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# Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal

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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
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Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

Two conclusions from passage above.

Factors such as university type, region play a role in political views
These view grow from junior to senior level.

Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors. No dicussion for parents . hence out of scope
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.Good option since its stated in the line "the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students". Lets keep it
C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.From south does not consider type of university university. Missing information
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.Same as above there are others factors also. such as region
E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.No discussion for financial pressure. Out of scope
IMO it should be B
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
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In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!
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aalakshaya wrote:
In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!

aalakshaya: As the passage states in hypothesis 'Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.
'
So, any answer choice which infers the difference is due to location is incorrect.
Now think, what is it that separates seniors from beginners. It is the time duration that they have already spent in college and the experience that they have gained.
That's why B.
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
aalakshaya wrote:
In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!

aalakshaya

We can infer the same by reading below excerpt of the prompt.

and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
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Bunuel wrote:
Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

CR41661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

This is an Inference question. Pls note that in Inference questions(as the name suggests) the goal is to find information from the answer choices that has to 100% compliant with the passage information.
It must also to be noted that no layer of assumption has to be made in Inference question.

Premise- Comparison b/w students PO of south and east campuses; PO is independent of student's region of origin
Goal- Information from answer choices that is 100% compliant with the passage

Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.- No info. about parents in the passage
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.- Bingo! this can be safely taken away from the passage as the passage mentions- PO "trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students"
C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.- Clearlr mentioned "Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" in the argument
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty
E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
aggvipul wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

CR41661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

This is an Inference question. Pls note that in Inference questions(as the name suggests) the goal is to find information from the answer choices that has to 100% compliant with the passage information.
It must also to be noted that no layer of assumption has to be made in Inference question.

Premise- Comparison b/w students PO of south and east campuses; PO is independent of student's region of origin
Goal- Information from answer choices that is 100% compliant with the passage

Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.- No info. about parents in the passage
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.- Bingo! this can be safely taken away from the passage as the passage mentions- PO "trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students"
C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.- Clearlr mentioned "Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" in the argument
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty
E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty
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Bunuel wrote:
Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

CR41661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

This is an Inference question. Pls note that in Inference questions(as the name suggests) the goal is to find information from the answer choices that has to 100% compliant with the passage information.
It must also to be noted that no layer of assumption has to be made in Inference question.

Premise- Comparison b/w students PO of south and east campuses; PO is independent of student's region of origin
Goal- Information from answer choices that is 100% compliant with the passage

Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.- No info. about parents in the passage
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.- Bingo! this can be safely taken away from the passage as the passage mentions- PO "trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students"
C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.- Clearlr mentioned "Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" in the argument
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty
E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.- No such claim can be made with 100% certainty[/uote][/quote]
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aalakshaya wrote:
In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!

Awesome that this has generated so much discussion! I'll throw in my two cents, just in case somebody finds it helpful.

Here's the thing: we don't have to be sure of anything! The questions asks, "Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?"

Since 1) "orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" and 2) "the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students", the data seems to indicate that "the political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college."

Do we know for sure that this is the case? No. Choice (B) makes the most sense, given the information in the passage, so it's the best answer.
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A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.
-- out of scope because parents aren't mentioned anywhere, we can't make this comparison

B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantlyon experiences they have had while in college.
-- sounded iffy because it's a bit of stretch but all the other choices end up being way worse, this is the only thing we can infer from the argument.

C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originallyfrom the East.
-- prompt explicitly says "Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" so this is completely wrong

D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.
-- the strong language ruins it, it's not the only determining factor because the prompt also mentions the east vs. south as well as private vs. public difference, so there's 2 possible factors that contribute.

E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.
-- this would be a common sense conclusion but it's out of scope
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.
This is a stretch. How do we know it’s not consistent (between freshman year to sophomore year)?

B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.
Best of the lot. We know that oritentations were independent of the student’s region of ORIGIN and trends = more so in seniors (than in beginning students). The trend could be substantiated by the way the college experiences just shape you as a person.

C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.
This seems to directly contradict the premise – “orientations were independent of the student’s region of origin

D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.
Way too strong. “…is the determining factor”? There are too many qualifiers in the passage for this to be concluded.

