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Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio

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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Mar 2019, 15:59
1
Hello Everyone!

Let's take a look at this question, one problem at a time, to narrow it down to the right choice! First, here is the original question, with the major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of
B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double
C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled
D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of
E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

After a quick glance over the options, couple key differences stand out:

1. Beginning with "that" vs. "of" (idiom / meaning)
2. How they end (verb tense / logic / punctuation)


While it's tempting to tackle #1 on our list because it seems simple, let's instead focus on #2: how they end. To narrow this down, let's focus on two main components:

1. Do all of the pronouns have clear antecedents?
2. Does it make logical sense in terms of time?


Let's take a closer look at each option, and rule out the ones that don't work. To make this easier to spot problems, I included the end of the sentence that's not underlined.

A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

This is INCORRECT for two reasons. First, it states that personal spending in the July-September time frame already doubled - but we only have information about August so far. Therefore, this doesn't make logical sense in terms of time. Second, it uses the phrase "that of" without anything for it to refer back to. There are already two items being compared, and they both use the phrase "personal spending." This leaves us with a confusing phrase that isn't tied to anything else!

B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

This is OKAY for now! It uses the phrase "would more than double," which is clearly a prediction about what will happen in the rest of the quarter. There also don't seem to be any issues with pronouns here.

C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, this option also assumes that the personal spending rate already doubled, instead of predicting the rate for the rest of the quarter. Second, the pronoun "it" doesn't have a clear antecedent to refer back to - WHO doubled the spending rate? The sentence doesn't actually name anyone, so this "it" pronoun doesn't make sense to use here.

D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

This is INCORRECT for two reasons. First, by saying "more than doubling," the writer is now saying the spending rate has already doubled, which we don't know is going to be true or not. Second, the phrase "that of" isn't necessary - it's not referring back to anything. Both items being compared use the phrase "personal spending," so there's no need for any pronouns.

E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

While this option uses the correct "would more than double" to show a prediction, it's still INCORRECT. The phrase "that of" has no clear antecedent. The sentence is comparing personal spending in July-September to personal spending in the previous quarter, and both use the phrase "personal spending," so the pronoun isn't necessary.

Well, there you go - option B is our correct choice! It clearly shows the writer making a prediction about future behavior, and doesn't include any unclear or unnecessary pronouns or phrases!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 22 Oct 2018, 14:19.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 15 Mar 2019, 15:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 19:06
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expectation that is correct idiom here
as expectation of in C,D and E indicate personal spending has certain expectations which is not logical

narrow down to A and B

B is correct as percent growth rate is compared to other percent growth rate so need to use "that"
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 23:40
1
"expectations that" needs a would , but my silly doubt is can will replace the requirement of would,???

simply confused between will and would usage , can anybody explain it for me

i think, probability is more if we use will, and "would" gives possibility of lighter degree ( its very vague for me somebody do correct me)

thanks
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2019, 08:56
than is a preposition, shouldn't double become doubling after "than" (if double is a verb here)?
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2020, 20:33
GMATNinja wrote:
Lots of “that” going on this week. Check out our Topic of the Week, or our YouTube live webinar on the GMAT’s many uses of “that”.

In this question, we have two different uses of “that” going on. Fun.

Quote:
A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

The first "that" is pretty harmless, and just modifies “expectations.” The second that is trying to function as a pronoun – and “that” is always singular when it’s being used as a pronoun, so let’s look for a singular noun it could refer back to. “Personal spending” is singular. So let’s replace “that” with “personal spending”:

    Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1% in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled the personal spending of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending


Whoa, that’s a steaming pile of nonsense. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

Hm, this looks good. “Intensifying expectations that personal spending… would more than double” is perfectly clear, and we don’t have any pronoun issues. Keep (B).

Quote:
C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

I don’t like the “intensifying expectations of personal spending, but the pronouns are a much bigger issue. “That” looks like a noun modifier – modifying “personal spending in the July-September quarter”, I guess? But then what does “it” refer to? “Personal spending”, I guess? Then we have “intensifying expectations of personal spending, that personal spending more than doubled the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending…”

Wow, that’s another pronoun mess. I think we can safely get rid of (C).

Quote:
D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, more than doubling that of

Same pronoun error as in (A), so (D) is gone.

Quote:
E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Same pronoun error as in (A) and (D), so (E) is gone, too.

We’re left with (B). Yay pronouns.


