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The computer companys present troubles are a result of

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The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it.

A. so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it
B. so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct
C. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them
D. that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct
E. that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by singh_amit19 on 02 Oct 2007, 10:27, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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will go for D..but by poe d is only option left..
correct idiom is attempt to and not attempt at so option B,C n E are gone..
left wid A and D
in A it does not hav any antecedent..so eliminate it
thus left wid d

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The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Hey All,

This question seems to have been mostly addressed, but I wanted to add a few small things.

Quote:
The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it

A. so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it
B. so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct
C. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them


NOTE: In A, B, and C, the phrases "so that" and "in that" would modify some kind of action, as in "He went to the store so that he could find Amy" or "It was a bad move in that it resulted in him getting dumped by Amy." We don't have an action we want to modify here (i.e., the only verb we have in the first half of the sentence is "are", and we're probably not modifying that).

Quote:
D. that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct
E. that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them


NOTE: D & E both correctly employ a relative pronoun to modify the final noun. The phrase beginning with "that" (a relative pronoun) thus modifies whatever word came before it. In this case, this final phrase must be modifying "managerial blunders", not the entirety of the list. For this reason, the "them" is majorly wrong. First, it is ambiguous (could refer to any individual plural noun in the list, or the whole list). Second, it is nonsense, because we're already in a modifying phrase, so there should be no need to point towards the noun we're talking about.

Word up.

Hope that helps!
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The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

This question seems to have been mostly addressed, but I wanted to add a few small things.

Q40
The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological
stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders
so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed
to correct it.

A. so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have
failed to correct it.
B. so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct
C. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct them

NOTE: In A, B, and C, the phrases "so that" and "in that" would modify some kind of action, as in "He went to the store so that he could find Amy" or "It was a bad move in that it resulted in him getting dumped by Amy." We don't have an action we want to modify here (i.e., the only verb we have in the first half of the sentence is "are", and we're probably not modifying that).


D. that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have
failed to correct
E. that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct them

NOTE: D & E both correctly employ a relative pronoun to modify the final noun. The phrase beginning with "that" (a relative pronoun) thus modifies whatever word came before it. In this case, this final phrase must be modifying "managerial blunders", not the entirety of the list. For this reason, the "them" is majorly wrong. First, it is ambiguous (could refer to any individual plural noun in the list, or the whole list). Second, it is nonsense, because we're already in a modifying phrase, so there should be no need to point towards the noun we're talking about.

Word up.

Hope that helps!


The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have
failed to correct

Treat the compound subject as a single plural subject because the compound subject is plural. (I choose bloopers)

The computer company’s present troubles are a result of bloopers that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct
The reason why we do not need ‘them; is because the relative clause (that several....) already modifies bloopers and we don’t need a ‘them’ to state bloopers again.

Quoting you "D & E both correctly employ a relative pronoun to modify the final noun. The phrase beginning with "that" (a relative pronoun) thus modifies whatever word came before it. In this case, this final phrase must be modifying "managerial blunders", not the entirety of the list."

'that' modifies all 3 reasons because all 3 reason together cause the problem and not 'mangerial blunders'. ( tommy, you are being to hard on the managers :P )

'that' modifies the noun phrase(all 3 compund nouns in this case, not managerial blunders' as u stated) it touches, the only probable exception to this rule could be when 'that' modifies object of prepostion'.

Last edited by roshanaslam on 20 Aug 2010, 09:32, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Hey All,

Yes, relative pronouns are bit wishy-washy this way. They can modify the entire noun phrase, but they can also just modify the last noun. Logic really dictates what's happening.

I am in love with my car and the girlfriend that I met last week.

Clearly "that I met last week" is not modifying both nouns, but only the last one. Think of the modifier as a kind of adjective.

I am in love with the time and money that this new job affords me.

Clearly "that this new job affords me" is modifying both "time" and "money".

Either of these is considered correct, as long as it's clear which is meant.

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2010, 23:18
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

Yes, relative pronouns are bit wishy-washy this way. They can modify the entire noun phrase, but they can also just modify the last noun. Logic really dictates what's happening.

