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Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o

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Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 167 ~ 174
Page: 374

Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War, but it uses more soldiers’ letters and diaries including rare material from Black soldiers—and concentrates more intensely on Black-White relations in Black regiments than do any of its predecessors. Glatthaar’s title expresses his thesis: loyalty, friendship, and respect among White officers and Black soldiers were fostered by the mutual dangers they faced in combat.

Glatthaar accurately describes the government's discriminatory treatment of Black soldiers in pay, promotion, medical care, and job assignments, appropriately emphasizing the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the opportunity to fight. That chance remained limited throughout the war by army policies that kept most Black units serving in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor battalions. Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer in this war, was twice as great. Despite these obstacles, the courage and effectiveness of several Black units in combat won increasing respect from initially skeptical or hostile White soldiers. As one White officer put it, “they have fought their way into the respect of all the army.”

In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudinal change, however, Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men who became officers in Black regiments. “Prior to the war,” he writes of these men, “virtually all of them held powerful racial prejudices.” While perhaps true of those officers who joined Black units for promotion or other self-serving motives, this statement misrepresents the attitudes of the many abolitionists who became officers in Black regiments. Having spent years fighting against the race prejudice endemic in American society, they participated eagerly in this military experiment, which they hoped would help African Americans achieve freedom and postwar civil equality. By current standards of racial egalitarianism, these men's paternalism toward African Americans was racist. But to call their feelings “powerful racial prejudices” is to indulge in generational chauvinism—to judge past eras by present standards.


1. The passage as a whole can best be characterized as which of the following?

(A) An evaluation of a scholarly study
(B) A description of an attitudinal change
(C) A discussion of an analytical defect
(D) An analysis of the causes of a phenomenon
(E) An argument in favor of revising a view



2. According to the author, which of the following is true of Glatthaar's forged in battle compared with previous studies on the same topic?

(A) It is more reliable and presents a more complete picture of the historical events on which it concentrates than do previous studies.
(B) It uses more of a particular kind of source material and focuses more closely on a particular aspect of the topic than do previous studies.
(C) It contains some unsupported generalizations, but it rightly emphasizes a theme ignored by most previous studies.
(D) It surpasses previous studies on the same topic in that it accurately describes conditions often neglected by those studies.
(E) It makes skillful use of supporting evidence to illustrate a subtle trend that previous studies have failed to detect.



3. The author implies that the title of Glatthaar's book refers specifically to which of the following?

(A) The sense of pride and accomplishment that Black soldiers increasingly felt as a result of their Civil War experiences
(B) The civil equality that African Americans achieved after the Civil War, partly as a result of their use of organizational skills honed by combat
(C) The changes in discriminatory army policies that were made as a direct result of the performance of Black combat units during the Civil War
(D) The improved interracial relations that were formed by the races' facing of common dangers and their waging of a common fight during the Civil War
(E) The standards of racial egalitarianism that came to be adopted as a result of White Civil War veterans' repudiation of the previous racism



4. The passage mentions which of the following as an important theme that receives special emphasis in Glatthaar's book?

(A) The attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units
(B) The struggle of black units to get combat assignments
(C) The consequences of the poor medical care received by Black soldiers
(D) The motives of officers serving in Black units
(E) The discrimination that Black soldiers faced when trying for promotions



5. The passage suggests that which of the following was true of Black units' disease mortality rates in the Civil War?

(A) They were almost as high as the combat mortality rates of white units.
(B) They resulted in part from the relative inexperience of these units when in combat.
(C) They were especially high because of the nature of these units' usual duty assignments.
(D) They resulted in extremely high overall casualty rates in black combat units.
(E) They exacerbated the morale problems that were caused by the army's discriminatory policies.



6. The author of the passage quotes the White officer in lines 23-24 [As one White officer put it, “they have fought their way into the respect of all the army.”] primarily in order to provide evidence to support the contention that

(A) virtually all White officers initially had hostile attitudes toward Black soldiers
(B) Black soldiers were often forced to defend themselves from physical attacks initiated by soldiers from White units
(C) the combat performance of Black units changed the attitudes of white soldiers toward Black soldiers
(D) White units paid especially careful attention to the performance of Black units in battle
(E) respect in the army as a whole was accorded only to those units, whether Black or White, that performed well in battle



7. Which of the following best describes the kind of error attributed to Glatthaar in lines 25-28 [In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudinal change, however, Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men who became officers in Black regiments.]?

(A) Insisting on an unwarranted distinction between two groups of individuals in order to render an argument concerning them internally consistent
(B) Supporting an argument in favor of a given interpretation of a situation with evidence that is not particularly relevant to the situation
(C) Presenting a distorted view of the motives of certain individuals in order to provide grounds for a negative evaluation of their actions
(D) Describing the conditions prevailing before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those prevailing after the event appears more striking than it actually is
(E) Asserting that a given event is caused by another event merely because the other event occurred before the given event occurred



8. Which of the following actions can best be described as indulging in "generational chauvinism" (lines 40-41) as that practice is defined in the passage?

