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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat

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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2019, 07:24
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 147, Date : 15-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily
because the oil or natural gas the companies extract
from the ocean floor has to be processed before
pumps can be used to move the substances ashore.
(5) But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an
unpredictable environment, researchers are
attempting to diminish the need for human labor
(10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to
handle crude. These pumps could then be used to
boost the natural pressure driving the flow of
crude, which, by itself, is sufficient only to bring
(15) the crude to the platform, located just above the
wellhead. Currently, pumps that could boost this
natural pressure sufficiently to drive the crude
through a pipeline to the shore do not work
consistently because of the crude’s content. Crude
(20) may consist of oil or natural gas in multiphase
states—combinations of liquids, gases, and solids
under pressure—that do not reach the wellhead in
constant proportions. The flow of crude oil, for
example, can change quickly from 60 percent liquid
(25) to 70 percent gas. This surge in gas content causes
loss of “head,” or pressure inside a pump, with the
result that a pump can no longer impart enough
energy to transport the crude mixture through the
pipeline and to the shore.

(30) Of the two pumps being redesigned, the
positive-displacement pump is promising because it
is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of
liquid to gas in the crude mixture. But the pump’s
design, which consists of a single or twin screw
(35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the
other, brings crude into close contact with most
parts of the pump, and thus requires that it be
made of expensive corrosion-resistant material.
The alternative is the centrifugal pump, which has a
(40) rotating impeller that sucks fluid in at one end and
forces fluid out at the other. Although this pump
has a proven design and has worked for years with
little maintenance in waste-disposal plants,
researchers have discovered that because the swirl
(45) of its impeller separates gas out from the oil that
normally accompanies it, significant reductions in
head can occur as it operates.

Research in the development of these pumps is
focused mainly on trying to reduce the cost of the
(50) positive-displacement pump and attempting to
make the centrifugal pump more tolerant of gas.
Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that
crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
(55) to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?

(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(B) Oil companies are seeking methods of installing processing facilities underwater.
(C) Researchers are developing several new pumps designed to enhance human labor efficiency in processing facilities.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.
(E) Researchers are seeking ways to separate liquids from gases in crude in order to enable safer processing.


2. The passage supports which one of the following statements about the natural pressure driving the flow of crude?

(A) It is higher than that created by the centrifugal pump.
(B) It is constant, regardless of relative proportions of gas and liquid.
(C) It is able to carry the crude only as far as the wellhead.
(D) It is able to carry the crude to the platform.
(E) It is able to carry the crude to the shore.


3. Which one of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

(A) It offers concrete detail designed to show that the argument made in the first paragraph is flawed.
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.
(D) It detracts from the author’s discussion by presenting various problems that qualify the goals presented.
(E) It modifies an observation made in the first paragraph by detailing viewpoints against it.


4. Which one of the following phrases, if substituted for the word “head” in line 47, would LEAST change the meaning of the sentence?

(A) the flow of the crude inside the pump
(B) the volume of oil inside the pump
(C) the volume of gas inside the pump
(D) the speed of the impeller moving the crude
(E) the pressure inside of the pump


5. With which one of the following statements regarding offshore platforms would the author most likely agree?

(A) If a reduction of human labor on offshore platforms is achieved, there is no real need to eliminate platforms altogether.
(B) Reducing human labor on offshore platforms is desirable because researchers’ knowledge about the transportation of crude is danerously incomplete.
(C) The dangers involved in working on offshore platforms make their elimination a desirable goal.
(D) The positive-displacement pump is the better alternative for researchers, because it would allow them to eliminate platforms altogether.
(E) Though researchers have succeeded in reducing human labor on offshore platforms, they think that it would be inadvisable to eliminate platforms altogether, because these platforms have other uses.


6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about pumps that are currently available to boost the natural pressure of crude?

(A) The efficiency of these pumps depends on there being no gas in the flow of crude.
(B) These pumps are more efficient when the crude is less subject to sudden increases in the proportion of gas to liquid.
(C) A sudden change from solid to liquid in the flow of crude increases the efficiency of these pumps.
(D) The proportion of liquid to gas in the flow of crude does not affect the efficiency of these pumps.
(E) A sudden change from liquid to gas in the flow of crude increases the risk of explosion due to rising pressure inside these pumps.


