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Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm

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Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 16:29
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Hello Everyone!

First, let’s scan over the answers quickly and note any major differences. Next, we can narrow down the bad answers to get to the correct one!

After a quick scan, we can clearly see a few major differences to address:

1. Placement of the word “only”
2. Placement of the phrase “as a source of vegetable oil”
3. Use of the phrase “in importance”

To start, let’s look at the difference between saying “second only to” and “only second to” to figure out which one we need:

X is second only to Y = only Y can be better than X out of all the options available

X is only second to Y = X is second to Y, but may be first, third, or tenth compared to other options available

Based on the meaning of both options, it makes the most sense to keep answers that use the “X is second only to Y.” To test this out, let’s add “sunflowers are” to the beginning of each answer to see if they work:

A: “sunflowers are second only to soybeans…” → OK
B: “sunflowers are second to soybeans only…” → WRONG
C: “sunflowers are second…only to soybeans…” → OK
D: “sunflowers are…only second to soybeans…” → WRONG
E: “sunflowers are...only second to soybeans…” → WRONG

Only answers A and C correctly use “X is second only to Y” and keep the original meaning, so let’s toss out the other three answers right away.

Now we’re left with just A and C. Let’s look at both answers together to find a clear winner

A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

This answer is CORRECT because it uses the proper structure of “X is second only to Y,” and it doesn’t include any redundant or unnecessary words.

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

This answer is INCORRECT because there are added words in the answer that are unnecessary. The word “being” doesn’t add anything to the sentence’s meaning, and the phrase “in importance” is redundant. We can safely assume if things are being ranked in some way, they are ranked by order of importance.

That leaves us with the correct answer, A!

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Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 02:13
4
Errors to look into..
1) placement of ONLY
Only is supposed to modify/limit "second to soybeans', so it should follow second
2) as a source of vegetable oil ... Has to modify soybeans or cultivated sunflowers directly

Let's see each choice..

Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil
Correctly uses both modifiers - only and source of...
Also "second only to...." Correctly modifies the main statement.


B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil
Placement of only is wrong. Additional words used not correct.

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil
Placement of ONLY know means, sunflowers are second in importance only and maybe behind other fields.. not something that the original sentence means
Being is wordy


D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans
Which is wrongly used..
Now commercial crop is being modified by AS a source.....


E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans
Wrong use of modifiers

A


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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 11:04
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans

Answer A.

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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 11:55
Bunuel wrote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


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Hello daagh can you please explain why D is wrong ? :-) thank you ! :-)
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Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 13:17
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dave13 wrote:
can you please explain why D is wrong


Modifiers such as only and almost are known as LIMITERS.
A limiter serves to LIMIT the scope of another word in the sentence.
Generally, a limiter should be placed directly before whatever it is intended to limit.

ONLY JOHN plays the tuba.
Here, only serves to limit WHO PLAYS the tuba.
Conveyed meaning;
NO ONE ELSE -- aside from John -- plays the tuba.

John plays ONLY THE TUBA.
Here, only serves to limit WHICH INSTRUMENTS John plays.
Conveyed meaning:
John plays NO OTHER INSTRUMENTS -- aside from the tuba.

OA: Sunflowers have become...second ONLY TO SOYBEANS.
Here, only serves to limit WHICH CROPS are more important than sunflowers.
Conveyed meaning:
NO OTHER CROP -- aside from soybeans -- is more important than sunflowers.

D: A major commercial crop...is ONLY SECOND.
Here, only serves to limit WHICH RANKING is attributed to the major commercial crop.
Conveyed meaning:
NO OTHER RANKING -- aside from second -- is attributed to the major commercial crop.
In D, the position of only distorts the intended meaning of the original sentence.
Eliminate D.
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 20:06
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

X is second only to Y : X is 2nd and Y is before X. there is no one else before X other than Y. Here Only give more emphasis or importance to Y.