I chose option B as the answer, but ended up spending a lot of time on the question to understand the meaning. Can you please explain how the comparison is correct in choice B. I did go through @sayantanc2k's post but was unable to understand the difference in meaning. I just want to know how the statement "that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double the 1.4 percent growth rate" implies the correct meaning.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2020, 04:55
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.
A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of- pronoun that(second one) refers to personal spending and leads to an illogical meaning

B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double- Correct

C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled- pronoun issue 'that it'

D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of- same pronoun issue as A

E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of - same pronoun issue as A

1. 'intensifying expectations that personal spending' vs ' intensifying expectations of personal spending'-- Is 'intensifying expectations that personal spending' better than the latter? Can it be used as a decision point?

2. In option C,
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled--

In this option C, verb-ing modifier 'intensifying expectations of personal spending in the July-September quarter' modifies the preceding clause and makes sense with the action of preceding clause 'rose'. But does it make sense with the subject 'retail sales'?

3. Also, in option C,
It the usage of 'that' to introduce a subordinate clause correct here? ( We remove the part separated by commas to give our core sentence as following)
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August that it more than doubled

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2020, 05:48
Skywalker18 wrote:
1. 'intensifying expectations that personal spending' vs ' intensifying expectations of personal spending'-- Is 'intensifying expectations that personal spending' better than the latter? Can it be used as a decision point?

Yes.

Quote:
2. In option C,
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled--

In this option C, verb-ing modifier 'intensifying expectations of personal spending in the July-September quarter' modifies the preceding clause and makes sense with the action of preceding clause 'rose'. But does it make sense with the subject 'retail sales'?

Yes it does make sense; however, you should not really be worried about this aspect in this question, since the entire participial phrase is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, all options inherit the same structure.

Quote:
3. Also, in option C,
It the usage of 'that' to introduce a subordinate clause correct here? ( We remove the part separated by commas to give our core sentence as following)
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August that it more than doubled

More importantly, one would not normally expect to see a comma before that.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2020, 08:57
Expectations "that personal spending..." instead of "of personal spending...", so eliminate C, D and E.

Boiled down to A and B, which will lead us to analyze which sentence makes the most sense: A is not straightforward while B gives us the clear meaning we need to answer: B is the OA!
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2020, 17:19
td wrote:
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of




Hi souvik101990 generis
I have a query with respect to the use of tense...
If option B would have been as follows, would it be still incorrect?

that personal spending in the July-September quarter will more than double

My reason: Since the sentence talks from the past perspective that is represented by the verb ROSE, WOULD is correct that WILL?
Please correct me if I am wrong.

Sometimes with the word EXPECTATIONS...WILL can also be correct but that depends upon the context of the sentence and tense used in the sentence.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2020, 10:26
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Suryakumar wrote:

Hi souvik101990 generis
I have a query with respect to the use of tense...
If option B would have been as follows, would it be still incorrect?

that personal spending in the July-September quarter will more than double

My reason: Since the sentence talks from the past perspective that is represented by the verb ROSE, WOULD is correct that WILL?
Please correct me if I am wrong.

Sometimes with the word EXPECTATIONS...WILL can also be correct but that depends upon the context of the sentence and tense used in the sentence.



Hello Suryakumar,
Thank you for the query. :-)

The context of the sentence is such that the verb will will also work in the correct answer choice.

See, if you visualize that the current time is still somewhere in September that is not over yet, the future tense verb will work because the time period mentioned in the sentence is yet to be over.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Apr 2020, 08:08
td wrote:
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

I would like to know whether the first 'that' is a modifier or is a subordinate clause ?

GMAT ninja has mentioned that The first "that" is pretty harmless, and just modifies “expectations.”

But what follows the 'that' is a complete clause which makes me wonder if it is a subordinate clause. Is it ok for a modifier to have a complete clause ?

The below examples show 'that' being used as a modifier. What follows that is just the verb phrase not the complete clause.
Ex 1: The first-class airline tickets to Antarctica that were purchased using Amber’s retirement savings were worth every penny.
Ex 2 : The son of a gun that burned my dinner deserves to be punished.


GMATNinja VeritasKarishma

Originally posted by Abhishekrao12 on 10 Apr 2020, 06:18.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 13 Apr 2020, 08:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2020, 17:00
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Abhishekrao12 wrote:
td wrote:
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

I would like to know whether the first 'that' is a modifier or is a subordinate clause ?

GMAT ninja has mentioned that The first "that" is pretty harmless, and just modifies “expectations.”

But what follows the 'that' is a complete clause which makes me wonder if it is a subordinate clause. Is it ok for a modifier to have a complete clause ?

The below examples show 'that' being used as a modifier. What follows that is just the verb phrase not the complete clause.
Ex 1: The first-class airline tickets to Antarctica that were purchased using Amber’s retirement savings were worth every penny.
Ex 2 : The son of a gun that burned my dinner deserves to be punished.


