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Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a

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Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 12:19
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Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a medication for sleep disorders when taken in synthesized form. Because the long-term side effects of synthetic melatonin are unknown, however, I cannot recommend its use at this time.

Patient: Your position is inconsistent with your usual practice. You prescribe many medications that you know have serious side effects, so concern about side effects cannot be the real reason you will not prescribe melatonin.

The patient's argument is flawed because it fails to consider that

(A) the side effects of synthetic melatonin might be different from those of naturally produced melatonin
(B) it is possible that the physician does not believe that melatonin has been conclusively shown to be effective
(C) sleep disorders, if left untreated, might lead to serious medical complications
(D) the side effects of a medication can take some time to manifest themselves
(E) known risks can be weighed against known benefits, but unknown risks cannot

OG2017 CR 565 P516
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 12:45
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(A) the side effects of synthetic melatonin might be different from those of naturally produced melatonin
naturally produced melatonin is out of scope so it's comparison with the synthetic one.

(B) it is possible that the physician does not believe that melatonin has been conclusively shown to be effective
"The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a medication for sleep disorders ....." it's mentioned very well that melatonin is effective !

(C) sleep disorders, if left untreated, might lead to serious medical complications
may or may not be true but this has nothing to do with the argument.

(D) the side effects of a medication can take some time to manifest themselves
the time of action is not into consideration.

(E) known risks can be weighed against known benefits, but unknown risks cannot
" ....Because the long-term side effects of synthetic melatonin are unknown....." the physician has been providing many medicines to patients because the physician knew the side effect and its magnitude but since this (melatonin) has no known side effects so the physician is not prescribing it considering that it might harm the patient.
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2012, 13:18
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E.

Doc- unknown side effects
Patient- known side effects.

GAP here- patient mistakingly correlates/equates known side effects to unknown side effects

answer choice that attacks this is the answer.

E does that.
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2012, 07:14
E patient himself tells that the doctor knows the side effects of the medicines he prescribes
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2012, 22:18
Clear winner E , as Doctor does not prescribes the ones which have unknown side effects but patient is arguing about that doctor does prescribe medication with side effects. the gap is there
Medication with unknown side effect which Dr will not prescribe vs Medication which has known side effects.
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2016, 23:35
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 05:51
The flaw in reasoning is the patient's equating known side effects with unknown side effects.

Answer choice E.
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a medication for sleep disorders when taken in synthesized form. Because the long-term side effects of synthetic melatonin are unknown, however, I cannot recommend its use at this time.

Patient: Your position is inconsistent with your usual practice. You prescribe many medications that you know have serious side effects, so concern about side effects cannot be the real reason you will not prescribe melatonin.

The patient's argument is flawed because it fails to consider that

(A) the side effects of synthetic melatonin might be different from those of naturally produced melatonin
(B) it is possible that the physician does not believe that melatonin has been conclusively shown to be effective
(C) sleep disorders, if left untreated, might lead to serious medical complications
(D) the side effects of a medication can take some time to manifest themselves
(E) known risks can be weighed against known benefits, but unknown risks cannot


Melatonin
 
Step 1: Identify the Question

The word flawed in the question stem indicates that this is a Find the Flaw question. Flaw questions are closely related to Weaken questions with one big difference: Weaken questions will contain the language if true, while Flaw questions will NOT.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Dr: M = effective, BUT: side effects unknown → can’t prescribe
Pa: you prescribe other meds w/ side effects → why not M?

The physician’s argument is this: M’s side effects are unknown, so he can’t recommend using it. The patient counters this argument by claiming that the physician must actually have some other reason to avoid prescribing M. The physician prescribes other medications that have serious side effects, so unknown side effects aren’t (according to the patient) a valid excuse.

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Flaw questions, the goal is to find an answer choice that undermines one of the argument’s assumptions. What is the patient overlooking or what bad assumption is he making in drawing his conclusion?.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) Unless the argument also provides information about natural melatonin, knowing that the two types of melatonin are different from each other doesn’t affect the argument, which is purely about synthetic melatonin.
(B) This answer choice states that there is another reason that the physician chooses not to prescribe melatonin—he is concerned about its efficacy, rather than its safety. However, this isn’t something that the patient has failed to consider. In fact, this type of issue is exactly what the patient is concerned about.
(C) Failing to consider the serious medical consequences of sleep disorders is a criticism that would be more appropriately levied at the physician than the patient.
(D) The argument deals only with which side effects a medication has, not the time frame in which those side effects make themselves known.
(E) CORRECT. The doctor’s argument specifically regards the unknown side effects of melatonin. In the patient’s response, he draws an analogy between melatonin and other medications with known serious side effects. In doing so, the patient assumes—perhaps incorrectly—that known and unknown side effects should be treated in the same way.
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 18:02
Summarize:
Doctor has a remedy but he does not know the side effects.
Doctor is inconsistent according to the patient.

Generalize:
doctor can probably treat him if he has seen such side effects before. The only answer close to this is E
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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2017, 23:53
here in this argument the Physician's argument is about the unknown risk but the patients argument is about the serious risk , the flaw in this consideration should be resolved. Hence E is the best answer.

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Re: Physician: The hormone melatonin has shown promise as a   [#permalink] 28 Nov 2017, 23:53
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