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Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible

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Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Jul 2018, 05:16
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Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles will require auto manufacturers to incorporate new technology and more costly components in cars. This will drive up the price of cars, both at home and abroad. Therefore, the legislation will result in the loss of many export markets. The argument is most seriously weakened by which of the following?

A. Most of the countries to which U.S. automobiles are exported have recently enacted similar legislation limiting emissions.
B. Non-compliance with the new legislation can be punished with high fines.
C. Training factory workers to use the new technology required to manufacture compliant automobiles will be expensive and time-consuming.
D. Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.
E. Environmental groups have been leaning heavily on the auto industry to voluntarily institute such emissions standards.

GROCKIT Explanation:
This question’s conclusion—that the emissions standards legislation will result in the loss of many export markets for cars—rests on the assumption that the U.S. cars will become too expensive to be competitive in those markets. However, if other countries have recently enacted similar legislation, then the costs of domestic automobiles in those markets are likely to increase as well, which would allow the U.S. exports to raise their prices without becoming too expensive to sell.
A. This is the credited response. If many markets to which the U.S. exports cars have enacted similar legislation, it is likely that the costs of their domestic autos have increased as well, which might be sufficient to keep U.S. prices competitive even as those prices increase.
D. The possibility of auto manufacturers relocating their plants has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument.

I agree with the OA.

But, as per choice (D), relocation to countries with no stringent standards by SOME manufacturers will definitely not drive up prices of SUCH manufacturers. Hence, this will not result in the loss of SOME (if not MANY) export markets. So, this WEAKENS the argument, at least to SOME extent. Definitely not as much choice (A) does.
But why does the explanation of choice (D) say that it has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument? Am I missing something in the structure of the argument itself?

Many thanks & kudos are on their way :thumbup:

Originally posted by supratim7 on 12 Oct 2012, 10:39.
Last edited by abhimahna on 07 Jul 2018, 05:16, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2012, 10:47
1
supratim7 wrote:
Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles will require auto manufacturers to incorporate new technology and more costly components in cars. This will drive up the price of cars, both at home and abroad. Therefore, the legislation will result in the loss of many export markets. The argument is most seriously weakened by which of the following?

A. Most of the countries to which U.S. automobiles are exported have recently enacted similar legislation limiting emissions.
B. Non-compliance with the new legislation can be punished with high fines.
C. Training factory workers to use the new technology required to manufacture compliant automobiles will be expensive and time-consuming.
D. Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.
E. Environmental groups have been leaning heavily on the auto industry to voluntarily institute such emissions standards.

GROCKIT Explanation:
This question’s conclusion—that the emissions standards legislation will result in the loss of many export markets for cars—rests on the assumption that the U.S. cars will become too expensive to be competitive in those markets. However, if other countries have recently enacted similar legislation, then the costs of domestic automobiles in those markets are likely to increase as well, which would allow the U.S. exports to raise their prices without becoming too expensive to sell.
A. This is the credited response. If many markets to which the U.S. exports cars have enacted similar legislation, it is likely that the costs of their domestic autos have increased as well, which might be sufficient to keep U.S. prices competitive even as those prices increase.
D. The possibility of auto manufacturers relocating their plants has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument.

I agree with the OA.

But, as per choice (D), relocation to countries with no stringent standards by SOME manufacturers will definitely not drive up prices of SUCH manufacturers. Hence, this will not result in the loss of SOME (if not MANY) export markets. So, this WEAKENS the argument, at least to SOME extent. Definitely not as much choice (A) does.
But why does the explanation of choice (D) say that it has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument? Am I missing something in the structure of the argument itself?

Many thanks & kudos are on their way :thumbup:


As you correctly said the conclusion is : Therefore, the legislation will result in the loss of many export markets.

THUS, Our main concern in this argument is export out of USA to other countries. Relocation of plant to other countries is too far ahead of the question and out of scope. We have NO IDEA how this help. IT might NOT actually save ANY cost or it might BE MORE expensive because of cost of land, labour etc etc. IN CR we cant assume that the it will be cheaper and hence we will save money. THUS it wont have any effect on our conclusion. Plus We have a clear cut choice of answer infront of us i.e A :)

Hope it helps!
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2012, 10:56
Hi. Option D says about moving the production plant to a new location with lesser stringent laws.
Well, that would still require the cars (automobiles) to be fitted with the costlier components that are required to meet the new emission laws.
As it talks about production plants, it sort of goes out of scope.