(A) Condemning a present-day monarch merely because many monarchs have been tyrannical in the past.
(B) Clinging to the formal standards of politeness common in one's youth to such a degree that any relaxation of those standards is intolerable
(C) Questioning the accuracy of a report written by an employee merely because of the employee's gender.
(D) Deriding the superstitions accepted as "science" in past eras without acknowledging the prevalence of irrational beliefs today.
(E) Labeling a nineteenth-century politician as "corrupt" for engaging in once-acceptable practices considered intolerable today.


Originally posted by surat on 18 Mar 2004, 05:49.
Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Nov 2017, 04:45, edited 5 times in total.
Formatted the Q and added OA
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Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 18:17
3

QUESTION 7:



Quote:
7. Which of the following best describes the kind of error attributed to Glatthaar in lines 25-28 [In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudinal change, however, Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men who became officers in Black regiments.]?

(A) Insisting on an unwarranted distinction between two groups of individuals in order to render an argument concerning them internally consistent
(B) Supporting an argument in favor of a given interpretation of a situation with evidence that is not particularly relevant to the situation
(C) Presenting a distorted view of the motives of certain individuals in order to provide grounds for a negative evaluation of their actions
(D) Describing the conditions prevailing before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those prevailing after the event appears more striking than it actually is
(E) Asserting that a given event is caused by another event merely because the other event occurred before the given event occurred

lichting wrote:
Can anyone please give me detail explaination of Q7?
I can locate the relevant information - the "exaggerate" part but still don't know the meaning of option D in Q7. Though I could choose it by eliminating the other options

First of all, great job using process of elimination! If you've found four wrong answers, then you've found the correct answer :)

Glatthaar suggests that the white officers had "powerful racial prejudices" before the war and that fighting alongside black soldiers during the war changed those prejudices (the black soldiers "fought their way into the respect of all the army"). In other words, Glatthaar suggests that the white officers were very racist before the war and much less racist after the war.

But the author suggests that Glatthaar is exaggerating this change. The author says that the pre-war racism of many white officers was not as "powerful" a Glatthaar suggests. Many of those white officers were abolitionists who spent years fighting AGAINST racial prejudice even before the war started. Those officers may have gained respect for the black units as soldiers, but that doesn't necessarily mean that the officers went from being racist to not being racist. They may not have been very racist before the war even started.

Quote:
(D) Describing the conditions prevailing before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those prevailing after the event appears more striking than it actually is

Thus, Glatthaar describes the conditions prevailing before the war (i.e. the prewar racism of white officers) in such a way that the contrast with their POST-war racism seems more striking (i.e. more noticeable) than it actually was.


QUESTION 1:



anish823 wrote:
How do we know that its referring to a scholarly study?

I assume you are referring to the first question...

Quote:
1. The passage as a whole can best be characterized as which of the following?

(A) An evaluation of a scholarly study
(B) A description of an attitudinal change
(C) A discussion of an analytical defect
(D) An analysis of the causes of a phenomenon
(E) An argument in favor of revising a view

There are many clues from which we can infer that this is a scholarly study. For example, in the first sentence, the author refers to Glatthaar's work as an "excellent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War." Later in the first paragraph the author says that, "Glatthaar’s title expresses his thesis" (a "thesis" could surely be the topic of a scholarly study).

We are also told that Glatthaar's work "concentrates more intensely on Black-White relations in Black regiments than do any of its predecessors." So while the passage never explicitly refers to the work as a "scholarly study", it is clear that the work examines race relations in the Civil War era. This certainly sounds like a scholarly (or "academic") study.

More importantly, choice (A) is better than any of the other choices, which you should try to eliminate using POE.

QUESTION 4:



oasis90 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

4. The passage mentions which of the following as an important theme that receives special emphasis in Glatthaar's book?

(A) The attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units
(B) The struggle of black units to get combat assignments
(C) The consequences of the poor medical care received by Black soldiers
(D) The motives of officers serving in Black units
(E) The discrimination that Black soldiers faced when trying for promotions

can you please explain why choice A is incorrect? I know why B is correct but I can't find enough grounds to eliminate A. After all, there is a whole parg dedicated to it.

Choice (A) is tempting, but take a second look at the last two sentences in paragraph #2. A White officer is quoted, but these sentences are discussing the attitudes of White soldiers, not abolitionist officers. Then, to demonstrate this "attitudinal change..., Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men who became officers in Black regiments."

