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Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American

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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 05:11
aceGMAT21 Thanks for reply +1 for you!!!

As can be read from the passage that “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States.

Does it not mean Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue.

Happy Prepping!!!
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2017, 17:05
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NandishSS wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, hazelnut,

For question

4) According to the passage, Kerber maintained that which of the following led to an increase in educational opportunities for women in the United States after the American Revolution?

Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government

Hence D. Am'I right?

That's right!

NandishSS wrote:
Can you please explain question

2) According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?

A. Women assuming the sole responsibility for instilling political virtue in children
B. Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue
C. The family serving as one of the primary means by which children were imbued with political virtue
D. The family assuming many of the functions previously performed by schools and churches
E. Men an women assuming equal responsibility for the management of schools, churches, and the family

Why not B?

Kerber argued that "virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families." The nation needed politically virtuous sons for its success, and those sons were to depend on family to become virtuous, hence choice (C).

As for choice (B), girls were not to become the PRIMARY focus. Even though unprecedented attention was given to female education, the main goal was to raise politically virtuous sons. In other words, even though girls may have been given unprecedented attention in schools, the passage suggests that boys (sons) were still the primary focus.

Furthermore, we are not told whether the educational system itself would emphasize political virtue. Rather, mothers were to emphasize political virtue. Sure, the political leaders wanted the girls to be educated, but being educated in general does not necessarily imply attending schools that emphasize political virtue.

Choice (C) is a better answer.
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2017, 19:15
7 mins in total, including almost 3 mins to read. All correct
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2018, 08:29
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New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

GMAT® Official Guide 2019

Practice Question
Question No.:
Online test bank question number : RC00349-02 ~RC00349-06

Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States. Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government; virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families, where the mother’s role was crucial. Thus,according to Kerber, motherhood became pivotal to the fate of the republic, providing justification for an unprecedented attention to female education.

Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends. Historians’ reliance on Kerber’s “republican motherhood” thesis may have obscured the presence of these trends, making it difficult to determine to what extent the Revolution really changed women’s lives.


1) According to the passage, within the field of educational history, Thomas Woody’s 1929 work was

(A) innovative because it relied on newspaper advertisements as evidence
(B) exceptional in that it concentrated on the period before the American Revolution
(C) unusual in that it focused on educational attitudes rather than on educational practices
(D) controversial in its claims regarding educational opportunities for boys
(E) atypical in that it examined the education of girls



2) According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?

(A) Women assuming the sole responsibility for instilling political virtue in children
(B) Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue
(C) The family serving as one of the primary means by which children were imbued with political virtue
(D) The family assuming many of the functions previously performed by schools and churches
(E) Men and women assuming equal responsibility for the management of schools, churches, and the family



3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?

(A) The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
(B) The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
(C) The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
(D) Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
(E) Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government



4) According to the passage, Kerber maintained that which of the following led to an increase in educational opportunities for women in the United States after the American Revolution?

(A) An unprecedented demand by women for greater educational opportunities in the decades following the Revolution
(B) A new political ideology calling for equality of opportunity between women and men in all aspects of life
(C) A belief that the American educational system could be reformed only if women participated more fully in that system
(D) A belief that women needed to be educated if they were to contribute to the success of the nation’s new form of government
(E) A recognition that women needed to be educated if they were to take an active role in the nation’s schools and churches



5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.



Any one pls xplain 1&5
TIA
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2018, 22:29
souvik101990 wrote:
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

GMAT® Official Guide 2019

Practice Question
Question No.:
Online test bank question number : RC00349-02 ~RC00349-06

Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American Revolution (1775-1783), an ideology of “republican motherhood” resulted in a surge of educational opportunities for women in the United States. Kerber maintained that the leaders of the new nation wanted women to be educated in order to raise politically virtuous sons. A virtuous citizenry was considered essential to the success of the country’s republican form of government; virtue was to be instilled not only by churches and schools, but by families, where the mother’s role was crucial. Thus,according to Kerber, motherhood became pivotal to the fate of the republic, providing justification for an unprecedented attention to female education.

Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends. Historians’ reliance on Kerber’s “republican motherhood” thesis may have obscured the presence of these trends, making it difficult to determine to what extent the Revolution really changed women’s lives.


1) According to the passage, within the field of educational history, Thomas Woody’s 1929 work was

(A) innovative because it relied on newspaper advertisements as evidence
(B) exceptional in that it concentrated on the period before the American Revolution
(C) unusual in that it focused on educational attitudes rather than on educational practices
(D) controversial in its claims regarding educational opportunities for boys
(E) atypical in that it examined the education of girls



2) According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?

(A) Women assuming the sole responsibility for instilling political virtue in children
(B) Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue
(C) The family serving as one of the primary means by which children were imbued with political virtue
(D) The family assuming many of the functions previously performed by schools and churches
(E) Men and women assuming equal responsibility for the management of schools, churches, and the family



3) The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?

(A) The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century
(B) The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution
(C) The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution
(D) Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century
(E) Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government



4) According to the passage, Kerber maintained that which of the following led to an increase in educational opportunities for women in the United States after the American Revolution?

(A) An unprecedented demand by women for greater educational opportunities in the decades following the Revolution
(B) A new political ideology calling for equality of opportunity between women and men in all aspects of life
(C) A belief that the American educational system could be reformed only if women participated more fully in that system
(D) A belief that women needed to be educated if they were to contribute to the success of the nation’s new form of government
(E) A recognition that women needed to be educated if they were to take an active role in the nation’s schools and churches



5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.





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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 04:48
5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.

Introduction of the republican motherhood thesis dramatically changed historiography. Prior to Kerber’s work, educational historians barely mentioned women and girls; Thomas Woody’s 1929 work is the notable exception. Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution. Woody’s evidence challenges the notion that the Revolution changed attitudes regarding female education, although it may have accelerated earlier trends.

I we read the highlighted part then we can infer only A from the paragraph.

A correct
B Not the essay did not persuade educators to offer greater educational opportunities.
C These ideas we already present before the revolution.
D There is no information about this in the passage.
E This is tricky we are given information about women education but still we do know whether these ideas were controversial.
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2018, 20:58
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Can you please Q5 , I marked B as OA as there was increase in the opportunity so most probably teachers were persuaded by the essay
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2018, 22:33
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Regarding Q5;

5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realised until after the American Revolution.

Please can you help the key differentiators between A & C that would have helped me/all choose A over C.

I chose C because passage sentence referenced that practical education for women had many " advocates before the revolution" , while as C though quite close to the context of what' being conveyed i.e. ideas for women' eduction and realisation after the revolution, somehow I found that right answer should speak about the ideas and support the cause had and how it was realised later.

