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# Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused

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Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 May 2018, 04:24
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Question Stats:

14% (02:00) correct 86% (02:04) wrong based on 3658 sessions

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Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused by aggressive driving. To help reduce the number of accidents and to promote traffic safety in general, insurance companies have begun to issue discounts to drivers who take defensive driving courses. Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, the insurance company’s plan should help reduce the number of accidents.

Assuming the statements above are true, which of the following can be inferred from them?

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance.

B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving.

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving.

E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving.

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Originally posted by tuanquang269 on 14 Dec 2011, 02:15.
Last edited by Bunuel on 17 May 2018, 04:24, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2011, 17:08
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Let’s first look at answer choice (B) and why it is incorrect:

Essentially, this answer choice is saying that people who practice defensive driving are likely to avoid accidents. However, those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons, i.e. defensive driving isn’t the only way to avoid accidents. (You can think of those who avoid accidents as a large circle or which defensive drivers are only a small circle within this large circle).

So let’s say 90% of people who avoid accidents do so because of something besides defensive driving (e.g. they get their brakes tested). If this is the case, then (B) is invalidated, because the people who are consistently avoiding accidents are not necessarily practicing defensive driving.

As for answer (C), though it may seem “out of scope” because it mentions demographics not found in the prompt, inference questions can pertain to information outside the passage. As long as the statement can be inferred based on the information in the passage.

In this case, “those who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident” does not include young male/other demographics. This group, based on the information in the passage, is likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, young males/others are less likely to practice defensive driving.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 16:49
17
7
gmatquant25 wrote:
GMAT PILL instructors - Could you please explain me how to tackle the question using your strategy ?

GMATQuant25,

It looks like you are a GMAT Pill student. Let's go ahead and tackle this with Framework #8 Inference. In the process, you'll see the concept from Framework #4 Negation play a role as well.

Framework #8 Inference

So you immediately you identify this question as an INFERENCE question. That means, do not be confused and take an answer choice and try to make it support the conclusion that is mentioned in the last line of the passage. That would be WRONG. If you did that, you're finding an ASSUMPTION -- not an INFERENCE.

So with inference questions, you take an answer choice -- and you ask why is that statement true? Is it true because... (then some detail in passage that might support THAT answer choice as being a valid conclusion --- as opposed to a valid assumption).

Let's look at (C)

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

Why would that be a valid conclusion? How do we know that...."guys and those who get into car accidents are LESS likely to practice defensive driving?

The reason is because...

Anything from passage to help us out? Well the passage doesn't talk about "young males". But it does have something about the types of people that get into car accidents. Well, it talks about those who get into FEWER accidents -- hmm that must be the negated version since the argument was about those who got into MORE accidents. Let's elaborate.

Now, negation is an important concept on GMAT CR. So immediately, you should think...can I use the negated example from the passage to support my claim?

So what is in the passage? Can it be said to be the "negated" form that would actually help support the claim?

Well, passage says those who DO practice are LESS likely to get into accidents.
So let's rewrite that:

Argument: Those in accidents a lot do not practice defensive driving
Basis: DO Practice defensive driving => LESS likely in accidents

We know with Framework #4 Negation -- one method of supporting the argument is by showing the negation of that argument to be true. In this case, that's exactly what we do.

We take this basis (sourced from passage) and we negate it.
Basis: DO Practice defensive driving => LESS likely in accidents
Negated Basis: DO NOT practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents.

OK, does his negation support the argument?

Argument: Those in accidents A LOT do NOT practice defensive driving (answer choice C)
Negated Basis: Those who DO NOT practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents.

Clearly we see the negated basis is SUPPORTING the argument now.

(C) says some group that gets into A LOT of accidents does not practice. In other words, these types of people do NOT practice and get into A LOT of accidents. This is exactly what our negated basis is helping us say.

Thus we managed to take information in the passage ("practice defensive driving =>less likely in accidents")
and use that to support our inferred statement (those who "DO NOT Practice defensive driving => MORE likely in accidents") by negating the basis found in the passage and observing how it SUPPORTS the claim made in answer choice (C).
##### General Discussion
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 05:32
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This argument contains a conditional statement. If people are less likely to get into a car accident, they are more likely practicing defensive driving. The contrapositive of that is if people are less likely practicing defensive driving, they are more likely to get into a car accident. So answer C is the correct one.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 20:42
8
7
A is irrelevant , E and D are a bit too strong . B is the converse of what you infer from the passage . C is correct because it is the contrapositive . Always remember the converse and the inverse of the statement may or may not be true , but the contrapositive will always be true .