7. The passage implies that the positive-displacement pump differs from the centrifugal pump in that the positive-displacement pump

(A) is more promising, but it also is more expensive and demands more maintenance
(B) is especially well researched, since it has been used in other settings
(C) involves the use of a single or twin screw that sucks fluid in at one end of the pump
(D) is problematic because it causes rapid shifts from liquid to gas content in crude
(E) involves exposure of many parts of the pump to crude


8. The passage implies that the current state of technology necessitates that crude be moved to shore

(A) in a multiphase state
(B) in equal proportions of gas to liquid
(C) with small proportions of corrosive material
(D) after having been processed
(E) largely in the form of a liquid



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 10 (February 1994)
  • Difficulty Level: Will Update after 30+ timers attempts

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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 06:20
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?


But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 18:32
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?


But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

generis ,

Skywalker18 , your time and accuracy are outstanding; this passage is technical and dry.

LSAC and GMAC test writers are good at catching people with a combination of phrases that negate
("preempt the need for") and words that we have just seen in the passage. We let down our guard.

Option D is incorrect because it,is exactly the opposite of what the passage says.

Researchers are trying to preempt (to prevent) the need for platforms,
not the need for onshore facilities.

Oil companies and researchers want to preempt the need for platforms, in fact,
so that crude can get directly to onshore facilities, which are safer than platforms for workers
(Paragraph 1, second sentence):

"But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas) on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an
unpredictable environment
. . ."
[Implied: onshore facilities are safer]

Researchers are trying to get human beings off of platforms:
". . . researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor
on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether
. . ."

The passage then mentions that researchers are looking for ways to get
crude oil directly to shore—meaning, from sea bottom to shore without a platform in the middle

• one pump needs redesign because it "[cannot] . . . transport the crude mixture through the
pipeline and [directly] to the shore" [to an onshore processing facility] (Paragraph 1, last sentence)

• "other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that
crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms
."
(Paragraph 3, last sentence)

Platforms need to go away, not onshore facilities.

Whoops. It happens.
At the moment, half of people have chosen A, but D is the next favorite; one-fourth
of people have chosen D.

I hope that helps.
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 00:10
1
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?

(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing. -
processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an
unpredictable environment, researchers are
attempting to diminish the need for human labor
(10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to
handle crude.
Hold
(B) Oil companies are seeking methods of installing processing facilities underwater.
Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that
crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
(55) to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms.
But this conclusion and not main idea.Eliminate
(C) Researchers are developing several new pumps designed to enhance human labor efficiency in processing facilities. - As A, trying to diminish need of human labor.Eliminate
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore. - would preempt the need for processing facilities of platforms and not onshore.Eliminate
(E) Researchers are seeking ways to separate liquids from gases in crude in order to enable safer processing.- they are trying ways to have constant proportion of liquid and gases.Eliminate

Hence A

2. The passage supports which one of the following statements about the natural pressure driving the flow of crude?

(A) It is higher than that created by the centrifugal pump.
(B) It is constant, regardless of relative proportions of gas and liquid.
(C) It is able to carry the crude only as far as the wellhead.
(D) It is able to carry the crude to the platform.
(E) It is able to carry the crude to the shore.

"pumps could then be used to boost the natural pressure driving the flow of crude,is sufficient only to bring (15) the crude to the platform"

Hence D

3. Which one of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

(A) It offers concrete detail designed to show that the argument made in the first paragraph is flawed.
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.
(D) It detracts from the author’s discussion by presenting various problems that qualify the goals presented.
(E) It modifies an observation made in the first paragraph by detailing viewpoints against it.

Fight is between B and C
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.

2nd para mentions the pros and cons of new designed pumps. But question is asking us to relate 1st and 2nd, and role of 2nd is expansion of the idea presented in 1st.
Hence B

4. Which one of the following phrases, if substituted for the word “head” in line 47, would LEAST change the meaning of the sentence?

(A) the flow of the crude inside the pump
(B) the volume of oil inside the pump
(C) the volume of gas inside the pump
(D) the speed of the impeller moving the crude
(E) the pressure inside of the pump