GMATNinja VeritasKarishma

First, anytime you place "that" in front of an independent clause, the clause is no longer independent.

"Tony had a baby." Independent clause.

"That Tony had a baby." Not an independent clause.

Context will dictate how the dependent "that" clause is used. For example,

  • "I heard the news that Tony had a baby." - Sure, "Tony had a baby" has a noun+verb pair, but the "that" clause still modifies "news" - What news did I hear? The news THAT Tony had a baby.
  • "I can't believe that Tony had a baby!" - Here we have the same exact "that" clause, but in this case it functions as a noun (as the object of the verb "believe") instead of a modifier.

The takeaway is that GMAT SC isn't about coming up with a list of black and white rules (i.e. "modifiers can/cannot have a complete clause?") and blindly applying them to new problems -- instead, you always need to pay attention to the context and think really hard about the meaning in each unique sentence.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2020, 07:29
[quote="td"]Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Expectations of personal spending (are we expecting from personal spending)
Also expectation will take that conjunction

Options (C),(D) and (E) are wrong.

Here we are comparing the growth rate 1 % with 1.4% with clear mention and hence doubled that of is wrong. So (A) is out.

Answer is (B)
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2020, 07:53
td wrote:
Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of



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Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.

(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of

(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

IMO B
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Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 May 2020, 07:59
Dear IanStewart AjiteshArun MartyTargetTestPrep GMATGuruNY AnthonyRitz VeritasPrepBrian ccooley DmitryFarber GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo,

Although I got it correct by POE, I have 2 questions on the correct choice B.

Q1. Why is comparison in choice B. correct?
How can SPENDING (which is supposed to be a number double) a RATE?
Shouldn't it be that the RATE of personal spending in July-Sept double the RATE of personal spending in previous quarter?

Q2. Is it possible for a present value to double a past value?
How can a past value (the growth rate of a previous quarter) be changed or double?

Side note: The issue in Q2 is the reason why choice A. is wrong in this OG question: https://gmatclub.com/forum/a-1972-agree ... 52000.html
Quote:
WRONG : A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

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Originally posted by varotkorn on 20 May 2020, 07:05.
Last edited by varotkorn on 25 May 2020, 07:59, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2020, 05:29
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varotkorn wrote:

Although I got it correct by POE, I have 2 questions on the correct choice B.

Q1. Why is comparison in choice B. correct?
How can SPENDING (which is supposed to be a number double) a RATE?
Shouldn't it be that the RATE of personal spending in July-Sept double the RATE of personal spending in previous quarter?

Q2. Is it possible for a present value to double a past value?
How can a past value (the growth rate of a previous quarter) be changed or double?


I only skimmed the thread, but some replies seem to eliminate C, D and E solely because they use "expectations of". "Expectations of" is an idiomatic phrase in English, as in the sentence "not much was expected of me", or "expectations of me were low". So you need to consider what the sentence means before eliminating those answers. And at least one long reply above says the pronouns in the wrong answer choices do not have clear antecedents, which is not true. There's only one singular thing in the sentence the "that" and "it" pronouns can refer to, "personal spending", so the pronouns have a perfectly clear antecedent. The pronouns are wrong because they create a nonsensical meaning.

You're right that if you read the sentence a certain way, even the right answer seems to be constructing an improper comparison. But if you read it differently, the comparison becomes fine. If you think of the first "personal spending" in the sentence as something that is "doing the work", rather than as an amount, then the sentence makes sense, much as the sentence "in September, factory workers were expected to more than double the 10% increase in production they achieved in August". It is a bit of a strange way to read the sentence though, and I"d have preferred a phrasing that more obviously compares two like things. When I answer this question, I don't like B much on a first read for that reason, but after reading the remaining choices, it is clearly the only possible answer.
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New post Updated on: 29 May 2020, 23:19
Dear DmitryFarber IanStewart AjiteshArun GMATGuruNY MartyTargetTestPrep,

I think what makes OA illogical is that DOUBLE functions as verb here. Obviously, we can't change, not to mention double, the past figure because it's already done with!

However, if I modify OA to BE DOUBLE then DOUBLE functions as adjective. Will that make more sense?

Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter would BE more than double the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter.
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Originally posted by varotkorn on 24 May 2020, 18:57.
Last edited by varotkorn on 29 May 2020, 23:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2020, 03:32
Dear GMATGuruNY,

According to your great explanation here: https://www.beatthegmat.com/og13-q20-t223891.html.
I now know that the GROWTH rate of personal spending is calculated from the current and the past quarter personal spending.
Quote:
The OA does not make a comparison.
to double X = to increase X by 100%
OA: Personal spending in the Julv-September quarter would more than double the...growth rate.
Conveyed meaning:
Personal spending in the July-September quarter would increase the growth rate by more than 100%.