Yes, Glatthaar mentions the attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units but only to make a broader point about the shift in attitudes. In doing so, Glatthaar "misrepresents the attitudes of the many abolitionists who became officers in Black regiments." So the point of the 3rd paragraph is not that Glatthaar gives special emphasis to the attitudes of abolitionist officers. Instead, the point is that Glatthaar's description of their attitudes (i.e. 'virtually all of them held powerful racial prejudices') is misleading.

Although Glatthaar certainly mentions the attitudes of these officers, were are not told that Glatthaar gives special emphasis to those attitudes. We are specifically told that Glatthaar appropriately emphasizes "the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the opportunity to fight", so (B) is a much better answer.


QUESTION 5:



Nived wrote:
Can someone explain question 5. It says that Black units' disease mortality rates were especially high because of the nature of these units' usual duty assignments.

According to the passage, Black units served in rear-echelon assignments and worked in labor battalions. So, what exactly was the issue with the nature of "rear-echelon assignments and labor battalions"? I had the impression that the working conditions and hygiene issues were there, but this was not really related to "nature of duty", but more related to the living conditions. Where did I get it wrong.

csaluja wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

I was wondering could you please explain why Q5 OA is C? From the passage I was able to infer that Black units' disease mortality rates were high based on the following sentence from the passage "Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer in this war, was twice as great". My question is how can we infer the bold part in the following sentence: "Black units' disease mortality rates were especially high because of the nature of these units' usual duty assignments.. I was confused on this latter part and ended up picking the wrong option because I was not able to infer that their mortality rates were high because of the nature of their duty assignments. Could you please help in regards to this? Would greatly appreciate it!

The author tells us that most Black units were kept serving "in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor battalions. Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer in this war, was twice as great."

The use of the word "Thus" allows us to infer that because Black units were kept in rear-echelon assignments and NOT given as many opportunities to fight (i.e. in the front), their combat death rate was lower. Furthermore, because Black units were kept in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor battalions, their mortality rate from disease was twice as great.

Even though we don't know what specifically caused the higher disease rates in those jobs, we can infer that something about working in rear-echelon assignments and in labor battalions increased mortality rates from disease. In other words, we can infer that being assigned to these duties increased your chances of catching fatal diseases.

We don't know why that is true, but we can infer that something about those duties (i.e. something inherent to those duties... the nature of those duties) made units assigned to those duties more likely to contract fatal diseases. Thus, the passage suggests (though it does not prove) that the disease mortality rates of Black units during the Civil War were especially high because of the nature of these units' usual duty assignments.

Choice (C) is the best answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2013, 22:21
6
Hi kartik222,

For question 7, the correct answer is (D) because the passages states," In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudenal change, however, Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men who became officers in Black regiments. “Prior to the war,” he writes of these men, “virtually all of them held powerful racial prejudices.”

The key word here is EXAGGERATE. This matches with choice (D) a it states," describing the conditions prevailing before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those prevailing after the event appears more striking than it actually is." "More striking that it actually is" is the key phrase in here that defines EXAGGERATE.

I agree with the OA provided by kartik222. Anyway, I already found the OA.

1. A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. C
6. C 7. D 8. E
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2004, 04:06
Skeletor wrote:
B
E
D
D
C
C
A
E

12 mins

1. D
2. E
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. A
8. A
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2004, 12:20
Hey Surat,

Thanks for the passages and your answers, however, I BELIEVE that your answers are way off, and simply cant learn a thing using answers that are completely off.
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2013, 09:32
DBDACCDE
WHAT IS OA?

I am bit confused in q1 and q4.
Can anyone help plz?
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2013, 11:30
Can anybody provide correct answers to the RC
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2013, 16:32
Please post the OAs.

My choices -

1-a
2-b
3-d
4-d
5-d
6-c
7-c
8-e
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2013, 13:14
1
My .02,

I solved the RC and not appalled I had a similar opinion about the answer key provided here. I Google this passage and found this right answer key (hopefuly!) and I got 6/8 right, so I am just not copy pasting the key and giving vague reasons as to why these answers are correct, I am giving my own reasons. The two I got wrong, I know the reason!!

Please, don't hold it against me, if you don't agree with this key, it is what I found and I feel it's pretty close to the correct choice!

1/A
Pretty clear why this is correct so won't dig into this one.
2/B
REASON: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War, but it uses more soldiers’ letters and diaries including rare material from Black soldiers— and concentrates more intensely on Black-White relations in Black regiments than do any of its predecessors.
3/D
REASON: Glatthaar’s title expresses his thesis: loyalty, friendship, and respect among White officers and Black soldiers were fostered by the mutual dangers they faced in combat.
4/B
REASON: Glatthaar accurately describes the government's discriminatory treatment of Black soldiers in pay, promotion, medical care, and job assignments, appropriately emphasizing the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the opportunity to fight.
5/C
REASON: Talking about the condition here-->That chance remained limited throughout the war by army policies that kept most Black units serving in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor battalions.
6/C
REASON: attitude changed--->Despite these obstacles, the courage and effectiveness of several Black units in combat won increasing respect from initially skeptical or hostile White soldiers. As one White officer put it, “they have fought their way into the respect of all the army.”
7/D
--- I am not sure why D is correct, coz I chose A!
8/E
REASON: Here the are saying what happened earlier is deemed inappropriate by today's standard, that's exactly what option is saying, "politician is deemed corrupt by today's standard"--> By current standards of racial egalitarianism, these men's paternalism toward African Americans was racist. But to call their feelings “powerful racial prejudices” is to indulge in generational chauvinism—to judge past eras by present standards.

