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# Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents

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Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 02:15
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Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused by aggressive driving. To help reduce the number of accidents and to promote traffic safety in general, insurance companies have begun to issue discounts to drivers who take defensive driving courses. Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, the insurance company’s plan should help reduce the number of accidents.

Assuming the statements above are true, which of the following can be inferred from them?

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance.
B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving.
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.
D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving.
E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 05:32
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This argument contains a conditional statement. If people are less likely to get into a car accident, they are more likely practicing defensive driving. The contrapositive of that is if people are less likely practicing defensive driving, they are more likely to get into a car accident. So answer C is the correct one.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 19:23
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stuck between D & E.
D though seems re-statement of the premise and has extreme words : Most.

wil go for E

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 20:42
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A is irrelevant , E and D are a bit too strong . B is the converse of what you infer from the passage . C is correct because it is the contrapositive . Always remember the converse and the inverse of the statement may or may not be true , but the contrapositive will always be true .

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2011, 18:37
georgepaul0071987 wrote:
A is irrelevant , E and D are a bit too strong . B is the converse of what you infer from the passage . C is correct because it is the contrapositive . Always remember the converse and the inverse of the statement may or may not be true , but the contrapositive will always be true .

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Hi can you please explain what you meant? you said something about contrapositive ,converse and inverse? can you please elaborate this with an example?

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2011, 02:41
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IMO A.

I am the only one yet to say A. All others have easily eliminated A. So I wonder if I will be correct. Nonetheless, the following was my line of reasoning. Please help me understand where I am making a mistake .

B - The argument says that people who practice defensive driving are less likely to get into an accident. This can be summarized as: If X (practicing defensive driving) then Y (reduces chance of getting into an accident). However, option B reverses this relationship. B says if Y then X.
C - This option focuses only on comparison between two demographics. However, there is no distinction made in the argument between any demographics. This is out of scope.
D - The extreme word "always" made me eliminate this option. The argument says that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. However, this does not necessarily imply that people who do not practice defensive driving are ALWAYS more likely to get into an accident.
E - Clearly out of scope. The argument just mentions that insurance companies have started offering discounts. Moreover, the conclusion cites a future scenario. ("should help reduce" means a scenario in the future). Thus, the best way to promote defensive driving is not inferred from the argument.

Option A has no extreme words. Additionally, it also falls in line with the premises stated in the argument.

Please explain where I am missing the point, if at all. Please post the OA and OE as well.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2011, 22:37
+ 1 for B.Insurance companies believe that defensive driving is the best tool to avoid accidents so people who are consistently avoiding accidents are most probably trained on defensive driving.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2011, 21:00
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+1 for B

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance. Big jump
B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving. YUP, that's how they would be involved less in accidents.
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics. - this compares two population segments; do we know anything about these population segments from argument?
D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving. - this compares two different individual; do we know anything about these individuals from argument?
E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving. Big jump
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2011, 08:37
SyedSan wrote:
+1 for B

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance. Big jump
B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving. YUP, that's how they would be involved less in accidents.
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics. - this compares two population segments; do we know anything about these population segments from argument?
D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving. - this compares two different individual; do we know anything about these individuals from argument?
E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving. Big jump

I would go for D.

The passage states the following -

Quote:
Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.

B is just counter-phrasing this statement. People who practice defensive driving are less likely to get into a car accident is not the same as people who manage to avoid car accident are likely practicing defensive driving.

Tuan, whats the OA?

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2011, 10:54
will go with D. it says "always more Likely". here always is redundant and thus the strong word can be neglected.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2011, 17:08
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Let’s first look at answer choice (B) and why it is incorrect:

Essentially, this answer choice is saying that people who practice defensive driving are likely to avoid accidents. However, those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons, i.e. defensive driving isn’t the only way to avoid accidents. (You can think of those who avoid accidents as a large circle or which defensive drivers are only a small circle within this large circle).

