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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of

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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending

(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended

(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended

(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended

(E) Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

Originally posted by scorpio7 on 14 Jun 2009, 20:35.
Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Oct 2017, 04:51, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2015, 10:18
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A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending --- which referring the object ‘the highway’ starts a subordinate clause having no verb; a fragment.
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended --- bad parallelism on the connector ‘and’ in which one side is a just a phrase and the other side is a clause
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended --- a fragment; no verb for the road system.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended – meaning awfully changed as if it was extended because it was 2500 miles long.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending--- Correct structure.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 10:39
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E.

With C, the sentence would be:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

The issue is the presence of and above. If this "and" was replaced by a comma, it would have been a much better sentence:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length, extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

Now let's look at the problem that "and" introduces, from a parallelism perspective. As you would appreciate, "and" joins two or more entities. So, since C uses and extended there must be another entity to the left of "and" that this "and" joins/is parallel with. The most logical thought would be that this "and" connects the two verbs: was and extended. In other words, the sentence is intended to be as follows:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and which extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

In other words, the parallelism is between: which X (was over 2,500 miles in length) and which Y (extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili)

The issue however is that there is no main "verb" in this sentence; in other words, there is no Independent clause. All complete sentence [u]must
have at least one Independent clause.

Think about C in this way:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast.

- Is this a complete sentence? Clearly no. A correct sentence would have been:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast, met with an accident.

- Now this is a complete sentence because it has a "main verb": met. This sentence now has an Independent clause: fozzy's car met with an accident.

Similarly:

the Incan highway, which was over 2500 miles in length and extended from...

- Is this a complete sentence? Again no, because it does not have a main verb.

While most of this is more detail than you would care to know, but a holistic understanding helps in tacking SC better.
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New post 15 Jun 2009, 00:40
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


Ans shud be E.
Reason: 'extending ......' is a participle-modifier. In case of 'C' the sentence is not complete. The Incan highway should be described further in case of 'C'.
Let me know the OA.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2009, 09:47
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paneer wrote:

In all options other than A, B and E, don't you think that the Incan highway wrongly modifies Christopher Columbus?

I have my own doubts on E!



IMO,

First, the subject of the sentence is Incan highway, not Christopher columbus.

Second, the first clause that consists of Christopher columbus is the modifier because it starts by saying "The greatest system built...."

and the clause "extending...." is a modifier of the incan highway.

IMO E.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 09:02
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E. They are the clear contenders in this question


The greatest road system built in the Americas ( modifies) .... the Incan highway


The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.


C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended==> THIS OPTION DONT HAVE A VERB FOR THE SUBJECT..INCAN HIGH
HIGHLITED PART IS ACTING AS A MODIFIER...HENCE THIS ONE IS A FRAGMENT.


E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending==>THIS ONE HAS CLEARLY HAVE A SUB-VERB PAIR.
MOREOVER EXTENDING IS MODIFYING THE INCAN HIGHWAY..

HOPE IT HELPS
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 15:17
maaadhu wrote:
noboru wrote:
OA is E.
Could anybody clarify why extending is better than extended? I always have problems with the participles...

Many thanks in advance.



If E is correct then the 1st statement reads as below

"The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus"...This is a dependent clause. To make it independent it has to be "The greatest road system [IS] built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus.

Otherwise E is wrong. Can someone please explain if my reasoning is incorrect?


hi

"The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus"===>this is not a clause...a clause must have a subject and a verb

here if you are thinking that BUILT is a verb ==>then you are thinking wrong....built is not acting as a VERB.

SO THE WHOLE THING IS A MODIFIER.
AND IS MODIFYING INCAN HIGHWAY.

HOPE ITS CLEAR
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 12:41
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In A, the which-clause (which...Chile) lacks a verb.
Eliminate A.

In C, the Incan highway (subject) lacks a verb.
Eliminate C.

With regard to B and D: extended and extending convey different meanings.
Case 1: a highway extended implies that SOMEONE STRETCHED the highway beyond its initial length.
Case 2: a highway extending implies that the HIGHWAY ITSELF was long enough to STRETCH across the indicated distance.
The intended meaning here is Case 2.
Eliminate B and D.

The correct answer is E.

Analysis of the OA:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.
Here, the subject of the sentence is the Incan highway.
The greatest road system is as an APPOSITIVE serving to DEFINE the Incan highway.
The COMMA + VERBing modifier (extending from Northern Ecuador through Peru) serves an as adverb modifying the preceding clause, providing context for HOW the Incan highway WAS over 2,500 miles long.
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New post 29 Sep 2014, 08:45
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

- Lets analyze the question- subject are highlighted in Bold and verb in italic font

Clause 1 : The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus wasthe Incan highway
Clause 2: which, over 2,500 miles long and
extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

So 2nd clause do not have any verb.


A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended - "Comma + and" starts a new clause, which do not have any subject.