Thanks,

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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2013, 05:29
A
B
D
B
E
C
D
E

Someone provide the OA's please
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2013, 09:58
Shouldn't the answer for 8 be A?

A. mentions present day traits for monarch is compared with past monarchs.

This is inline with what the passage suggest where author is pointing out the traits for white men based on history?

E. states that the politician actually engaged in corrupt practice similar to past politicians.

can someone convince me that E is correct?
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2013, 01:21
Why is the fifth one C... C) they were especially high because of the nature of these units' usual duty assignments.?

Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer in this war, was twice as great.
Why cant it be D?
(d) they resulted in extremely high overall casualty rates in black combat units.
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2014, 00:06
AECEDEDA. This passage is confusing.
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2015, 22:55
tough passage. Please bump this Verbal Bot
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New post 10 Dec 2015, 18:35
OA'a are ABDBCCDE.
It's a passage from OG.

Thanks
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 07:55
5) The passage suggests that which of the following was true of
Black units’ disease mortality rates in the Civil War?

A) They were almost as high as the combat mortality rates
of White units.
B) They resulted in part from the relative inexperience of
these units when in combat.
C) They were especially high because of the nature of these
units’ usual duty assignments.
D) They resulted in extremely high overall casualty rates in
Black combat units.
E) They exacerbated the morale problems that were caused
by the army’s discriminatory policies.

Could someone reason why would he/she would discard option E?

Thank you so much.
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 11:46
1
EBITDA,

Look back at the context of the material on disease mortality. The author is saying that the black units were able to be courageous and effective despite this problem. There is no mention of morale problems, let alone any suggestion that disease morality exacerbated this problem (made it worse). If anything, this would be the opposite of the author's reasoning.

Clever username, by the way. :)
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 12:00
Hey all,
Let's break down this passage and then head on over to the questions that gave us the most grief.
Pasting and highlighting only the most important aspects of the passage:

Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War, but it uses more soldiers’ letters and diaries including rare material from Black soldiers... Glatthaar accurately describes the government's discriminatory treatment of Black soldiers... Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer in this war, was twice as great. Despite these obstacles, the courage and effectiveness of several Black units in combat won increasing respect from initially skeptical or hostile White soldiers. As one White officer put it, “they have fought their way into the respect of all the army.”

In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudinal change, however, Glatthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism of the White men... While perhaps true of those officers who joined Black units for promotion or other self-serving motives, this statement misrepresents the attitudes of the many ... Having spent years fighting against the race prejudice endemic in American society, they participated eagerly in this military experiment, which they hoped would help African Americans achieve freedom and postwar civil equality. By current standards of racial egalitarianism, these men's paternalism toward African Americans was racist. But to call their feelings “powerful racial prejudices” is to indulge in generational chauvinism—to judge past eras by present standards.

Great: so it's a literary analysis of Glatthaar’s work and the author of this passage feels that "although his analysis is good, Galatthaar does exaggerate the extent of racial prejudice"
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 12:05
By the way, for all those using the GMAT to master American English, please note that we do not actually capitalize the word "black" when talking about people. We capitalize African American because it is a designation of ethnicity/nationality based on two place names (similar to Asian-American, etc.). Since "black" is not a place-specific descriptor, it should not be capitalized. It should be used as an adjective to describe people, and never as a stand-alone noun.
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 12:09
Let's look at Q1.

The passage as a whole can best be characterized as which of the following?
Compare answers with the gist we assimilated.
(a) an evaluation of a scholarly study - YES the author's main concern is evaulating Glatthaar’s work!
(b) a description of an attitudinal change - WRONG, this is a secondary point made to support the author's perspective (that Glatthaar’s exaggerates)
(e) an argument in favor of revising a view - WRONG, the author doesn't really argue for anything here

Pro Tip: When the author of the passage discusses a book or a writer, remember that the primary purpose of the passage is most probably going to be the evaluation of that book or the writer! Also, be cautious of answer options that discuss the perspectives of the writer (of the book under discussion) and not that of the author (of the passage).
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Re: Joseph Glatthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study o &nbs [#permalink] 30 May 2016, 12:09

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