So let’s say 90% of people who avoid accidents do so because of something besides defensive driving (e.g. they get their brakes tested). If this is the case, then (B) is invalidated, because the people who are consistently avoiding accidents are not necessarily practicing defensive driving.

As for answer (C), though it may seem “out of scope” because it mentions demographics not found in the prompt, inference questions can pertain to information outside the passage. As long as the statement can be inferred based on the information in the passage.

In this case, “those who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident” does not include young male/other demographics. This group, based on the information in the passage, is likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, young males/others are less likely to practice defensive driving.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2011, 10:19
I'd say A.

It's stated that people who take part in defensive driving courses are less likely to be involved in accidents. Insurance companies now want to get people to participate in those courses.
The conclusion says that the insurance company's plan should lead to less accidents OVERALL, but a decrease in the OVERALL number of accidents requires that the people involved in accidents are actually insured.

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Verbal Section: CR : Confusion [#permalink]

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16 May 2013, 17:42
Hi Experts,

I am just a beginner, so please pardon if I did not frame/format the question correctly.
I came across below question (attached the screenshot), please let me know if I should type it in:

The solution suggested is option C. I am confused on why Option D is not correct. It clearly says that the
‘Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.

Is not option D stating exact the same ?

Attachments

questions.jpg [ 101.72 KiB | Viewed 22151 times ]

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Re: Verbal Section: CR : Confusion [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 14:44
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navneet001 wrote:
Hi Experts,

I am just a beginner, so please pardon if I did not frame/format the question correctly.
I came across below question (attached the screenshot), please let me know if I should type it in:

The solution suggested is option C. I am confused on why Option D is not correct. It clearly says that the
‘Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.

Is not option D stating exact the same ?

Dear navneet001,
I'm happy to help.

First of all, when you have a question about a specific question of a particular type, I would recommend posting it in the part of the forum devoted to that question type. For example, I believe this question would have been most appropriately posted in the Critical Reasoning section of the Verbal Forum.

In this question, (D) lays a trap, a very tempting trap, and I'm sorry to say, you fell for it hook, line, and sinker. Many folks who have not studied statistics in depth would fall for this mistake. You see, let's think about the statement --- in the general population, quality A is correlated with quality B. As a overall, general rule, individuals with a higher degree of A (whatever that is) also have a higher degree of B. Correlations and related trends speak to something that is true in the population-wide view. BUT, we must keep in mind, correlation does not imply causality, so if we go down to the level of the individual, we can't say if person #1 has more A than person #2, then person #1 must also have more B. Correlations are about whole population trends and may not play out at the granular level.

For example, there's a well-measured correlation between height and salary --- tall people, on average, are somewhat more likely to have a high salary than short people. Nevertheless, it's trivially easy to find examples of individuals who are short & rich or tall & poor. The correlation only speak to a pattern that emerges when we have a "whole population" view, and this pattern may be weak or virtually indiscernible at the individual level.

That the problem with (D) ---- it takes the pattern that true as an overall population-wide trend and tries to concretize it at the level of one individual compared to another.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 20:12
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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22 May 2013, 02:55
A better explanation would be this:

the argument says " people who practice defensive driving are less likely to get into an accident"

"Young and other demographics" are no doubt a subset of the group "people"

Hence c

ChrisLele wrote:

Let’s first look at answer choice (B) and why it is incorrect:

Essentially, this answer choice is saying that people who practice defensive driving are likely to avoid accidents. However, those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons, i.e. defensive driving isn’t the only way to avoid accidents. (You can think of those who avoid accidents as a large circle or which defensive drivers are only a small circle within this large circle).

So let’s say 90% of people who avoid accidents do so because of something besides defensive driving (e.g. they get their brakes tested). If this is the case, then (B) is invalidated, because the people who are consistently avoiding accidents are not necessarily practicing defensive driving.

As for answer (C), though it may seem “out of scope” because it mentions demographics not found in the prompt, inference questions can pertain to information outside the passage. As long as the statement can be inferred based on the information in the passage.

In this case, “those who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident” does not include young male/other demographics. This group, based on the information in the passage, is likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, young males/others are less likely to practice defensive driving.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 13:26
GMAT PILL instructors - Could you please explain me how to tackle the question using your strategy ?