However, I'm still a bit unclear how can we increase the growth rate for the previous quarter since OA indicates that it is THE 1.4%.
So, at the time this sentence was written, the growth rate for the previous quarter was already calculated?
If so, how could we increase that already calculated figure?
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2020, 15:28
GMATNinja wrote:
Lots of “that” going on this week. Check out our Topic of the Week, or our YouTube live webinar on the GMAT’s many uses of “that”.

In this question, we have two different uses of “that” going on. Fun.

Quote:
A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

The first "that" is pretty harmless, and just modifies “expectations.” The second that is trying to function as a pronoun – and “that” is always singular when it’s being used as a pronoun, so let’s look for a singular noun it could refer back to. “Personal spending” is singular. So let’s replace “that” with “personal spending”:

    Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1% in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled the personal spending of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending


Whoa, that’s a steaming pile of nonsense. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

Hm, this looks good. “Intensifying expectations that personal spending… would more than double” is perfectly clear, and we don’t have any pronoun issues. Keep (B).

Quote:
C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

I don’t like the “intensifying expectations of personal spending, but the pronouns are a much bigger issue. “That” looks like a noun modifier – modifying “personal spending in the July-September quarter”, I guess? But then what does “it” refer to? “Personal spending”, I guess? Then we have “intensifying expectations of personal spending, that personal spending more than doubled the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending…”

Wow, that’s another pronoun mess. I think we can safely get rid of (C).

Quote:
D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, more than doubling that of

Same pronoun error as in (A), so (D) is gone.

Quote:
E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Same pronoun error as in (A) and (D), so (E) is gone, too.

We’re left with (B). Yay pronouns.


I have a question with C. How did you determine that 'that' in C is being used as a noun modifier ? Could it not have been an article ? If I determine that it's an article, where am I wrong?
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2020, 13:10
1
navderm wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Lots of “that” going on this week. Check out our Topic of the Week, or our YouTube live webinar on the GMAT’s many uses of “that”.

In this question, we have two different uses of “that” going on. Fun.

Quote:
A. that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of

The first "that" is pretty harmless, and just modifies “expectations.” The second that is trying to function as a pronoun – and “that” is always singular when it’s being used as a pronoun, so let’s look for a singular noun it could refer back to. “Personal spending” is singular. So let’s replace “that” with “personal spending”:

    Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1% in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled the personal spending of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending


Whoa, that’s a steaming pile of nonsense. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double

Hm, this looks good. “Intensifying expectations that personal spending… would more than double” is perfectly clear, and we don’t have any pronoun issues. Keep (B).

Quote:
C. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled

I don’t like the “intensifying expectations of personal spending, but the pronouns are a much bigger issue. “That” looks like a noun modifier – modifying “personal spending in the July-September quarter”, I guess? But then what does “it” refer to? “Personal spending”, I guess? Then we have “intensifying expectations of personal spending, that personal spending more than doubled the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending…”

Wow, that’s another pronoun mess. I think we can safely get rid of (C).

Quote:
D. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, more than doubling that of

Same pronoun error as in (A), so (D) is gone.

Quote:
E. of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of

Same pronoun error as in (A) and (D), so (E) is gone, too.

We’re left with (B). Yay pronouns.


I have a question with C. How did you determine that 'that' in C is being used as a noun modifier ? Could it not have been an article ? If I determine that it's an article, where am I wrong?

First, the fact that you were unable to figure out what "that" was doing in the sentence is a pretty good indication that you were looking at a flawed answer choice!

More generally, context will typically allow you to see what role "that" is playing. For example,

    Tim described the music that his kids were blasting as "thrash klezmer," a designation that confused everyone else in his choir.

Here "that his kids were blasting" is clearly describing the music. There's nothing else that phrase could be doing.

If "that" were being used more like an article (or a "determiner" if you're into the jargon), it would likely precede a noun and differentiate it from other nouns in the same category. For example:

    Tim asked his children why they would choose to play that music, as opposed to music that didn't sound like a violin strangling a cat.

Here, the "that" in red is differentiating between one kind of music and another. (The second "that," in blue, is a relative pronoun, one merely describing the alternative type of music.)

Is it important to know the difference between a determiner and a relative pronoun? Not at all. You just want to ask yourself: is it clear what the modifier is describing and is it logical? If you can answer those questions, the terminology is completely irrelevant.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Retail sales rose 8/10 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectatio   [#permalink] 20 Jun 2020, 13:10

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