X is only second to Y: X is second to Y. But there may be some one before Y. Here emphasis is on "second".

With this in mind. Let's do POE.

A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil
This conveys the intended meaning. Soyabean is first and Sunflower is second cultivated corp. HOLD on to it

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil
It shifts the preference aspect to - "as a source of vegetable oil".
Or at best it is ambiguous here. Eliminate.


C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.
Use of importance is unnecessary.

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans
It is changing the preference as discussed before.

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans.
Here again it creates ambiguous reference to "as a source of vegetable oil". This is not the intended meaning

A is best of All.

IMO - A.

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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 10:16
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D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans
Two things are wrong in D.
1. 'Which' must logically refer to Sunflower. But it is unable to do so overriding the verb 'have become. So the relative pronoun has to modify the unintended 'crop' which distorts the meaning. 2. As pointed out, the limiting modifier 'only' should be placed just before whet it modifies namely 'soybeans' and not 'second.'
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2018, 21:13
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Bunuel wrote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


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Learning: The limiting modifier 'only' should be placed just before whet it modifies namely 'soybeans' and not 'second.'
There is a difference between
1. Only I can eat fish &
2. I can eat only fish.
So “ONLY” must be placed just before what it tries to logically modify.
Here, sunflower is second only to soybeans is the intended meaning. So “Only should be placed before Soybeans.
Now, B,D & E are out, as “only” is not placed before the intended Soybeans.

A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.
This answer is CORRECT because “only” is placed just before the “to spybeans”, what it tries to modify (limit to),” and it doesn’t include any redundant or unnecessary words.

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.
In GMAt, whenever you get an answer of what “being” refer to, then it’s wrong. Here “Being” refer to the noun “Sunflower”. Hence, it’s wrong.
The word “being” doesn’t add anything to the sentence’s meaning, and the phrase “in importance” is redundant.
A is the answer.
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2018, 22:46
Bunuel wrote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


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Hi guys, sorry for asking more basic question here.

I chose A - but difficult for me to explain what do we call a part after comma? Is it a modifier or something else?
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 16:32
Can an expert please explain the role of the part of " 'coma' + second only to soybeans... "; specifically what type of modifier it is. It appears to be modifying "sunflowers", yet the modifier's placement is so far from the noun. Kindly assist.
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 16:34
septwibowo wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(SC01507)


Hi guys, sorry for asking more basic question here.

I chose A - but difficult for me to explain what do we call a part after comma? Is it a modifier or something else?


I'm having the same doubt here. It's certainly a modifier, but what type?
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2018, 08:10
LEOiAM wrote:
septwibowo wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(SC01507)


Hi guys, sorry for asking more basic question here.

I chose A - but difficult for me to explain what do we call a part after comma? Is it a modifier or something else?


I'm having the same doubt here. It's certainly a modifier, but what type?


I too facing the same problem. Please explain??
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2018, 08:12
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

First, let’s scan over the answers quickly and note any major differences. Next, we can narrow down the bad answers to get to the correct one!

After a quick scan, we can clearly see a few major differences to address:

1. Placement of the word “only”
2. Placement of the phrase “as a source of vegetable oil”
3. Use of the phrase “in importance”

To start, let’s look at the difference between saying “second only to” and “only second to” to figure out which one we need:

X is second only to Y = only Y can be better than X out of all the options available

X is only second to Y = X is second to Y, but may be first, third, or tenth compared to other options available

Based on the meaning of both options, it makes the most sense to keep answers that use the “X is second only to Y.” To test this out, let’s add “sunflowers are” to the beginning of each answer to see if they work:

A: “sunflowers are second only to soybeans…” → OK
B: “sunflowers are second to soybeans only…” → WRONG
C: “sunflowers are second…only to soybeans…” → OK
D: “sunflowers are…only second to soybeans…” → WRONG
E: “sunflowers are...only second to soybeans…” → WRONG

Only answers A and C correctly use “X is second only to Y” and keep the original meaning, so let’s toss out the other three answers right away.

