It is currently 18 Dec 2017, 10:54

Final Week of R1 Decisions:

CHAT Rooms | MIT Sloan | McCombs 


Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Some anthropologists argue that the human species..

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 03 Sep 2012
Posts: 375

Kudos [?]: 260 [0], given: 38

Location: United States
Concentration: Healthcare, Strategy
GMAT 1: 730 Q48 V42
GPA: 3.88
WE: Medicine and Health (Health Care)
Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Nov 2012, 05:53
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

67% (01:05) correct 33% (02:13) wrong based on 135 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments. However, there is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct. Hence, the anthropologists’ claim is false.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that the argument

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case

(B) takes for granted that if one species had a
characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same
characteristic

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with
a certain characteristic survived certain
conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly
the same conditions

(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times

(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a
condition caused a result to occur in one case,
it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case


OA, After some time..
_________________

"When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe, then you’ll be successful.” - Eric Thomas

Kudos [?]: 260 [0], given: 38

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 08 Apr 2012
Posts: 128

Kudos [?]: 113 [0], given: 14

Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Nov 2012, 02:02
vomhorizon wrote:
Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments. However, there is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct. Hence, the anthropologists’ claim is false.

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that the argument

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case

(B) takes for granted that if one species had a
characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same
characteristic

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with
a certain characteristic survived certain
conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly
the same conditions

(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times

(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a
condition caused a result to occur in one case,
it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case


OA, After some time..



The correct answer here is A.

Counter Premise: Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments.

Premise: There is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct.

Conclusion: The anthropologists’ claim is false.

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a given result to occur in one case with the condition’s being sufficient for such a result to occur in a similar case

"a condition’s being required for a given result to occur in one case"

Condition:ability to cope with diverse natural environments
Result: Survival
Case: Humans

Similar case: Australopithecus afarensis

So, here the choice says that the argument treats the condition to be sufficient. That might not be the case.



(B) takes for granted that if one species had a characteristic that happened to enable it to survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same characteristic

This makes no sense. The choice itself is contradictory. It is talking about the 'survival' of least one 'extinct' species.

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with a certain characteristic survived certain conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly the same conditions

This is untrue. The argument is not generalizing. It is holding up a specific case to disprove a claim.

(D) fails to consider the possibility that Australopithecus afarensis had one or more characteristics that lessened its chances of surviving prehistoric times

We don't have information to comment on characteristics that would 'lessen' chances of survival.

(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a condition caused a result to occur in one case, it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case

The word 'sufficient' in place of necessary would have made it a better contender.


Regards,

Shouvik.
_________________

Shouvik
http://www.Edvento.com
admin@edvento.com

Kudos [?]: 113 [0], given: 14

Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 903

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Dec 2012, 21:22
(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case

Can be correct, as a condition which had a result in one case is deemed to be sufficient in other case.

(B) takes for granted that if one species had a
characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same
characteristic

out of scope

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with
a certain characteristic survived certain
conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly
the same conditions
out of scope

(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times

correct , had AA had one more characteristic => less survival => weak argument

(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a
condition caused a result to occur in one case,
it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case

Close but not accurate enough to meet already fighting options (A) and (D).

Plz post the OA , (A) or (D). or some other option

My take (D).
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 903

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 00:37
Experts Please pour in and justify the option (A). if it is OA

thanks
Saurabh
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

1 KUDOS received
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 03 Sep 2012
Posts: 375

Kudos [?]: 260 [1], given: 38

Location: United States
Concentration: Healthcare, Strategy
GMAT 1: 730 Q48 V42
GPA: 3.88
WE: Medicine and Health (Health Care)
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 04:33
1
This post received
KUDOS
Quote:
if it is OA


It is definitely the OA..
The stimulus has the following key points:

Some anthropologists argue :
Quote:
human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments.


Some evidence also suggests :
Quote:
Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct.


Based on the last evidence, the author concludes :
Quote:
Hence, the anthropologists’ claim is false.