I am in love with my car and the girlfriend that I met last week.

Clearly "that I met last week" is not modifying both nouns, but only the last one. Think of the modifier as a kind of adjective.

I am in love with the time and money that this new job affords me.

Clearly "that this new job affords me" is modifying both "time" and "money".

Either of these is considered correct, as long as it's clear which is meant.

-t



tommy. thanks for the reply.
the is a verbal review question. question no. 87. quoting 'the verbal review', 'this sentence lists 3 causes of the company's troubles and suggests that the strategies to correct the cause have failed'

very clearly the strategies are for all the 3 nouns and not just ' managerial blunder'

though i understood what u tried to say in the first example('I am in love with my car and the girlfriend that I met last week') , wouldnt the gmat love to see a 'who' in place of a 'that' to refer to 'the girlfriend'?? yeah 'that' can refer to humans/objects/theories etc, but i guess gmat will make sure that 'who' refers to 'girlfriend' in this case.
PS: the new song 'whisper' is awesome.

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Hey Munda,

Sure! Here's the sentence with answer choice E:

The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct them.

Starting with the relative pronoun "that", we have a modifying clause that is modifying "blunders". This is the antecedent of "them". However, there's no need to REFER to the very word that we're in the process of modifying. It would be like saying:

I'm waiting for the woman that I love her.

We don't need the pronoun "her," because we're actually MODIFYING the word "woman."

Hope that makes sense!

-t
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Hey All,

I got asked this by PM (but don't PM me anymore, because I'm taking a break from the forums).

Isn't "It was a bad move in that it resulted in him getting dumped by Amy." similar to "The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders in that"

In both the sentences the verb is a form of "to be" .In the first case the verb is was and in the 2nd one the verb is are. Please explain the difference or is it that i havnt understood. I think C. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them.


The problem Gurvinder is that it isn't modifying the right action. Notice in your first example how "in that" is modifying "was a bad move", and what comes after "in that" EXPLAINS HOW it's a bad move?

Well in the full sentence: The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders in that in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them.

Look at what comes after the "in that". This is NOT explaining how there were managerial blunders. This is explaining how the managerial blunders can't be corrected. That's not how you use it. This would be like saying "It was a bad move in that it was really bad." That doesn't explain HOW it was a bad move, so it doesn't work.

Make sense?

-t
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Re: The computer company's present troubles [#permalink]

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I think the reason why you are having problems with this sentence is because the meaning is not clear to you.

Look at the sentence with correct option D:

The computer companys present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct.

The computer companys present troubles are a result of (technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders) that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct.

So, that modifies technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders. Essentially, the sentence is saying that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders.

Lets look at a simpler sentence if the above structure is still not clear:

Do we say:

This is the shop that I have opened.

Or do we say:

This is the shop that I have opened it.

Clearly it, as used in the second sentence, is neither necessary nor desirable.

Hence, E (that uses them) is not correct.
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Re: The computer company's present troubles [#permalink]

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ajit257 wrote:
The computer company's present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it.

a. so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it
b. so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct
c. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them.
d. that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct
e. that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them.

Can someone please provide a better reasoning behind the ans


Let's begin with the original sentence. So... that construction is wrong in that sentence b/c you use so... that in a construction that has an adjective in between. He is so strong that... or she is so sensitive that.... For this reason, A and B are out.

In C in that is incorrectly used b/c in that is a formal way of saying because and that is not what we are trying to convey in the message.

In E is says, "attempts at revising corporate" the sentence uses at to convey purpose when to should have been used instead.

Now you have D, that is properly used in the sentence, to is used to convey purpose. There's your answer.
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Re: The computer company s present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Hi All,

The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it.

Image

• The computer company is facing troubles because of three issues:
o technological stagnation,
o marketing missteps, and
o managerial blunders.
• The company has tried several measures to revise its corporate strategies but all have failed to solve these issues. However, this sentence does not express the meaning correctly because of use of “so that”.