Now we’re left with just A and C. Let’s look at both answers together to find a clear winner

A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

This answer is CORRECT because it uses the proper structure of “X is second only to Y,” and it doesn’t include any redundant or unnecessary words.

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

This answer is INCORRECT because there are added words in the answer that are unnecessary. The word “being” doesn’t add anything to the sentence’s meaning, and the phrase “in importance” is redundant. We can safely assume if things are being ranked in some way, they are ranked by order of importance.

That leaves us with the correct answer, A!

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Can you please explain which type of modifier is used after comma in correct answer choice??
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2018, 12:05
sumitgoyal2727 wrote:
LEOiAM wrote:
septwibowo wrote:
[quote="Bunuel"]Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.


A. second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

B. second in importance to soybeans only as a source of vegetable oil

C. being second in importance only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil

D. which, as a source of vegetable oil, is only second to soybeans

E. as a source of vegetable oil only second to soybeans


NEW question from GMAT Official Guide 2019


(SC01507)


Hi guys, sorry for asking more basic question here.

I chose A - but difficult for me to explain what do we call a part after comma? Is it a modifier or something else?


I'm having the same doubt here. It's certainly a modifier, but what type?


I too facing the same problem. Please explain??[/quote]Although name should not matter as more important thing is we should know how that construction works - Ron

Nonetheless, this modifier is Noun+ noun modifier, a very versatile modifier that can modify near by noun, noun in the middle of the clause or subject .

( did you observe that the underline part is also serving as noun +noun modifier)

Consider kudos if that helped.

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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 07:24
Sorry; is still not clear. How is this a noun phrase? what is the noun present? "Second" is an adverb.

GMATNinja mikemcgarry could you weigh in your opinion please?
We're trying to figure out the role of the Comma + "second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil" portion of the sentence. Thanks!
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 09:38
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LEOiAM wrote:
Sorry; is still not clear. How is this a noun phrase? what is the noun present? "Second" is an adverb.

GMATNinja mikemcgarry could you weigh in your opinion please?
We're trying to figure out the role of the Comma + "second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil" portion of the sentence. Thanks!

I wouldn't expend a lot of mental energy worrying about the proper grammatical term. It's more important that you understand what the relevant piece of the sentence is doing, and whether that function makes sense.

Take a simple example with a similar construction:

    Jen, the second runner to cross the finish line, collapsed in a heap of exhaustion and decided to give up all forms of running forever.

The phrase "the second runner to cross the finish line" is modifying "Jen," so that phrase is functioning as a kind of adjective. You could call it an appositive if you really like jargon. And if you really want to torment yourself, you could think deeply about the difference between appositive and absolute phrases. But those distinctions aren't going to be terribly helpful on the GMAT. We just care about what the word or phrase in question is modifying and whether this modification creates a logical meaning.

Back to the OA:
Quote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

Here, "second only to soybeans..." seems to be modifying "sunflowers," so, again, it's functioning as a kind of adjective. It doesn't matter what we call the phrase; what matters is that it makes sense. After soybeans, the best source of vegetable oil is sunflowers. Perfectly reasonable. Others have commented on the importance of the placement of certain words within the modifying phrase, such as "only," and this is where you should focus your attention when you're evaluating the answer choices.

Bottom line: don't worry about what the components of a sentence are called. Worry about what they're doing.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 18:43
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GMATNinja wrote:
LEOiAM wrote:
Sorry; is still not clear. How is this a noun phrase? what is the noun present? "Second" is an adverb.

GMATNinja mikemcgarry could you weigh in your opinion please?
We're trying to figure out the role of the Comma + "second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil" portion of the sentence. Thanks!

I wouldn't expend a lot of mental energy worrying about the proper grammatical term. It's more important that you understand what the relevant piece of the sentence is doing, and whether that function makes sense.