So the author tries to logically conclude that because A. Afarensis, had the ability to adapt and thrive in diverse environments BUT COULD NOT SURVIVE pre historic times (and thus became extinct) the anthropologists are wrong.

The anthropological are trying to claim that the HUMANS could not have survived had they not possessed the ability to adapt. The anthropologists stop at that, and do not in any way STATE that the HUMANS would have SURVIVED had they had the ability to adapt ... Therefore the ability to adapt is considered by them as essential to surviving in pre historic times, however they do not claim that any species that has that ability is guaranteed of surviving those times ....

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case

Questions that involve logical chinks or flaws are easy to predict (predict the answer ) .. and (A) is the right answer as explained ...

Quote:
(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times


This is clearly out of scope .. He is attacking the anthropologists based on their reasoning ( he is trying to draw an inference that is not correct), therefore the correct answer choice must reflect that....

Hope it helps..
_________________

"When you want to succeed as bad as you want to breathe, then you’ll be successful.” - Eric Thomas

Kudos [?]: 260 [1], given: 38

Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
Joined: 28 Nov 2011
Posts: 303

Kudos [?]: 1286 [0], given: 2

Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 11:53
The error in logic here is that the paragraph assumes that satisfying a condition (ability to live in diverse environments) automatically confers a result (survival). In other words, just because humans could live in a prehistoric environment and survive does not apply to every species. Therefore the paragraph comes to a mistaken conclusion: because the ability to live in diverse environments did not prevent the Austral. Afar. from going extinct, this ability cannot account for the success of the human species.

Thus what works in one case doesn't apply to all cases is, I hope, an easy to understand paraphrase of the answer (A) :).
_________________

Christopher Lele
Magoosh Test Prep


Image

Image

Kudos [?]: 1286 [0], given: 2

Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 903

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Dec 2012, 20:51
ChrisLele wrote:
The error in logic here is that the paragraph assumes that satisfying a condition (ability to live in diverse environments) automatically confers a result (survival). In other words, just because humans could live in a prehistoric environment and survive does not apply to every species. Therefore the paragraph comes to a mistaken conclusion: because the ability to live in diverse environments did not prevent the Austral. Afar. from going extinct, this ability cannot account for the success of the human species.

Thus what works in one case doesn't apply to all cases is, I hope, an easy to understand paraphrase of the answer (A) :).


Hi Chris,

Can You plz explain what is wrong with option (D). as in many of the questions we would have opted for option (D). also .
Plz pour in.

Rgds,
Saurabh
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Kudos [?]: 933 [0], given: 322

VP
VP
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Dec 2016
Posts: 1396

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jun 2017, 15:34
" there is a term shift between human species and this prehistoric related species, which (B) and (C) try to play on. In another question with different answer choices, this could very well be where the argument is most vulnerable to criticism. But in this question, be careful about trying to impose that term shift on the existing wrong answer choices to make them right--(B) is actually saying something can be boiled down to, "If humans had the ability to adapt and that's how they survived, at least one related extinct species must have had the same ability to adapt, too."

The argument already tells us that there is at least one prehistoric, extinct species had the same ability to adapt as humans--so the second, necessary condition in (B) is met. If anything, perhaps (B) strengthens the argument.

You're exactly right when you say (A) identifies the fundamental reasoning flaw, but without dealing with the term shift in the argument, and that's okay--it's still the fundamental reasoning flaw. Dan's analogy could be re-written with apes, like you suggested, but everyone knows apes in California make terrible friends."

the above is the confirm from manhattan on https://www.manhattanprep.com/lsat/foru ... -t290.html

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

VP
VP
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Dec 2016
Posts: 1396

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jun 2017, 15:37
"most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that" can be either a logic question or a weaken question. My advice is if ones spot such phrase, glance at options to see whether it is logic or classical weaken question. Even if it is a logic question, ones should keep in mind that the question also includes a part of weaken question.