Image

• The clause following “so that” is not doing the job it is supposed to` as discussed earlier. Meaning error here.
• All these entities are noun phrases and the modifier following them actually describes these so we simply need a noun modifier to describe them. If “so” is removed from “so that”, then “that” will correctly turn into the noun modifier that will correctly describe all the troubles.
• Singular pronoun “it” is incorrect to refer to three troubles. In fact, we don’t even need that pronoun. Let’s understand this with the help of a simple example.
o Dr Lee’s degree allows him to diagnose ear, nose and throat diseases that he cures for very little fee.

In this sentence we do not need “them” after “cures” because all the diseases that Dr Lee can cure has already been stated. Similarly, we don’t need any pronoun in the “that clause” as all the troubles that the computer company is facing have already been stated.

POE:

Choice A: so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct it: Incorrect for the reasons discussed above.

Choice B: so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct: Incorrect. Same meaning error as in A.

Choice C: in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them: Incorrect.
a. The function of the clause following “in that” is to describe the “how” of the preceding clause.
o Bats are very good at guarding their nests in that they take turns in looking after the nests and inform the others members by making sound if they sense any danger.
But in this choice, the 2nd clause is not describing how the three issues actually lead to troubles for the computer company.
b. Pronoun “them” is incorrect. Logically this should refer to the tech stagnation, missteps, and blunders. But the way it is used, it refers to strategies and that distorts the meaning of the sentence.

Choice D: that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct. Correct.

Choice E: that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have failed to correct them. Incorrect. Same pronoun error as in C.

Image

1. Modifiers must be worded correctly to convey the intended meaning of the sentence.
2. Every pronoun must be used correctly.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Marcab wrote:
In the question, would it have been correct if it were without "them" in C?


Hi @Marcab:

Even if we remove “them” from choice C, it will still remain incorrect. There are two reasons for that.
1. Use of “in that” is incorrect in this choice. The phrase “in that” elaborates on the “how” factor of the action in the previous clause. For example:
Children associate fun with Halloween in that they get to guise in spooky fashion and collect sweet “treats”.
However, use of “in that” does not make sense in choice C because it incorrectly presents the how aspect of “are the results…”. Here we need “that” to modify these problems that the company has not been able solve so far.

2. Also the phrase “several attempts to” is better and more precise that “several attempts at”.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2012, 11:12
Many thanks for the reply.
"....are result of technological
stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders
so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed
to correct it"
"HOW"are the company's present troubles a result of technological
stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders?
ANSWER: Because several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed to correct the company's troubles.

As far as I think, if one is able to create a "how" question and is able to answer it, then the in that construction is valid.
Please let me know if I am missing something. I feel I am pretty naive in SC.

Moreover, please elaborate how you prefer "revising to" over "revising at". Both to and at are preposition and hence are followed by noun. What's wrong in that?
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2013, 05:07
egmat wrote:
Marcab wrote:
In the question, would it have been correct if it were without "them" in C?


Hi @Marcab:

Even if we remove “them” from choice C, it will still remain incorrect. There are two reasons for that.
1. Use of “in that” is incorrect in this choice. The phrase “in that” elaborates on the “how” factor of the action in the previous clause. For example:
Children associate fun with Halloween in that they get to guise in spooky fashion and collect sweet “treats”.
However, use of “in that” does not make sense in choice C because it incorrectly presents the how aspect of “are the results…”. Here we need “that” to modify these problems that the company has not been able solve so far.

2. Also the phrase “several attempts to” is better and more precise that “several attempts at”.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi shraddha,
Please elaborate more on 'in that'

In the example you quoted, 'in that' is modifying the action 'associate' ?

Kindly let us know correct usages of 'in that' with examples..
Regards,
Sach
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2014, 09:16
Without "them" in C, the sentence is not even complete.

One way to think about "in that" is that it expresses specific information to elaborate on a general statement.
For e.g. Humans are mammals in that they are warm-blooded.
"In that" explains "in what way" humans belong to the general category of mammals.

Back to the question. First, the antecedent of "them" is unclear.
Let us assume that "them" refers to the correct antecedent. Now ask whether "in that" makes sense.