Please do advice, if you believe rational shared by me needs correction. Thank You :)
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 11:05
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for qustion 5 why not option c?
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 04:45
1
According to the passage, within the field of educational history, Thomas Woody’s 1929 work was
A. innovative because it relied on newspaper advertisements as evidence … when you call something innovative, you’re targeting the approach behind it … the approach behind woody’s work did not set it apart as per the passage … the subjects of his study (women and girls) did
B. exceptional in that it concentrated on the period before the American Revolution … it indeed was an exception with regards to the field at the time, however, it was the subjects of his study that set it apart rather than the period studied
C. unusual in that it focused on educational attitudes rather than on educational practices … nothing in the passage confirms that the usual norm was to focus on the educational practices
D. controversial in its claims regarding educational opportunities for boys … Woody’s work having sparked off a controversy is probably the least inferable option
E. atypical in that it examined the education of girls … the answer choice mentions the subjects of his work / study … perfectly inferred from passage … CORRECT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?
A. Women assuming the sole (meaning them and them alone … extreme - AVOID) responsibility for instilling political virtue in children … passage confirm that mothers (not women in general) were an additional source of instilling virtue
B. Girls becoming the primary focus of a reformed educational system that emphasized political virtue … the educational system was never reformed as per the passage … the attention to female education saw an unprecedented rise as per the passage … however, girls becoming the primary focus and surpassing the boys regarding the focus give to them is not confirmed from the passage
C. The family serving as one of the primary means by which children were imbued with political virtue … ‘one of the’ confirms the family to serve as an additional source to the ones already existing … pretty decent match of what passage say … CORRECT
D. The family assuming many of the functions previously performed by schools and churches … ‘many of the functions’ is something not confirmed from the passage … the passage mentions the family to start acting as an additional source NOT taking over the roles of schools and churches
E. Men and women assuming equal responsibility for the management of schools, churches, and the family … neither the men nor the women are seen assuming any such responsibility anywhere in the passage
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The passage suggests that, with regard to the history of women’s education in the United States, Kerber’s work differs from Woody’s primarily concerning which of the following?
A. The extent to which women were interested in pursuing educational opportunities in the eighteenth century … the only interest the passage concerns itself with is in getting the women educated at the government’s end … the interest of the women themselves is not a part of the passage
B. The extent of the support for educational opportunities for girls prior to the American Revolution … passage confirm that while Woody believed such support had begun as early as the 1750s, Linda was of the opinion that the support only came into being post the revolution implying Linda to be of the opinion that such support had little existence prior to the revolution … perfectly inferable … CORRECT
C. The extent of public resistance to educational opportunities for women after the American Revolution … public or any resistance for that matter is never an issue raised in the passage
D. Whether attitudes toward women’s educational opportunities changed during the eighteenth century … Had the two differed from each other regarding this exact point, Linda would have said NOT changed in response to Woody having said changed or vice versa … however note that the passage shows both of them to agree on the point that attitudes did change during the eighteenth century (the 1700s) … the only difference being Linda saying only after the American revolution (i.e. after 1783) and Woody saying from 1750 something
E. Whether women needed to be educated in order to contribute to the success of a republican form of government … the timeline of when the answer to the this option was realized as a YES answer is what the two differed on … not whether the answer to the option is YES or NO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
According to the passage, Kerber maintained that which of the following led to an increase in educational opportunities for women in the United States after the American Revolution?
A. An unprecedented demand by women For greater educational opportunities in the decades following the Revolution … the only thing unprecedented in the passage is the attention to female education which according to the passage is a part of the effect not cause … women are never seen to put forward any demand in the passage
B. A new political ideology calling for equality of opportunity between women and men in all aspects (specific to general) of life … the ideology isn’t inclined towards inequality as much as it is towards ensuring a virtuous republican representation at the government level for which female education was seen as a must
C. A belief that the American educational system could be reformed only if women participated more fully in that system … the educational system is neither mentioned nor is the point of discussion here in the passage … the success of the republican form of government is … for ‘more’ to be justified in this option there has to be a mention of some measure of participation in the passage … there is none
D. A belief that women needed to be educated if they were to contribute to the success of the nation’s new form of government … Initial part of passage perfectly summarized by this option … there is no such word in the option that may not be verified from the content of the passage … CORRECT
E. A recognition that women needed to be educated if they were to take an active role in the nation’s schools and churches … their education was seen necessary for raising politically virtuous sons … no such role (active or passive) is confirmed from the passage
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 05:20
proabhinav wrote:
Regarding Q5;

5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realised until after the American Revolution.

Please can you help the key differentiators between A & C that would have helped me/all choose A over C.

I chose C because passage sentence referenced that practical education for women had many " advocates before the revolution" , while as C though quite close to the context of what' being conveyed i.e. ideas for women' eduction and realisation after the revolution, somehow I found that right answer should speak about the ideas and support the cause had and how it was realised later.

Please do advice, if you believe rational shared by me needs correction. Thank You :)


Compare: "wait until tomorrow" with "wait until after tomorrow". This is because a period of time is defined by two events: its beginning and end. And "until" works in such a way that "until tomorrow" is referenced the start of tomorrow, while "after tomorrow" is referenced to tomorrow's end.
This is a language trap for non-natives. :shocked
C says that ideas about women's education would not be realised upto end of american revolution. It's Opposite - Eliminate
A says that it expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750. = Correct
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 07:13
teaserbae wrote:
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Can you please Q5 , I marked B as OA as there was increase in the opportunity so most probably teachers were persuaded by the essay

vp680 wrote:
for qustion 5 why not option c?

proabhinav wrote:
Regarding Q5;

Please can you help the key differentiators between A & C that would have helped me/all choose A over C.