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 15 Jan 2017
Posts: 350

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 785

CAT Tests
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Aug 2017, 23:38
I thought of first understanding the cause-effect format of the argument:

Some anthropologists argue that the human species could not have survived prehistoric times if the species had not evolved the ability to cope with diverse natural environments. However, there is considerable evidence that Australopithecus afarensis, a prehistoric species related to early humans, also thrived in a diverse array of environments, but became extinct. Hence, the anthropologists’ claim is false.

Anthropologist says: Human species + ability to survive in diverse env --> survival
Counter: AA species 'related to humans' + same ability --> extinction: WHY? thus Anthro. has made a false conclusion
Reexamine: ability necessarily doesn't mean the same outcome; if it did there could be other factors too

The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to
criticism on the grounds that the argument - we now need to find the closest method of reasoning that created this flawed conclusion

(A) confuses a condition’s being required for a
given result to occur in one case with the
condition’s being sufficient for such a result to
occur in a similar case - Echoes above : ability to survive doesn't mean outcome of survival

(B) takes for granted that if one species had a
characteristic that happened to enable it to
survive certain conditions, at least one related
extinct species must have had the same
characteristic Already stated - AA species had a common ability with humans

(C) generalizes, from the fact that one species with
a certain characteristic survived certain
conditions, that all related species with the
same characteristic must have survived exactly
the same conditions we don't know the 'all related species'

(D) fails to consider the possibility that
Australopithecus afarensis had one or more
characteristics that lessened its chances of
surviving prehistoric times we aren't discussing the differences between AA and humans - if that was the case this would true.
But since its about having a similar premise (ability) there were two different outcomes --> why was that? This is actually contradicting: '1 or more charac.s that lessened survival'; whereas argument says it shares the ability to survive with humans


(E) fails to consider the possibility that, even if a
condition caused a result to occur in one case,
it was not necessary to cause the result to
occur in a similar case similar case would mean humans here - not the AA species. AA species are not similar to humans; as we don't know anything except this shared ability they possessed

Really good question :)

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 785

VP
VP
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Dec 2016
Posts: 1396

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Aug 2017, 09:46
fortunately, this is not a gmat-type question, and so the question can be practiced, but it is unlikely to appear in gmat.

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

VP
VP
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Dec 2016
Posts: 1396

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Aug 2017, 09:49
hello, I want to ask you that LSAT or GRE-type questions will appear in GMAT?

Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 1506

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
G
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 1246

Kudos [?]: 2062 [1], given: 465

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: 340 Q170 V170
Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species.. [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Sep 2017, 07:48
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
chesstitans wrote:
hello, I want to ask you that LSAT or GRE-type questions will appear in GMAT?

There's a ton of overlap between LSAT, GRE, and GMAT verbal questions, and most official LSAT and GRE verbal questions will be really good practice for the GMAT, too. All three tests are trying to test you on the same core skills: the precision of your reading and logic. I'm a big fan of LSAT materials in particular, and there's a long-winded rant about them here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39365.html.

There are some cosmetic differences, though. In particular, the question type in this thread doesn't show up on the GMAT all that often. So you're right, chesstitans: this particular question is probably good practice, but you don't need to spend too much time on this question type unless you really want to.

I hope this helps!
_________________

GMAT Club Verbal Expert | GMAT/GRE tutor at www.gmatninja.com (Now hiring!) | GMAT blog | Food blog | Friendly warning: I'm bad at PMs

GMAT Ninja Wednesdays LIVE on YouTube
Join us, and ask your questions in advance!

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal
Reading Comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Sentence Correction

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations
All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply?
Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja and @GMATNinjaTwo in your post.

Sentence Correction articles & resources
How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99... in any section order

YouTube verbal webinars:
"Next-level" GMAT pronouns | Uses of "that" on the GMAT | Parallelism and meaning | Simplifying GMAT verb tenses | Comparisons, part I |
November webinar schedule

Kudos [?]: 2062 [1], given: 465

Re: Some anthropologists argue that the human species..   [#permalink] 10 Sep 2017, 07:48
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Some anthropologists argue that the human species..

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.