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Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur

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Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 268 ~ 271
Page: 408

Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenure, resources and population distributions appeared almost as early as Europeans' first encounters with Native Americans and took many form: missionaries' field sketches, explorers' drawings, and surveyors' maps, as well as maps rendered in connection with treaties involving land transfers. Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.

Many existing maps also reflect the 150-year role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in administering tribal lands. Though these maps incorporate some information gleaned directly from Native Americans, rarely has Native American cartography contributed to this official record, which has been compiled, surveyed, and authenticated by non-Native Americans. Thus our current cartographic record relating to Native American tribes and their migrations and cultural features, as well as territoriality and contemporary trust lands, reflects the origins of the data, the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared, and changes both in United States government policy and in non-Native Americans' attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans.
1. Which of the following best describes the content of the passage?

(A) A chronology of the development of different methods for mapping Native Americans
(B) A discussion of how the mapmaking techniques of Native Americans differed from those of Europeans
(C) An argument concerning the present-day uses to which historical maps of Native American lands are put
(D) An argument concerning the nature of information contained in maps of Native American lands
(E) A proposal for improving the accuracy of maps of Native American lands




2. The passage mentions each of the following as a factor affecting current maps of Native American lands EXCEPT

(A) United States government policy
(B) non-Native Americans’ perspective on Native Americans
(C) origins of the information utilized to produce the maps
(D) changes in ways that tribal lands are used
(E) the reason for producing the maps




3. The passage suggests which of the following about most existing maps of Native American lands?

(A) They do not record the migrations of Native American tribes.
(B) They have been preserved primarily because of their connection with treaties involving land transfers.
(C) They tend to reflect archaeological evidence that has become outdated.
(D)They tend to be less accurate when they are based on oral reports than when they are based on written documents.
(E) They are not based primarily on the mapmakers’ first-hand observations of Native American lands.




4. All of the following are examples of the type of evidence used in creating “Most existing maps” (line 7-8) EXCEPT

(A) a nineteenth-century government report on population distribution of a particular tribe
(B) taped conversations with people who lived on Native America tribal lands in the early twentieth century
(C) aerial photographs of geological features of lands inhabited by Native Americans
(D) findings from a recently excavated site once inhabited by a certain Native American people
(E) a journal kept by a non-Native American explorer who traveled in Native American territory in the early nineteenth century




I choose B as OA, 'cause no where is non-Native Americans’ perspective on Native Americans mentioned. And 'non-Native Americans’ attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans' mentioned in the passage does NOT mean the same. And usually in GMAT RC, the difference in words and meaning is considered BIG time.

Could somone please explain, why I am wrong? I could not find this question anywhere on the GMATclub so posted. Am sorry if it has already been discussed, someone could please help me with getting the link to the previous discussions on this RC.

Thanks a lot!!

Originally posted by Above750 on 16 Jul 2011, 21:13.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Aug 2019, 21:04, edited 8 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (198).
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2014, 03:37
1
TGC wrote:
OA is D per the GMAT prep software.

I marked (E) but I am not sure how to answer this one

Any inputs?


I picked Choice D.

In that ridiculuosly long, final sentence, choice E can be found here:

...the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared...

Purposes = Reasons

Just as all the other choices are found as followed:

Choices A and B (United States government policy, non-Native Americans’ perspective on Native Americans) is found here:
...United States government policy and in non-Native Americans’ attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans....

And, Choice C here:
...reflects the origins of the data...

The question specifically asks you what is not mentioned directly in the passage.
I always found the best way to tackle these kinds of questions: simply read carefully. Be mindful of your time allotment, but try to fully comprehend each answer choice.

The GMAT is a rather clever chameleon. :)
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2015, 02:43
Q3 - how is the answer E) ?

Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.

how did we infer that?
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2015, 10:17
Anu26 wrote:
Q3 - how is the answer E) ?

Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.

how did we infer that?


Many existing maps also reflect the 150-year role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in administering tribal lands. Though these maps incorporate some information gleaned directly from Native Americans,

From the above lines we can infer that the answer to Q3 should be E

I hope this helps Anu26
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2016, 01:15
1
Took 6 mins 50 seconds , including 2 mins 40 seconds to read :)

-The author is primarily talking about the Non maps that depict native american lands
- He mentions the origins of the information used to make the maps
- He mentions that the map creators used interpretive abilities rather than first hand information to create the maps

1. Answer D

2. "reflects the origins of the data, the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared, and changes both in United States government policy and in non-Native Americans' attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans."
Answer D

3. "the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities."
Answer E

4.
"Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports "
Answer C
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2016, 07:08
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7 mins. Regarding Q2, why not A?
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2016, 10:55
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JarvisR wrote:
7 mins. Regarding Q2, why not A?


