER IS A
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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 22 Aug 2016, 04:12, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 03:37
3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education

Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States.

So they were differed in their timeline (before or after the revolution) not the extent.
I think it should be D and not A.Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century Although I feel instead of during the eighteenth century, it should be "American Revolution"

I dont understand why A, when there is nothing about "women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century or not"

A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century : Interest of women is something not discussed.

if extent means timeframe of 18th century, B sound better than A &D.
an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States : Obviously that means support has increased

LogicGuru1
Suggest :"Inference" type of question
most likely to agree with : "Inference" type of question

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2016, 11:21
Could somebody please explain the first question from the passage?
and also explain the 3rd question in a better way.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2016, 17:50
LogicGuru1 wrote:
3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

LINDA )
1) Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States.

Linda's study concluded that revolution changed the education system for women (revolution happened in 1775-1783)

THOMAS WOODY)
1) Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view
2) Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education.

Woody's study tells that changed started happening almost 20 years before the revolution and that revolution has not played an important role in more efforts to educate woman.

NOW DEPENDING ON HOW YOU INTERPRET THE QUESTION AS :- INFERENCE or MUST BE TRUE the answer will change

IF YOU THINK THE QUESTION IS ASKING YOU FIND INFERENCE THEN THE ANSWER IS A
REASON :- Education opportunities were equal before and after the revolution. But women only started getting educated after the Revolution. It means earlier woman were not interested in education but after war they become interested in education . Meaning that that women's interest changed in education during the 18th century.
ANSWER IS A:- The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century


IF YOU THINK THE QUESTION IS MUST BE TRUE THEN THE ANSWER IS B
REASON:- Because based on the information given in the passage it can be safely said that Linda considered [u]revolution
to be the main factor of increased woman education, whereas Woody does not consider revolution as the chief cause of woman education but only as an accelerator to the cause.
ANSWR IS B The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution.

I will finish this answer as soon as i figure what "suggests" means in the question .

p.s:- Just figured this question. Suggests here implies "INFERENCE" . THE CORRECT ANSWER IS A


Hi,
Could you elaborate how did you com up with the conclusion that "suggest" in this question mean "inference"?
I marked B as answer with the same reasoning as yours in "must be true". Please help. Thanks in advance.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2016, 21:02
ThangLe wrote:
[
Hi,
Could you elaborate how did you com up with the conclusion that "suggest" in this question mean "inference"?
I marked B as answer with the same reasoning as yours in "must be true". Please help. Thanks in advance.


Well,
Because must be true question would not use the term "Suggest" . Suggest is use to ask about inference because
1) SUGGEST means some thing that "can be" derived at using the information which is essentially also the definition of "Inference" .
2) SUGGEST also means hidden conclusions or plausible but not explicitly mentioned secondary information that can be logically guestimated from the available info.

Based on these two criterion I finally think this is a inference question and therefore the correct answer is A and not B
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 09:21
6 mins. All correct. ECAD. 3rd question a bit tricky.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2016, 05:57
3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

In this Q, Are we not assuming quite a lot to infer Option A that women were not interested. But what if opportunities were not present.To an extent the passage hints at Option B at large. Experts, please clarify.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2017, 02:53
7 min 50 seconds , All correct
Guys OA for 3rd question is B not A . i have checked in the GmatPrep . :)

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Guys OA for 3rd question is B not A . i have checked in the GmatPrep . :)


Thanks, Nightmare007! B is in fact the answer to question #3. Let's compare the works of Kerber and Woody...

The passage states that, "Linda Kerber argued {...} that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States." Thus, according to Kerber, there were significantly more educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution than before the American Revolution. Why? Because "the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons". These statements imply that there was more support for educational opportunities for women after the revolution than before the revolution. Notice that Kerber does not say anything about women's interest in actually pursuing those educational opportunities; rather, Kerber's work only suggests that there were more educational opportunities for women and more support for educational opportunities for women after the revolution.

Woody, on the other hand, "found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750" (before the revolution), and he "also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution." Thus, according to Woody, educational opportunities for females and support (ie advocates) for educational opportunities for females increased before the revolution. Again, Woody does not say anything about women's interest in actually pursuing those educational opportunities, so choice A can be eliminated.

We can, however, infer that Kerber believed that support for educational opportunities for women increased after the revolution and that Woody believed that support for educational opportunities for women increased before the revolution. Thus, the passage suggests that Woody's work would describe a higher level of support for educational opportunities for girls (females) prior to the American Revolution than Kerber's work would describe. Thus, choice B is appropriate.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 02:50
Hi @Gmatninja, Experts,

IF the option D for the 3rd question mentioned the revolution instead of 18th century, it would have been correct, right ?

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 10:09
kunal1608 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Experts,

IF the option D for the 3rd question mentioned the revolution instead of 18th century, it would have been correct, right ?

Quote:
3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?

A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

Kerber argued that the change occurred because of the Revolution. "Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends." Woody believed that the shift in attitudes occurred before the Revolution (in the 1750s). So, yes, choice (D) could potentially be edited into a correct answer by referring to the Revolution instead of the 18th century.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 14:18
GMATNinja wrote:
kunal1608 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Experts,

IF the option D for the 3rd question mentioned the revolution instead of 18th century, it would have been correct, right ?

Quote:
3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?

A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government

Kerber argued that the change occurred because of the Revolution. "Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends." Woody believed that the shift in attitudes occurred before the Revolution (in the 1750s). So, yes, choice (D) could potentially be edited into a correct answer by referring to the Revolution instead of the 18th century.



Hello
I was just wrong about question 1, and I don't get it yet
could explain choice B&C why are wrong?

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s   [#permalink] 14 Oct 2017, 14:18
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