Hope it helps..
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2012, 11:50
Quote:
Relocation of plant to other countries is too far ahead of the question and out of scope.

Well, doesn't all Strengthen/Weaken need to be a bit "out of scope", "outside the argument", "something new", etc. ? I remember Ron Purewal (MGMAT) categorically mentioned this in one of his post & Thursday study hall. He clearly demonstrated this prognosis in the study hall. Plus, I don't think Choice (D) is blatantly out of scope or outside the realm of the argument.

Quote:
We have NO IDEA how this help. IT might NOT actually save ANY cost or it might BE MORE expensive because of cost of land, labour etc etc. IN CR we cant assume that the it will be cheaper and hence we will save money.

Again, I remember Ron mentioned that Strengthen/Weaken work on "real-world logic" and one is supposed to make "real-world assumptions and inferences". Choice (D) says "Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards." So, this plus given the topic at hand (Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles), we sure can infer some cost advantage. Don't you think so..

Quote:
Plus We have a clear cut choice of answer infront of us i.e A :)

Absolutely. I don't doubt the OA. Just want to understand how choice (D) has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument? I mean, does it really have NO EFFECT? :)

Suppose Choice (A) is not there and Choice (D) is has been modified.. i.e.
D. MOST automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.
What would you say then? Would it still have NO EFFECT?

BTW, thank you for taking interest :)
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2012, 02:15
supratim7 wrote:
Quote:
Relocation of plant to other countries is too far ahead of the question and out of scope.

Well, doesn't all Strengthen/Weaken need to be a bit "out of scope", "outside the argument", "something new", etc. ? I remember Ron Purewal (MGMAT) categorically mentioned this in one of his post & Thursday study hall. He clearly demonstrated this prognosis in the study hall. Plus, I don't think Choice (D) is blatantly out of scope or outside the realm of the argument.

Quote:
We have NO IDEA how this help. IT might NOT actually save ANY cost or it might BE MORE expensive because of cost of land, labour etc etc. IN CR we cant assume that the it will be cheaper and hence we will save money.

Again, I remember Ron mentioned that Strengthen/Weaken work on "real-world logic" and one is supposed to make "real-world assumptions and inferences". Choice (D) says "Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards." So, this plus given the topic at hand (Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles), we sure can infer some cost advantage. Don't you think so..

Quote:
Plus We have a clear cut choice of answer infront of us i.e A :)

Absolutely. I don't doubt the OA. Just want to understand how choice (D) has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument? I mean, does it really have NO EFFECT? :)

Suppose Choice (A) is not there and Choice (D) is has been modified.. i.e.
D. MOST automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.
What would you say then? Would it still have NO EFFECT?

BTW, thank you for taking interest :)


D. MOST automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.

Even if most of them relocate the market lost is market lost so we are not weaking the conclusion! For example

there are 20 countries of which only 2 of them don't have stringent emissions standards, so this company is still losing out those 18 countries market share so the conclusion still hold.

Now u can ask why not the other way round 18 has NO emissions standards and only 2 has stringent emissions standards, even then these auto folks are gone lose customer in those 2 countries. Customers lost are customers lost. Hence we are still not weakinng the argument

HTH!
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 11:27
Quote:
D. MOST automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.

Even if most of them relocate the market lost is market lost so we are not weaking the conclusion! For example

there are 20 countries of which only 2 of them don't have stringent emissions standards, so this company is still losing out those 18 countries market share so the conclusion still hold.

Now u can ask why not the other way round 18 has NO emissions standards and only 2 has stringent emissions standards, even then these auto folks are gone lose customer in those 2 countries. Customers lost are customers lost. Hence we are still not weakinng the argument

HTH!


I don't really follow the reasoning you have presented Jp27.

The argument doesn't allow these 2 situations (the ones you have considered).
The argument mentions that only 1 country (US) has enforced stringent emission stds.
So, the hypothetical situation of 18 countries with emission stds & 2 countries with no emission stds and vice-versa doesn't arise.
So, it is between 1 country (US) and other countries.
If we lose "other countries" then it DOESN'T weaken the conclusion (loss of MANY export markets). But, if we lose only US then it DOES weaken the conclusion (loss of MANY export markets)

i.e. 2 scenarios are possible:
A) US manufacturers don't relocate to country X, Y, Z > Comply with US emission > Prices escalate > lose MANY export markets > Conclusion holds
B) US manufacturers relocate to country X, Y, Z > Don't comply with US emission std > Prices don't escalate > lose ONLY US export market > > Conclusion DOESN'T hold

However my bigger point is why the Grockit answer explanation says that choice (D) has NO EFFECT on the conclusion of the argument? Does it really have NO EFFECT?