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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16 May 2013, 17:42
Hi Experts,

I am just a beginner, so please pardon if I did not frame/format the question correctly.
I came across below question (attached the screenshot), please let me know if I should type it in:

The solution suggested is option C. I am confused on why Option D is not correct. It clearly says that the
‘Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.

Is not option D stating exact the same ?

Attachments

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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 14:44
13
5
navneet001 wrote:
Hi Experts,

I am just a beginner, so please pardon if I did not frame/format the question correctly.
I came across below question (attached the screenshot), please let me know if I should type it in:

The solution suggested is option C. I am confused on why Option D is not correct. It clearly says that the
‘Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.

Is not option D stating exact the same ?

Dear navneet001,
I'm happy to help.

First of all, when you have a question about a specific question of a particular type, I would recommend posting it in the part of the forum devoted to that question type. For example, I believe this question would have been most appropriately posted in the Critical Reasoning section of the Verbal Forum.

In this question, (D) lays a trap, a very tempting trap, and I'm sorry to say, you fell for it hook, line, and sinker. Many folks who have not studied statistics in depth would fall for this mistake. You see, let's think about the statement --- in the general population, quality A is correlated with quality B. As a overall, general rule, individuals with a higher degree of A (whatever that is) also have a higher degree of B. Correlations and related trends speak to something that is true in the population-wide view. BUT, we must keep in mind, correlation does not imply causality, so if we go down to the level of the individual, we can't say if person #1 has more A than person #2, then person #1 must also have more B. Correlations are about whole population trends and may not play out at the granular level.

For example, there's a well-measured correlation between height and salary --- tall people, on average, are somewhat more likely to have a high salary than short people. Nevertheless, it's trivially easy to find examples of individuals who are short & rich or tall & poor. The correlation only speak to a pattern that emerges when we have a "whole population" view, and this pattern may be weak or virtually indiscernible at the individual level.

That the problem with (D) ---- it takes the pattern that true as an overall population-wide trend and tries to concretize it at the level of one individual compared to another.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 13:26
GMAT PILL instructors - Could you please explain me how to tackle the question using your strategy ?
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#Top150 CR: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accident  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 01:48
1
8
Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused by aggressive driving. To help reduce the number of accidents and to promote traffic safety in general, insurance companies have begun to issue discounts to drivers who take defensive driving courses. Research shows that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. Therefore, the insurance company’s plan should help reduce the number of accidents.

Assuming the statements above are true, which of the following can be inferred from them?

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance.

B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving.

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving.

E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving.
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#Top150 CR: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accident  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 05:13
1
aggressive driving causes a large percentage of car accidents.

People who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.
(Aggressive driving behaviors do not practice defensive driving)

Therefore, the insurance company’s plan should help reduce the number of accidents.

Assuming the statements above are true, which of the following can be inferred from them?

A. The majority of accidents are caused by drivers who possess insurance.
(Insurance is not mentioned at all. OFS)

B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving.
(can be correct but those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons)

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.
(This is inline with our pre-line thinking and correct answer))

D. An individual who does not practice defensive driving is always more likely to get into a car accident than an individual who does practice defensive driving.
(This cannot be inferred as this is extreme case.)

E. Discounts are the most effective way for insurance companies to promote defensive driving.
(Most effective-extreme case)
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Re: #Top150 CR: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accident  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 10:45
I think the answer should be E

The argument states that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. The discounts that would be offered by Ins Companies to those who take def driving courses would lead to reduced number of accidents. This implies that discounts is the most effective way to promote def driving.
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Re: #Top150 CR: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accident  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 11:20
gagan0001 wrote:
I think the answer should be E

The argument states that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. The discounts that would be offered by Ins Companies to those who take def driving courses would lead to reduced number of accidents. This implies that discounts is the most effective way to promote def driving.

this is an inference question. We have no info in passage of whether providing discount is the most effective or not.
most indicates extreme word usage and is almost always not preferable in case of inference question.
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Re: #Top150 CR: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accident  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 12:00
4
1
gagan0001 wrote:
Mechmeera wrote:
gagan0001 wrote:
I think the answer should be E

The argument states that people who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident. The discounts that would be offered by Ins Companies to those who take def driving courses would lead to reduced number of accidents. This implies that discounts is the most effective way to promote def driving.

this is an inference question. We have no info in passage of whether providing discount is the most effective or not.
most indicates extreme word usage and is almost always not preferable in case of inference question.

