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Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate

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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2019, 17:54
Hi,

Could anyone please tell that whether the construction "Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled" construction correct... By that I mean is that there are two clauses connected as such without any conjunction or anything
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2019, 01:20
Wonderwoman31 wrote:
Hi,

Could anyone please tell that whether the construction "Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled" construction correct... By that I mean is that there are two clauses connected as such without any conjunction or anything
That part is fine. What's happening there is that you have a that that has been assumed away (this is very common).

Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled...
is the same as
Myriad Genetics feels that it is entitled...

Here we have a dependent clause introduced by that. This entire that clause tells us what MG feels. Another quick example:

I feel you are ready to take the exam.
is the same as
I feel that you are ready to take the exam.
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2019, 17:02
Wonderwoman31 wrote:
Hi,

Could anyone please tell that whether the construction "Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled" construction correct... By that I mean is that there are two clauses connected as such without any conjunction or anything



"that" is not necessary for few verbs such as tell, feel etc. These types of verbs are very few.
e.g. He told me he will come back
e.g. I felt he will come back

It is necessary for most of other verbs such as advise, state etc.
e.g. she stated that she saw the accused at the spot
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2019, 01:31
(A) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound - correct

(B) Having had extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound - them is not parallel to "its patent" as one is singular other is plural

(C) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate it as a research subject, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound - Two types of genes are extracted, hence it should be "isolate them and not it"

(D) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patents on the new DNA compounds - Same as B

(E) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels entitled to its patents on the new DNA compound - Same as B
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2019, 18:40
I understand 'B' is wrong clearly because of the plural "subjects" and thus breaks the parallelism. But one of the reasons above also says that 'Having Had ' is incorrect. Can someone explain why it is wrong? and when to use 'Having Had' ?
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 07:41
thelosthippie wrote:
Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound, but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.

(A) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound

(B) Having had extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound

(C) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate it as a research subject, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound

(D) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patents on the new DNA compounds

(E) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels entitled to its patents on the new DNA compound


MentorTutoring

Can you pls provide a better explanation for option A?
Though I selected E as the answer, I do agree that the use of plural patents is not correct.

In A in the non-underlined portion we are given "but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature."

"it" should logically refer to the patent for the compound and not the company, but in the underlined portion "it" and "its" is referring to the company

This made me doubt A as the answer choice as the same pronoun is referring to different antecedents

Thanks in advance!
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Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 12:48
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GDT wrote:
MentorTutoring

Can you pls provide a better explanation for option A?
Though I selected E as the answer, I do agree that the use of plural patents is not correct.

In A in the non-underlined portion we are given "but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature."

"it" should logically refer to the patent for the compound and not the company, but in the underlined portion "it" and "its" is referring to the company

This made me doubt A as the answer choice as the same pronoun is referring to different antecedents

Thanks in advance!

Hello again, GDT, and thank you for tagging me. I narrowed the choices down to (A) or (E), and of the two, the former is harder to argue against, in terms of meaning. Compare the differences across the full sentence:

thelosthippie wrote:
(A)Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound, but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.
(E) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels entitled to its patents on the new DNA compound, but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.


Split #1: A research subject versus research subjects
Analysis--Although I prefer the latter to agree with the plural genes, the nature of the research is not clear to me from the sentence. It could be that the research is centered exclusively on how the two genes interact in one series of experiments, thereby justifying a singular subject; it could also be true that each gene was isolated for independent study across different types of experiments, in which case I would argue for the plural subjects. Since research is an umbrella term, kind of like merchandise, which could refer to a good or multiple goods, I cannot make any headway here. This is a draw, in my book. Count: (A) = 0.5, (E) = 0.5.

Split #2: feels versus now feels
Analysis--Why do we need now? This seemed superfluous to me as soon as I read it. Does now indicate that Myriad Genetics did not feel entitled before? My vote is for (A). Count: (A) = 1.5, (E) = 0.5.

Split #3: it is entitled versus entitled
Analysis--I generally favor fewer words, since the GMAT™ prefers the same, when it comes to conveying the vital meaning of the sentence. Is it okay to say that Myriad Genetics feels entitled, as opposed to saying that Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled? Although four out of five answer choices opt for the extra words, I cannot convince myself that the more concise version is wrong. Both answer choices have a company feeling something. I prefer (E). Count: (A) = 1.5, (E) = 1.5.