Take a simple example with a similar construction:

    Jen, the second runner to cross the finish line, collapsed in a heap of exhaustion and decided to give up all forms of running forever.

The phrase "the second runner to cross the finish line" is modifying "Jen," so that phrase is functioning as a kind of adjective. You could call it an appositive if you really like jargon. And if you really want to torment yourself, you could think deeply about the difference between appositive and absolute phrases. But those distinctions aren't going to be terribly helpful on the GMAT. We just care about what the word or phrase in question is modifying and whether this modification creates a logical meaning.

Back to the OA:
Quote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

Here, "second only to soybeans..." seems to be modifying "sunflowers," so, again, it's functioning as a kind of adjective. It doesn't matter what we call the phrase; what matters is that it makes sense. After soybeans, the best source of vegetable oil is sunflowers. Perfectly reasonable. Others have commented on the importance of the placement of certain words within the modifying phrase, such as "only," and this is where you should focus your attention when you're evaluating the answer choices.

Bottom line: don't worry about what the components of a sentence are called. Worry about what they're doing.

I hope this helps!


Thank you, Charles GMATNinja That's certainly helpful.
My concern was mainly whether the phrase was modifying the correct item. For example, verb-ed modifier modifies a preceding noun (or noun phrase). Comma + Which modifies the noun right before the comma (w/some exceptions). But this phrase, it appeared to me that it was an adverbial phrase modifying: "sunflowers have become a major commercial crop". Anyhow, I really appreciate your response. Thank you.
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 07:22
GMATNinja wrote:
LEOiAM wrote:
Sorry; is still not clear. How is this a noun phrase? what is the noun present? "Second" is an adverb.

GMATNinja mikemcgarry could you weigh in your opinion please?
We're trying to figure out the role of the Comma + "second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil" portion of the sentence. Thanks!

I wouldn't expend a lot of mental energy worrying about the proper grammatical term. It's more important that you understand what the relevant piece of the sentence is doing, and whether that function makes sense.

Take a simple example with a similar construction:

    Jen, the second runner to cross the finish line, collapsed in a heap of exhaustion and decided to give up all forms of running forever.

The phrase "the second runner to cross the finish line" is modifying "Jen," so that phrase is functioning as a kind of adjective. You could call it an appositive if you really like jargon. And if you really want to torment yourself, you could think deeply about the difference between appositive and absolute phrases. But those distinctions aren't going to be terribly helpful on the GMAT. We just care about what the word or phrase in question is modifying and whether this modification creates a logical meaning.

Back to the OA:
Quote:
Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major commercial crop, second only to soybeans as a source of vegetable oil.

Here, "second only to soybeans..." seems to be modifying "sunflowers," so, again, it's functioning as a kind of adjective. It doesn't matter what we call the phrase; what matters is that it makes sense. After soybeans, the best source of vegetable oil is sunflowers. Perfectly reasonable. Others have commented on the importance of the placement of certain words within the modifying phrase, such as "only," and this is where you should focus your attention when you're evaluating the answer choices.

Bottom line: don't worry about what the components of a sentence are called. Worry about what they're doing.

I hope this helps!


Hi!!
But IMO noun modifier should come as close as possible to noun it modifies. But in this case noun modifier is placed far from the noun. Is this type of sentence formation acceptable?? Or my concept is wrong??
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 08:53
Quote:
Hi!!
But IMO noun modifier should come as close as possible to noun it modifies. But in this case noun modifier is placed far from the noun. Is this type of sentence formation acceptable?? Or my concept is wrong??


Hi Sumit,
Your concept is correct and the noun modifier should be placed as close as possible to the noun it modifies. But at times, the POE helps as well, and that was the case with me on this question. Even I had the same doubt as yours and got confused between A and E, but "ONLY SECOND" is the incorrect usage here at it seems. Thus, A.
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Re: Over the past ten years cultivated sunflowers have become a major comm &nbs [#permalink] 24 Aug 2018, 08:53

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