I chose C because passage sentence referenced that practical education for women had many " advocates before the revolution" , while as C though quite close to the context of what' being conveyed i.e. ideas for women' eduction and realisation after the revolution, somehow I found that right answer should speak about the ideas and support the cause had and how it was realised later.

Please do advice, if you believe rational shared by me needs correction. Thank You :)

Looks like question #5 is causing lots of pain. Here it is again:
Quote:
5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

Remember that in this passage, the author is analyzing the views of two different writers. In paragraph 1, the author tells us about Kerber's work in order to explain the "republican motherhood" thesis. In paragraph 2, the author tells us about Woody's work in order to question historians' reliance on that thesis.

This question is asking us which of the following five claims Woody (not Kerber, not the author) would have agreed with, regarding "An Essay on Woman" (not the thesis of republican motherhood in general). We'll eliminate any choice that doesn't specifically line up with Woody's view regarding this specific essay.

And what was Woody's view?

    "Examining newspaper advertisements for academies, Woody found that educational opportunities increased for both girls and boys around 1750. Pointing to “An Essay on Woman” (1753) as reflecting a shift in view, Woody also claimed that practical education for females had many advocates before the Revolution."

OK, Woody! Time for POE.

Quote:
(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.

(A) seems to match Woody's view in a very straightforward way. After all, Woody found that educational opportunities did increase for both genders around 1750. Woody also pointed to the essay (which was published in 1753) as reflecting a shift in view (i.e, a change in attitude) with regards to practical education for females. We'll keep this around until we find a better choice or eliminate everything else.

Quote:
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.

There's nothing to support the claim that Woody saw the essay this way. When describing Woody's claims, the author doesn't suggest any persuasive impact of the essay on educators and what those educators offered during the 1750s. Sure, Woody points to many advocates for practical education, but this is quite different from describing literal educators. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.

(C) sounds good, but what exactly is it saying?

  • The essay articulated ideas about women's education. Fair enough.
  • These ideas would not be realized until after the American Revolution. Wait, what?

This totally clashes with what Woody claimed: That educational opportunities began increasing around 1750, that this shift in view was reflected by the essay in 1753, and that practical education had many advocates before the Revolution. Choice (C) paints a different picture, where no concrete change took place until at least 1783. That might have been in line with Kerber's thesis, but it's not what Woody believed.

That's why we eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.

Nope. Nothing in the passage tells us that Woody viewed the essay as "one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education." Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.

This very well could be true, but there's absolutely nothing in the passage that gives us a clue to how controversial Woody's ideas were. We only know that Woody's ideas were a notable exception among educational historians. Eliminate (E).

(A) is a boring choice, but it's the best one available. Every other choice either contradicts the passage, focuses on the wrong point of view, or makes a statement that drifts so far form the passage that it can't be supported.

I hope this helps!
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Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 03:00
8:47.
4/5
Got the first one wrong.Chose B. Alas.!! That was a trap. Passage mentions exception not exceptional.!!
Is this 700+ passage?
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2018, 03:30
5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.

Can someone please help me with this one? Why B is not right?
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 17:06
Rebekah wrote:
5) The passage suggests that Woody would have agreed with which of the following claims regarding “An Essay on Woman”?

(A) It expressed attitudes concerning women's education that were reflected in new educational opportunities for women after 1750.
(B) It persuaded educators to offer greater educational opportunities to women in the 1750s.
(C) It articulated ideas about women's education that would not be realized until after the American Revolution.
(D) It offered one of the most original arguments in favor of women's education in the United States in the eighteenth century.
(E) It presented views about women's education that were still controversial in Woody's own time.

Can someone please help me with this one? Why B is not right?

Rebekah, have you tried reviewing this post? Let us know if that doesn't help.
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All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply?
Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja in your post. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

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How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
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Re: Linda Kerber argued in the mid-1980’s that after the American &nbs [#permalink] 10 Nov 2018, 17:06

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