E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.
Chose this answer. However, this isn’t supported. This focuses narrowly on one side of the argument and brings in financial success (as a real-world answer trap).
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
aalakshaya wrote:
In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!

Awesome that this has generated so much discussion! I'll throw in my two cents, just in case somebody finds it helpful.

Here's the thing: we don't have to be sure of anything! The questions asks, "Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?"

Since 1) "orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" and 2) "the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students", the data seems to indicate that "the political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college."

Do we know for sure that this is the case? No. Choice (B) makes the most sense, given the information in the passage, so it's the best answer.

I was confused between B and D due to similar reasons only - no answer is 100% correct. So, the answer that makes the MOST sense to me was D. The reason everyone is giving for B is that political orientations are much more pronounced in college seniors - hence, experiences shape political orientations. However, my reasoning is - aren't these experiences tied to the college? Students can have various experiences, but doesn't the fact that colleges in the south tended to have students more leaning towards conservative than in the east and the fact that the origin of students DO NOT play a part in their orientation mean that it is indeed their COLLEGES which shape their political orientations? And that since the colleges differ in location - it surely plays a role in determining students' political orientations?

I get that location isn't the complete determining factor, but we have to find the answer that makes the most sense right? To me D made more sense than B. Can anyone correct my reasoning, please? Thanks!
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Mrinalsingh13 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
aalakshaya wrote:
In this question, how are we sure that the political orientation is dependent on the experiences as mentioned in the correct option B?

Thanks!

Awesome that this has generated so much discussion! I'll throw in my two cents, just in case somebody finds it helpful.

Here's the thing: we don't have to be sure of anything! The questions asks, "Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?"

Since 1) "orientations were independent of the student's region of origin" and 2) "the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students", the data seems to indicate that "the political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college."

Do we know for sure that this is the case? No. Choice (B) makes the most sense, given the information in the passage, so it's the best answer.

I was confused between B and D due to similar reasons only - no answer is 100% correct. So, the answer that makes the MOST sense to me was D. The reason everyone is giving for B is that political orientations are much more pronounced in college seniors - hence, experiences shape political orientations. However, my reasoning is - aren't these experiences tied to the college? Students can have various experiences, but doesn't the fact that colleges in the south tended to have students more leaning towards conservative than in the east and the fact that the origin of students DO NOT play a part in their orientation mean that it is indeed their COLLEGES which shape their political orientations? And that since the colleges differ in location - it surely plays a role in determining students' political orientations?

I get that location isn't the complete determining factor, but we have to find the answer that makes the most sense right? To me D made more sense than B. Can anyone correct my reasoning, please? Thanks!

The passage directly contrasts two factors that differ between colleges with more liberal students and colleges with more conservative students. These factors are:

• eastern vs. southern location
• private vs. state suppoted

(D) singles out just one of these factors:
Quote:
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.

There's no indication that this element is "the determining factor" in students' political orientations. It is just as likely that the other factor -- eastern vs. southern location -- is the most important element, or that a combination of the two elements is what truly determines students' political orientation.

Because (D) arbitrarily singles out one factor as "the" thing that determines political orientation, (D) is not supported by the information in the passage.

Compare that to (B):
Quote:
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.

Here, we get a much more broad statement -- political orientation depends significantly on "experiences" that student have in college. These experiences could be driven by any number of the factors listed in the passage. Because trends were more pronounced in seniors than in younger students, it's reasonable to say that something about the college experience impacts students' political orientation.

(B) is supported by the passage, and is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?
Q.Type: Inference
Solving strat: 99% True vs 100% True
Observation for Inference q. type: Entire passage is important since an inference can be drawn from any element and not just the conclusion.

Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

Eastern,big city, private university kids=Liberal
Southern college, state owned=conservative
Orientation independent of student's state of origin
Trends more pronounced in college seniors

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.
Obvious NO. We know the orientation is independent of origin.
B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.
Maybe, let's keep it for now. We will look at this closely in the second pass, first pass is to remove obviously wrong q.
C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.
Let's keep it for now
D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.
Can't say that is the difference, we could have known this had there been comparisons given between both state owned and private colleges of both regions. Can't say this right now.
E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.
Confronted with pressures? - We don't know the reason. This is an easy one out.

Okay, so we are left with B and C. Let's look at them closely.

B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.