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 16:49
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gmatquant25 wrote:
GMAT PILL instructors - Could you please explain me how to tackle the question using your strategy ?

GMATQuant25,

It looks like you are a GMAT Pill student. Let's go ahead and tackle this with Framework #8 Inference. In the process, you'll see the concept from Framework #4 Negation play a role as well.

Framework #8 Inference

So you immediately you identify this question as an INFERENCE question. That means, do not be confused and take an answer choice and try to make it support the conclusion that is mentioned in the last line of the passage. That would be WRONG. If you did that, you're finding an ASSUMPTION -- not an INFERENCE.

So with inference questions, you take an answer choice -- and you ask why is that statement true? Is it true because... (then some detail in passage that might support THAT answer choice as being a valid conclusion --- as opposed to a valid assumption).

Let's look at (C)

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

Why would that be a valid conclusion? How do we know that...."guys and those who get into car accidents are LESS likely to practice defensive driving?

The reason is because...

Anything from passage to help us out? Well the passage doesn't talk about "young males". But it does have something about the types of people that get into car accidents. Well, it talks about those who get into FEWER accidents -- hmm that must be the negated version since the argument was about those who got into MORE accidents. Let's elaborate.

Now, negation is an important concept on GMAT CR. So immediately, you should think...can I use the negated example from the passage to support my claim?

So what is in the passage? Can it be said to be the "negated" form that would actually help support the claim?

Well, passage says those who DO practice are LESS likely to get into accidents.
So let's rewrite that:

Argument: Those in accidents a lot do not practice defensive driving
Basis: DO Practice defensive driving => LESS likely in accidents

We know with Framework #4 Negation -- one method of supporting the argument is by showing the negation of that argument to be true. In this case, that's exactly what we do.

We take this basis (sourced from passage) and we negate it.
Basis: DO Practice defensive driving => LESS likely in accidents
Negated Basis: DO NOT practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents.

OK, does his negation support the argument?

Argument: Those in accidents A LOT do NOT practice defensive driving (answer choice C)
Negated Basis: Those who DO NOT practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents.

Clearly we see the negated basis is SUPPORTING the argument now.

(C) says some group that gets into A LOT of accidents does not practice. In other words, these types of people do NOT practice and get into A LOT of accidents. This is exactly what our negated basis is helping us say.

Thus we managed to take information in the passage ("practice defensive driving =>less likely in accidents")
and use that to support our inferred statement (those who "DO NOT Practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents") by negating the basis found in the passage and observing how it SUPPORTS the claim made in answer choice (C).

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 20:51
Excellent .. Thanks for elaborating . I found the question a little bit on difficult side , but knowing the right approach helped me simplify it .

thanks again!

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2013, 17:53
ChrisLele wrote:

Let’s first look at answer choice (B) and why it is incorrect:

Essentially, this answer choice is saying that people who practice defensive driving are likely to avoid accidents. However, those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons, i.e. defensive driving isn’t the only way to avoid accidents. (You can think of those who avoid accidents as a large circle or which defensive drivers are only a small circle within this large circle).

So let’s say 90% of people who avoid accidents do so because of something besides defensive driving (e.g. they get their brakes tested). If this is the case, then (B) is invalidated, because the people who are consistently avoiding accidents are not necessarily practicing defensive driving.

As for answer (C), though it may seem “out of scope” because it mentions demographics not found in the prompt, inference questions can pertain to information outside the passage. As long as the statement can be inferred based on the information in the passage.

In this case, “those who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident” does not include young male/other demographics. This group, based on the information in the passage, is likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, young males/others are less likely to practice defensive driving.

I am not in agreement with the justification given above for choice C. Though the argument do not include young male / other demographics, it cannot be inferred at the same that young male / other demographics is likely to get into a car accident. The argument does not give any indication or inferenece on young male / other demographics.

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents   [#permalink] 12 Aug 2013, 17:53

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