Hi JarvisR ,
At the end of second paragraph , the factors have been mentioned . Please refer to the below excerpt .

"reflects the origins of the data, the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared, and changes both in United States government policy and in non-Native Americans' attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans."

2. The passage mentions each of the following as a factor affecting current maps of Native American lands EXCEPT
(A) United States government policy
(B) non-Native Americans’ perspective on Native Americans
(C) origins of the information utilized to produce the maps
(D) changes in ways that tribal lands are used
(E) the reason for producing the maps
Answer D

Hope this helps!! :)
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2017, 23:12
question no. 4 why not option D ?
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2017, 18:57
mkumar26 wrote:
question no. 4 why not option D ?

"Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports "

Here There is no where mention of ARIEL photographs . :) that's why C is answer .
D is mentioned in paragraph if you read the above sentence carefully you will understand.

Target - Hit - Succeed in GMAT .
All the best.

Hit kudos if you liked it.
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2017, 02:01
1
Original passage has an error. Last paragraph should not be one big sentence :oops:
Quote:
Many existing maps also reflect the 150-year role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in administering tribal lands. Though these maps incorporate some information gleaned directly from Native Americans, rarely has Native American cartography contributed to this official record, which has been compiled, surveyed, and authenticated by non-Native American tribes and their migrations and cultural features, as well as territoriality and contemporary trust lands, reflects the origins of the data, the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared, and changes both I United States government policy and in non-Native Americans’ attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans.

Should be:
Quote:
Many existing maps also reflect the 150-year role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in administering tribal lands. Though these maps incorporate some information gleaned directly from Native Americans, rarely has Native American cartography contributed to this official record, which has been compiled, surveyed, and authenticated by non-Native Americans. Thus our current cartographic record relating to Native American tribes and their migrations and cultural features, as well as territoriality and contemporary trust lands, reflects the origins of the data, the mixed purposes for which the maps have been prepared, and changes both in United States government policy and in non-Native Americans' attitudes toward an understanding of Native Americans.


This topics exists for seven years. This may be the proof that you don't need to understand everything to get the questions right :-D
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 01:15
CAN SOMEONE PLEASE EXPLAIN ME 2?


HOW D?
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2018, 05:18
Bob2018 wrote:
CAN SOMEONE PLEASE EXPLAIN ME 2?


HOW D?


Hi Bob2018,

Here is question with all the choices.

2. The passage mentions each of the following as a factor affecting current maps of Native American lands EXCEPT

(A) United States government policy
(B) non-Native Americans’ perspective on Native Americans
(C) origins of the information utilized to produce the maps
(D) changes in ways that tribal lands are used
(E) the reason for producing the maps

The only possible answer is D.
Through out the passage various factors have been discussed but changes in the ways that tribal lands are used are not discussed. This inforamtion is not useful to draw out map if we just concerned to show that lands where Native Americans reside.

If you some other you can ask me .

Warm Regards,
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 12:17
I didn't understand question 3:

3. The passage suggests which of the following about most existing maps of Native American lands?

(A) They do not record the migrations of Native American tribes.
(B) They have been preserved primarily because of their connection with treaties involving land transfers.
(C) They tend to reflect archaeological evidence that has become outdated.
(D)They tend to be less accurate when they are based on oral reports than when they are based on written documents.
(E) They are not based primarily on the mapmakers??? first-hand observations of Native American lands.

I answered A,
Regarding E they mentioned in the passage " the accuracy of these maps ...interpretive abilities " so I understand that E is no good because of these...

Thanks for the help!
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 17:30
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For #3, the operative portion is at the end of the first paragraph:

Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.

This tells you that it wasn't a first-hand observation by the mapmaker of the land, but rather the mapmaker reconstructing some other observers' accounts (from letters, diaries, etc. - those aren't firsthand experience with the land, but instead taken from someone else's firsthand experience). So E has direct support in this sentence.