I can say this is 100 % true, since we know the orientation wasn't from origin it developed in college days and has been more pronounced in seniors, hence they probably witness something that shapes this.

C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.
This was tempting for me as it uses the absolutely correct words, seniors from south, seniors from east.
Seniors in colleges in south are conservative (is not =) All people in south are conservative. Same for people from East.
Maybe it is just something that happens in colleges.
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Re: Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students reveal [#permalink]
Bunuel wrote:
Studies of the political orientations of 1,055 college students revealed that the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university was liberal, whereas in a state-supported, southern college, the plurality was conservative. Orientations were independent of the student's region of origin, and the trends were much more pronounced in seniors than in beginning students.

Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the observations stated above?

A. The political orientations of college students are more similar to the political orientations of their parents when the students start college than when the students are seniors.
This is absolutely irrelevant and have the slighest implication therefore out

B. The political orientations of college seniors depend significantly on experiences they have had while in college.
Since there is a chang induced while the students are in the college therefore it can only happen from the experience gained therefore let us hang on to it

C. A college senior originally from the South is more likely to be politically conservative than is a college senior originally from the East.
Region doesn't have any impact on the students therefore out

D. Whether their college is state-supported or private is the determining factor in college students' political orientations.
It is not a determinig factor therefore out

E. College students tend to become more conservative politically as they become older and are confronted with pressures for financial success.
THis is out of context reasoning therfore out

Therefore IMO B
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GMATNinja KarishmaB avigutmanChiranjeevSingh AnishPassi
- all 5 answers choices have flaws. So how to pick (B) over (A) ?

Below are my flaws regarding (B) - i see that (A) also has flaws too but i thought (B)'s flaws were much more eggregious.

• (A) explains well why students become more liberal or more conservative as they become seniors.
• (B) i dont think really touched on why this shift happens specifically

Originally posted by jabhatta2 on 09 Aug 2022, 09:41.
Last edited by jabhatta2 on 09 Aug 2022, 17:04, edited 13 times in total.
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GMATNinja KarishmaB avigutmanChiranjeevSingh AnishPassi

Flaws of (B) per my understanding

Lets say -

big-city, private collegs= Harvard, Yale, Boston Unversity
state-supported, southern college = Texas A&M / Florida College/ South carolina College

Flaw 1
(B) says the orientation of seniors depend on experiences they had while in college.

Quote:
When you select (B) -- you are assuming that the experience at the three private, big-city, eastern universities (Harvard, Yale, Boston Unversity) is similar

But the argument never says that these 3 characteristics (private, big-city, eastern) are sufficient conditions to assume that the experiences at these 3 universities (Harvard, Yale, Boston Unversity) must be the same

Maybe the Yale experience is diferent from the Harvard experience ?

Where in the argument does it state that these 3 charateristics (private, big-city, eastern) are sufficient conditions for a similar experience.

Originally posted by jabhatta2 on 09 Aug 2022, 12:40.
Last edited by jabhatta2 on 09 Aug 2022, 17:04, edited 9 times in total.
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Flaw 2

Quote:
(B) doesnt really touch on why orientations are MORE PRONOUNCED in year 1 vs year 4.

(A) i thought did a better job on giving us a reason why orientations are MORE PRONOUCED (in year 1 vs year 4)

Sure, (B) helps us understand why the plurality of students in an eastern, big-city, private university are liberal but does (B) really explain why orientations are MORE pronounced in year 1 vs year 4 specifically ?

The "STRONGER PRONOUNCIATION" in orientation in year 4 vs year 1 -- i thought was better encapsulated in (A) vs (B)

Hence i picked A over B

Flaw 3 If you select (b) - you are being asked to believe

Quote:
Students have different experiences at Yale / Harvard/ Boston university
vs
If the same student attended Texas A&M / Florida College/ South carolina College

What 'experiences' could be SO DIFFERENT at yale / harvard/ boston vs texas A&M / Florida U/ South carolina university THAT students become MORE LIBERAL in the first case but more conservative in the second case ? What are some examples ?

We all have gone to college / univeristy -- is your experience at University X really so different than my experience at University Y ?

We are students at the end of the day. All universities have a set format -- classroom teaching or practicals followed up by examinations.

What could be SO FUNDAMENTALLY different.
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