Thank you for writing in :)
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 12:08
supratim7 wrote:

i.e. 2 scenarios are possible:
A) US manufacturers don't relocate to country X, Y, Z > Comply with US emission > Prices escalate > lose MANY export markets > Conclusion holds
B) US manufacturers relocate to country X, Y, Z > Don't comply with US emission std > Prices don't escalate > lose ONLY US export market > > Conclusion DOESN'T hold



Why lose export market in the US? they will lose markets in other countries as well.....

And the analogy holds good. We can try attacking from another angle. In weaking Qs if we weaken the assumption we can weaken the argument.
So what's the argument and What's the assumption.

Conclusion -> the legislation will result in the loss of many export markets.

Premise -> Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles will require auto manufacturers to incorporate new technology and more costly components in cars. This will drive up the price of cars, both at home and abroad.

Assumption -> Author should think that ppl in the home country / aboard wont buy cars if the price goes. What if ppl are still willing to buy the cars? what if the cars prices in the other countries have also gone up because of similar regulations in that country as well, then the new US car price wont seem too high . -> this is what is showed in Answer A

Now what happens if were to counter the author with this clain "the US guys will re-locate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards"

The author would simply respond saying that, still US manufacturer will loss markets (in US and aboard), so the legislation will HURT the US manufacturer!
So this indeed has NO Effect!

HTH
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2012, 18:30
I agree that Ron had mentioned outside reasoning needs to be present in the correct answer choice at the same time he explained out of scope and outside reasoning presented but they dont have any effect on the argument.

lets look at D closely, there is no where stated about the cost of parts of car in other countries. had it been cheaper in those than it would have weaken, but nothing such is mentioned it is just outside scope or having no effect.
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2012, 01:33
was b/w A and B..chose B..:(
wat abt B?? is not weaken the conclusion

if they will not comply with law..they will punished with high fines??..
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2018, 01:03
Would be curious to know such line of thinking is correct. To eliminate D, the line of thought I have is - D talks about relocation to countries with less stringent restrictions. If this has to be true, then conclusion having exports as the main thing wouldn't even exist to talk about. Mostly, I happen to think in such line in weaken and strengthen questions of CR. Maybe this is what is called out of scope as few other folks mentioned.

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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2018, 02:41
I am also confused between option A and D
Since A says that other countries will also implement that same increase hence the increased cost of the exporting country will not be high .
But we are assuming that the cost by which the countries increasing the price are same.
I think A is wrong.

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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2018, 06:51
Well.....D is wrong because of the word SOME.D also requires a lot of assumptions to be made which renders it incorrect.

This is not an airtight question.
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 10:15
I disagree with OA in this question
A does not "Most of the countries to which U.S. automobiles are exported have recently enacted similar legislation limiting emissions"
state how the prices of car will soar.
Selecting A an answer require certain assumptions. I think one sould ignore these kind of questions while practicing
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 04:30
[quote="supratim7"]Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible from automobiles will require auto manufacturers to incorporate new technology and more costly components in cars. This will drive up the price of cars, both at home and abroad. Therefore, the legislation will result in the loss of many export markets. The argument is most seriously weakened by which of the following?

A. Most of the countries to which U.S. automobiles are exported have recently enacted similar legislation limiting emissions.
B. Non-compliance with the new legislation can be punished with high fines.
C. Training factory workers to use the new technology required to manufacture compliant automobiles will be expensive and time-consuming.
D. Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards.
E. Environmental groups have been leaning heavily on the auto industry to voluntarily institute such emissions standards.


I will go for A ,
as conlcusion says that due to legislation , price will go up and leads to price rise in export market, so we need to strengthen the argument by looking for some premise which directly says, it wont impact export market
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2018, 00:03
gmatexam439 sir I marked Option D because Some automobile manufacturers will choose to relocate their plants to other countries that do not have stringent emissions standards can have some impact on the cost.
In Option A aren't we taking too many assumptions?
We are assuming that the cost increase in other exporting countries is the same as cost increase of export in our country.
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Re: Recent U.S. legislation limiting the emissions permissible &nbs [#permalink] 16 Nov 2018, 00:03
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