"The company's troubles are the result of X problems" in that "Y attempts have failed to correct the X problems".
Here, does "Y attempts..." explain how or in what way "the company's troubles are the result of those problems"? To be able to explain it, the attempts would need to have come first. But the attempts to correct can only have come after the problems were discovered, not before.

In this question, the sequence of events is more like this: Stagnation/missteps/blunders -> troubles -> attempts.

At best, the two threads provide independent pieces of information. "In that" incorrectly links them.
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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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This sentence, among other things, entails the intrinsic knowledge of common English constructions.

“so that” is used to introduce the concept of consequence. For instance,

I am studying hard for the GMAT, so that I can get a good score.
The president is tapering IT industries’ tax-breaks so that his approval rating will rise.
Europe will rebuff any nuclear power-plant project so that the risk of potential trouble is greatly diminished.

A, B, C “so that” construction in this sentence is logically out of place.

A) pronoun "it" is un-necessary and ambiguous. You don’t say “This is the car that I sold it.
B) fragment: the sentence is incomplete.
C) “in that” is completely wrong. Moreover “them” is un-necessary and ambiguous.
D) this is the correct answer. Every issue has been addressed. (“so that” construction has been discarded, “attempts to” substituted with “attempts at”, and “it/them” removed.
E) “them” once again is not necessary and wrong.

>> Hope it Helps

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2015, 09:19
rohansherry wrote:
Q40
The computer company’s present troubles are a result of technological
stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders
so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have failed
to correct it.


A. so that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have
failed to correct it.
B. so that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct
C. in that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct them
D. that several attempts to revise corporate strategies have
failed to correct
E. that several attempts at revising corporate strategies have
failed to correct them
answer


Please find detail explanation from egmat here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=plZjX81xByE

I have one question: how can we differentiate situation in which "that" clause modifies the whole list with situation in which it modifies only the final noun?

Thank you

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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Re: Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 21:49
ravi19012015 wrote:
Dear experts,

As per the meaning of the sentence, the Object of the verb Have Failed To Correct are 'technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders'?

So, is the real meaning as follows?
Several attempts to correct business strategies have failed to correct technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders, resulting into the company's present troubles.
Not exactly. You're taking this as the failure of the attempts to correct TS, MM, and MB has led to the present troubles. The most likely scenario is:
(a) TS, MM, and MB led to present troubles.
(b) Several attempts to correct TS, MM, and MB have failed.
but
(c) We don't know whether the attempts were made before or after TS, MM, and MB led to the troubles.

For example, in this situation is the result of errors that technicians have failed to fix, we can't say whether the technicians tried fixing the errors before the situation came about or after the situation came about. So although we can definitely say that the errors led to the situation, we can't say for sure that the failure of the attempts (assume that the word applies to this example) to fix the errors led to the situation. That could be why the situation hasn't been resolved, but the situation may have existed before the attempts.
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Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 22:37
AjiteshArun wrote:
ravi19012015 wrote:
Dear experts,

As per the meaning of the sentence, the Object of the verb Have Failed To Correct are 'technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders'?

So, is the real meaning as follows?
Several attempts to correct business strategies have failed to correct technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders, resulting into the company's present troubles.
Not exactly. You're taking this as the failure of the attempts to correct TS, MM, and MB has led to the present troubles. The most likely scenario is:
(a) TS, MM, and MB led to present troubles.
(b) Several attempts to correct TS, MM, and MB have failed.
but
(c) We don't know whether the attempts were made before or after TS, MM, and MB led to the troubles.

For example, in this situation is the result of errors that technicians have failed to fix, we can't say whether the technicians tried fixing the errors before the situation came about or after the situation came about. So although we can definitely say that the errors led to the situation, we can't say for sure that the failure of the attempts (assume that the word applies to this example) to fix the errors led to the situation. That could be why the situation hasn't been resolved, but the situation may have existed before the attempts.


Thank you for your inputs.
If I rephrase as follows:
'Several attempts to correct business strategies have failed to correct technological stagnation, marketing missteps, and managerial blunders, a failure that resulted into the company's present troubles.'
That better?

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Q40 The computer companys present troubles are a result of   [#permalink] 23 Feb 2017, 22:37

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