With A, note that the only place that "migrations" is mentioned is in the second paragraph, which leads with "many existing maps" - the question asks about "most existing maps" so we can't really draw conclusions about "most" anywhere past that first paragraph where we know we're dealing with more than 50% of maps. This is where their precise language in asking the question is so important...when I see "most existing maps" I'm hyper-focused on "where are they talking about most and where are they talking about some/many/etc. that we can't conclude fits "most."
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2019, 01:01
Q3 why option C is wrong?(They tend to reflect archaeological evidence that has become outdated.)
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New post 06 Mar 2019, 18:33
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mallya12 wrote:
Q3 why option C is wrong?(They tend to reflect archaeological evidence that has become outdated.)


Hi,

The argument states that "Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.". Option C is incorrect because we are given no reason to believe that the maps archaeological evidence has become outdated. It merely says that these maps were pretty much remakings of the already existing evidence such as "archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports". Option E on the other hand can be inferred because these remakes were not based on their first hand experience. Rather, they took the existing materials with prior observations and remade them.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 01:28
keats wrote:
Anu26 wrote:
Q3 - how is the answer E) ?

Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports; accordingly, the accuracy of these maps is especially dependent on the mapmakers' own interpretive abilities.

how did we infer that?


Many existing maps also reflect the 150-year role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in administering tribal lands. Though these maps incorporate some information gleaned directly from Native Americans,

From the above lines we can infer that the answer to Q3 should be E

I hope this helps Anu26


IMO choice E is right but it seems our choice of the lines in the passage to answer this question are different for the answer.

According to the passage-

Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letters, diaries, and official reports;

So, it seems the 1st hand reports were- letters/diaries/reports, which were gathered & were re-constructed or in words they were not 1st hand rather modified version of the gathered one's.

Hope it makes sense!! Also, do correct me if I'm wrong!! :)
Thanks & Regards!!
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New post 26 Aug 2019, 04:27
SajjadAhmad, u1983, workout, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo, Gnpth
Quote:
4. All of the following are examples of the type of evidence used in creating “Most existing maps” (line 7-8) EXCEPT

(A) a nineteenth-century government report on population distribution of a particular tribe
(B) taped conversations with people who lived on Native America tribal lands in the early twentieth century
(C) aerial photographs of geological features of lands inhabited by Native Americans
(D) findings from a recently excavated site once inhabited by a certain Native American people
(E) a journal kept by a non-Native American explorer who traveled in Native American territory in the early nineteenth century


Doesn't C refer to evidence gathered from observers' accounts? E refers to evidence gathered from observers' accounts?

please clarify. thanks in advance
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2019, 14:08
zoezhuyan wrote:
Quote:
4. All of the following are examples of the type of evidence used in creating “Most existing maps” (line 7-8) EXCEPT

(A) a nineteenth-century government report on population distribution of a particular tribe
(B) taped conversations with people who lived on Native America tribal lands in the early twentieth century
(C) aerial photographs of geological features of lands inhabited by Native Americans
(D) findings from a recently excavated site once inhabited by a certain Native American people
(E) a journal kept by a non-Native American explorer who traveled in Native American territory in the early nineteenth century


Doesn't C refer to evidence gathered from observers' accounts? E refers to evidence gathered from observers' accounts?

please clarify. thanks in advance

The question directly refers to "most existing maps" (line 7-8), so let's first check in with how the original passage defines "most existing maps":

Quote:
Most existing maps of Native American lands are reconstructions that are based largely on archaeology, oral reports, and evidence gathered from observers' accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports;

Since you've specifically referred to "observers' accounts," we should take note that this part of the passage offers specific examples where evidence gathered form observers' accounts are found: in letter, diaries, and official reports.

  • Choice (E) does refer to evidence gathered from an observers' accounts. A journal kept by a non-Native explorer certainly matches up with the example of diaries. That's why we can eliminate it.
  • Choice (C), on the other hand, refers to aerial photographs of geological features, which are a direct geological record. This doesn't fit the bill of a reconstruction based on evidence from observer accounts in letter, diaries, and official reports.

That's why we keep (C) and continue eliminating other choices. Ultimately, every other choice matches up with the description of evidence used to create "most existing maps," and (C) remains the best choice.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2019, 02:32
Question 3 is hardest. information in the passage is X. the question asks " is it not Y? ". this trick require us to understand more than the text in the passage.'
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Re: Maps made by non-Native Americans to depict Native American land tenur   [#permalink] 05 Sep 2019, 02:32

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