Split #4: patent versus patents
Analysis--It all comes down to this one to break the deadlock. The fact of the matter is that we cannot negotiate with petitioners... are contesting it in the non-underlined part of the sentence. So to what does this it refer? I would expect the petitioners to dispute a decision. If you argue for patent, then you have to go with (A). But there is another interpretation. You could argue that petitioners were contesting the company instead, Myriad Genetics. The non-underlined portion could then be interpreted to read,

but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting Myriad Genetics on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.

Not to be overlooked here is a company. Sometimes a pronoun can occur in a sentence ahead of its own referent, although it is more typical to do so in an introductory phrase or clause. Furthermore, to contest a person or some other noun is fine, even if people do not exactly walk around saying, "Tyson Fury wants to contest Deontay Wilder in a third bout." Finally, how can we prove conclusively that Myriad Genetics took out either one patent or multiple patents, other than to point at this singular instance of it at the end of the sentence? If I wanted to play it safe, I would go with (A), but I cannot disprove the latter interpretation I have outlined above. Count: (A) = 2.0, (E) = 2.0.

There you have it. I think either (A) or (E) is justifiable on grammatical or semantic grounds. An extra now in (E) is not enough for me to see the answer choice off. When in doubt, I stress a cautious approach, so (A) is the better of the two answers in my view, the harder answer to argue against, but I am not going to tell anyone that (E) is wrong for the reason stated in the OE.

Just my two cents. I hope you find them worth the read.

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Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 15:19
Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound, but petitioners in a Supreme Court case are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.

Too many pronouns here, I am confused. What are "them","it", and "it" referring to? Let's rephrase the sentence to make it clear:

Having extracted the genes from human DNA to isolate "the genes" as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels "Myriad Genetics" is entitled to "Myriad Genetics' " patent on the new DNA compound, but petitioners in SC case are contesting "the patent" on the grounds that a company cannot copy right nature.

Other than the confusion, I don't know what is wrong with the sentence. So let's check the answer choice and figure out.

Quote:

(A) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as a research subject, Myriad Genetics feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound


Keep A for now since I don't see the clear errors yet.

Quote:
(B) Having had extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound


Hmmmmm. All pronouns are the same as A. What is going on here? "having had extracted" - Why do we use past perfect tense here? The whole sentence uses only present tense. This can't be right. B is out.

Quote:
(C) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate it as a research subject, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patent on the new DNA compound


Yay, I found the error. "It" can't refer back to "the genes. C is out.

Quote:

(D) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels it is entitled to its patents on the new DNA compounds


Yay another one, given "it" is referring back to "patents". D is out.

Quote:

(E) Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate them as research subjects, Myriad Genetics now feels entitled to its patents on the new DNA compound


Same as D. E is out.

So only A is left. A must be the correct answer.
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 22:45
I am absolutely confused between E and A. I marked E because to me, BRCA1 and BRCA2 felt like 2 different research subjects. But the OE suggests that the difference between A and E is because of the usage of "its patents" which is plural vis-a-vis "its patent" which is singular.

But doesn't that make an assumption that only 1 patent has been filed in relation to the new compound? Surely MG could have filed multiple patents? How strong is that split for elimination?
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2020, 14:12
ravigupta2912 wrote:
I am absolutely confused between E and A. I marked E because to me, BRCA1 and BRCA2 felt like 2 different research subjects. But the OE suggests that the difference between A and E is because of the usage of "its patents" which is plural vis-a-vis "its patent" which is singular.

But doesn't that make an assumption that only 1 patent has been filed in relation to the new compound? Surely MG could have filed multiple patents? How strong is that split for elimination?


If you pay attention to the non-underline portion, "petitioners are contesting it on the grounds that a company cannot copyright nature.", you will ask yourself that what what the petitioners are contesting? Logically, They are contesting the patent. Since the author use "it", then patent must be singular.

Does that make sense to you?
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Re: Having extracted the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from human DNA to isolate   [#permalink] 08 Apr 2020, 14:12

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