But I have a doubt regarding C option. According to your reasoning, how can we justify that the young males and other demographics are aggressive drivers?
I get the point of extreme language used in option D and E. While attempting the question, I was down to D and B. I think B sounds more logical than C.
Can you please explain why C is better option than B?

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B. People who manage to consistently avoid car accidents are likely practicing defensive driving.
People who practice defensive driving avoid car accidents but
whoever manages to avoid car accident need not be a defensive driver.
Those who in general avoid accidents could be doing so for a variety of reasons such as carefulness, well trained in other training courses etc
So this need not be true in all cases based on argument.

Quote:
how can we justify that the young males and other demographics are aggressive drivers?

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

see the highlighted portion above it indicates agressive behaviour in them.

People who practice defensive driving are considerably less likely to get into a car accident.
Aggressive driving behaviors who get into accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving

I hope this helps
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2016, 13:16
3
The argument says:

Premise :
if aggressive driving, then more chance of an accident happening. AD--> AH, c ontrapositive A~H--> ~AD
if defensive driving , then less chance of an accident happening. DD--> A ~H , contrapositive : A H --> ~DD

Conclusion: if more people are defensive drivers, then less accident.

A. Out of scope. Out
B. People who avoid accidents are more likely to be driving defensively. Looks likes they are reversing the logic. A~H --> DD. Out.

C. Young people & some other demographics who constitute a majority of those involved in accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving.

Now , young people& some other demographics are a subset of those involved in accidents.
that implies, if YP, then AH
YP--> AH

Using syllogism, AH--> ~DD(from Premise), YP-->AH(from C) therefore YP--> ~DD. Yes!

D. Division Fallacy. Assuming what applies to the group applies to an individual. Out.
E. Out of scope. Out
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2016, 19:55
1
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.

They word with Young male, just as a trap, to make people think this is out-of scope. But read it , Young male and other demographics, which includes all basically.
So rewording, People known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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05 May 2018, 11:22
1
I have query regarding option C . Option C is correct , but it is grammatically incorrect making the choice ambiguous .
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics. -----
This option states that young people are less likely to practice defensive driving in future . However , the intended meaning is that they did not practice defensive driving and hence are likely to be involved in an accident

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to HAVE practice defensive driving than other demographics.

Usage of Have corrects this error.

My query is not regarding grammatical correctness , but the logic arising out of it.
egmat could you help me
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18 May 2018, 00:52
C is the best choice. But I have a doubt regarding that modifier "disproportionately". Disproportionately doesn't mean a necessary increase, it could be decrease as well. Thus, I believe this question should be modified in this sense.
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23 Nov 2018, 05:56
Should the answer not be (B)? There's no reason to believe that young males or similar demographics will NOT enroll in defensive driving programs if there are incentives at play, hence (C) should be incorrect.
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09 Mar 2019, 18:57
Talayva wrote:
I have query regarding option C . Option C is correct , but it is grammatically incorrect making the choice ambiguous .
C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to practice defensive driving than other demographics. -----
This option states that young people are less likely to practice defensive driving in future . However , the intended meaning is that they did not practice defensive driving and hence are likely to be involved in an accident

C. Young males and other demographics known for disproportionately being involved in car accidents are less likely to HAVE practice defensive driving than other demographics.

Usage of Have corrects this error.

My query is not regarding grammatical correctness , but the logic arising out of it.
egmat could you help me

Hi Talayva,

I agree with you as an additional point to prove C is incorrect.

My other arguments -
What if youngsters have taken a defensive driving training just before the issuance of the license.
Secondly, what if the youngsters are a bigger % of all the drivers. If that is so, they will be more likely(in absolute numbers) to meet accidents & not because they have not attended training.
Lastly, we can't negate, & reverse the cause & effect as in C.
To me, D also is not a great option because of the presence of ALWAYS. I thought D can be considered best of all.
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Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2019, 10:03
After reading all the posts i understood why b is wrong C is right.. But how do we eliminate D.

because defensive driving means less accident and aggressive means more accident.
Re: Studies have shown that a large percentage of car accidents are caused   [#permalink] 20 Mar 2019, 10:03

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