Though question is about line 47, but it clearly mention in line 26 about head

This surge in gas content causes
loss of “head,” or pressure inside a pump


Hence E

5. With which one of the following statements regarding offshore platforms would the author most likely agree?

(A) If a reduction of human labor on offshore platforms is achieved, there is no real need to eliminate platforms altogether. - mentioned in para 1 - So there is need to eliminate platforms. This option says opposite. Eliminate
" researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor (10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude."
(B) Reducing human labor on offshore platforms is desirable because researchers’ knowledge about the transportation of crude is danerously incomplete. - Author no where mentions about his distrust to researchers knowledge. Eliminate
(C) The dangers involved in working on offshore platforms make their elimination a desirable goal. - mentioned in para 1 -
" researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor (10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude."
(D) The positive-displacement pump is the better alternative for researchers, because it would allow them to eliminate platforms altogether. - Last para "Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting either kind of pump for use underwater, .., eliminating platforms." Now this is applicable for both pumps and not just positive-displacement pump. Eliminate.
(E) Though researchers have succeeded in reducing human labor on offshore platforms, they think that it would be inadvisable to eliminate platforms altogether, because these platforms have other uses. As mentioned in C, " researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor". And not yet succeeded. Eliminate
Hence C


6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about pumps that are currently available to boost the natural pressure of crude?

(A) The efficiency of these pumps depends on there being no gas in the flow of crude. - As above, pressure does require gases. Eliminate
(B) These pumps are more efficient when the crude is less subject to sudden increases in the proportion of gas to liquid.- Hold for 2
(C) A sudden change from solid to liquid in the flow of crude increases the efficiency of these pumps.Eliminate for 1
(D) The proportion of liquid to gas in the flow of crude does not affect the efficiency of these pumps. - It does affect as in 1. Eliminate
(E) A sudden change from liquid to gas in the flow of crude increases the risk of explosion due to rising pressure inside these pumps.- "But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas) on a platform
exposes workers to the risks of explosion "
. This is true but not for natural pressure, it is for crude. And we are inferring about crude. So eliminate

Explanation:
1."Currently, pumps that could boost this natural pressure sufficiently to drive the crude through a pipeline to the shore do not work consistently because of the crude’s content. Crude (20) may consist of oil or natural gas that do not reach the wellhead in constant proportions. The flow of crude oil, for example, can change quickly from 60 percent liquid (25) to 70 percent gas."
Now we are talking about liquid and gases proportion.

2.Also "Of the two pumps being redesigned, the positive-displacement pump is promising because it
is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture. "
Also, what is improving as part of new design of pump is " sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture"

Hence B

7. The passage implies that the positive-displacement pump differs from the centrifugal pump in that the positive-displacement pump

POE
(A) is more promising, but it also is more expensive and demands more maintenance - Alluring but not true because of "demands more maintenance". Eliminate
(B) is especially well researched, since it has been used in other settings - Pros and Cons of positive dis. pump is due its new design and not settings. Eliminate.
(C) involves the use of a single or twin screw that sucks fluid in at one end of the pump - "single or twin screw (35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the other". NO mention about sucking fluid. Eliminate
(D) is problematic because it causes rapid shifts from liquid to gas content in crude - "promising because it is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture" Eliminate
(E) involves exposure of many parts of the pump to crude - "brings crude into close contact with most parts of the pump". Hold

Explanation:
"positive-displacement pump is promising because it is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture. But the pump’s design, which consists of a single or twin screw (35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the other, brings crude into close contact with most parts of the pump, and thus requires that it be made of expensive corrosion-resistant material.
The alternative is the centrifugal pump, ... Although this pump has a proven design and has worked for years with little maintenance in waste-disposal plants,"

Now above says positive-displacement pump is promising and expensive and involves crude into close contact with most parts of the pump.
And centrifugal pump needs little maintenance in waste-disposal plants.
Nowhere it mentions how much maintenance positive-displacement pump requires and how it works in waste-disposal plants.

Hence E

8. The passage implies that the current state of technology necessitates that crude be moved to shore

(A) in a multiphase state
(B) in equal proportions of gas to liquid
(C) with small proportions of corrosive material
(D) after having been processed
(E) largely in the form of a liquid

" Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or natural gas the companies extract
from the ocean floor has to be processed before pumps can be used to move the substances ashore "


Hence D
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 00:45
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?


But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , other experts

Quote:
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

There is one little word in (D) that makes it absolutely incorrect: onshore.

Currently, the crude "has to be processed before pumps can be used to move the substances ashore." So, currently, the crude has to be processed OFFSHORE (on a platform) before it can be moved onshore. The goal of the current research is to eliminate the need for this OFFSHORE processing. The researchers are NOT trying to develop equipment that would preempt the need for ONSHORE processing facilities. In fact, they WANT the crude to be processed onshore, where the process is safer.

So (D) has to go!
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2019, 05:43
7:03.To read and answer all questions.

Nothing intuitive in this passage here.For all questions go back to the passage and read.

P.S. I am from the oil and gas industry.
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat   [#permalink] 04 May 2019, 05:43
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