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended - Clause 1 do not contain the verb and extended is a modifier, which is not parallel to was over

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended - Shift the main focus of scentence and use of being is incorrect here.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending - extending is modifying the Greatest road system and correctly expressing intent of the sentence. This is correct answer
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2015, 13:32
souvik101990 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.


A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
the subordinate clause starting with which does not have a verb

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
poor construction. over 2.5k miles - needs a verb

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
this is a fragment - no main verb.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
being is correctly used in 2 cases: when it serves as a noun, or when it is used with passive voice structure.
neither applies here.
comma+being -> should modify the preceded clause, but there is no clause.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
correct
comma+ing verb modifies the preceded clause by giving additional information.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2015, 21:12
Structurally B is completely wrong. "The Incan Highway" should be placed between two commas as it has been appropriately done in E. Moreover, "long" and "extend" do not belong to the same list of items. Hence, "and" is not needed here at all.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2016, 21:15
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


the meaning in b is not close. two ideas, "was highway" and "extended' are independent.
in short, b has not close meaning relation.

no grammar problem in b. focus on meaning analysis. meaning relation between two ideas in b is not close. choice b is typicle of gmat question.

in contrast, meaning relation between two ideas are close.
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New post 05 Jan 2017, 06:55
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button – closing this request.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 03:42
TheRzS wrote:
Ans E

In E

Main clause: "...the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long..."

Subject of the sentence: "the Incan Highway..." is sandwiched between two participial phrase/modifier, both modifying the subject.

Modifier 1: "The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus..": Built is past participle of build

Modifier 2: " extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili..": Extending is present participle of extend


Side Note
Two subsequent modifiers - placed one after another - cannot modify the same subject/main clause, as seen in answer choices A to D. Of course there are plenty other wrong with all 4 of them.


Just a word of caution:
Do not eliminate an answer choice just by seeing two consecutive modifiers (without conjunction) referring to the same noun. Please check whether the case could be a valid exception (of touch rule), in which the second modifier modifies the the noun and first modifier ( the mission critical modifier) together. The following example is from Manhattan SC guide:
He had a way OF DODGING OPPONENTS that impressed the scouts.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 03:17
shoumodip wrote:
As per the intent of sentence,
-The greatest road system....was the Incan highway
-Info about length and route of highway.

I am confused why option E is correct. Shouldn't there be a verb after Columbus and Incan highway?.
I feel option E suggest that the greatest road system was over 250 miles long....
However it now has eliminated the first intent of stressing the name of Highway. Also if the first clause modifies Incan highway, then Incan Highway must be within comma.

Also I am not sure why Option B is wrong?
Pls advise


E: The subject is "the Incan Highway"; the verb is "was". Therefore there is no comma between them. The opening part "The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus" is a modifier for "the Incan Highway", not the subject itself.

B: " Incan highway" has 2 parallel modifiers:
1. over 2,500 miles in length
2. extended from....
The second modifier is wrong - it implies that the highway had existed, but it was subsequently extended by someone. This meaning is the not the original intended meaning.
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New post 04 Sep 2017, 01:44
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Please, note that the phenomenon of extension from Ecuador through Chile is a modifier that describes the enormous length of the road. In B, the second part is a fragment because it does not have a subject. Even so, because the extension through three countries is a describer or modifier of the system running for 2500 miles long, the second part should have been placed with just a comma rather than with a conjunction.
All in all, the important point is that B is incorrect and time to rollover to the remaining choices.
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New post 04 Sep 2017, 03:11
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B without'and'
Quote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles long extended

Without the conjunction 'and', the sentence will be a double verbed clause with the Incan highway as the subject and two verbs namely ' was'and 'extended' without a proper connector. Obviously, this is wrong, some kind of a fragment, without a subject for the second part.
It is also not clear whether somebody extended the highway after some time or whether the highway ran the whole distance from day one without additional laying.
The most obvious and easily visible error seems to the parallelism error with a clause on one side of the conjunction and just a predicate on the other
I didn't go further on B because that much was enough for me to understand that wasn't among the contenders.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 09:54
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


The answer is E

We need a verb to make the original sentence correct.
We also have characteristic of the Incan highway 2500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.
We need present participle to depict the state of highway .


A use of extending is wrong in A as it should modify the highway but here it is connected to the phrase" over 2,500 miles long" also we need verb after which
B Changes meaning it suggests that the highway was over 2500 miles means greater than 2500 miles , but it was 2500 miles long
Parallelism error
C this choice is not parallel and use of extended is wrong it should modify highway.
D Wrong use of being also there is a shift in meaning it was not extended how can you extend the highway .
E Correct modifier extending correctly modifies the previous clause .
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 17:02
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
- "and extending" = incorrect. ", which" not necessary b/c you're not giving it a verb.

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
- "and extended" = incorrect. "over 2,500 miles in length" = incomplete - where is verb? also, "in length" should be "long"

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
- "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction. "and extended" = incorrect.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
- "being" = incorrect. also, "was extended" = incorrect. the road system was not extended. "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
- correct as is

key thing to note here is the STRUCTURE of the sentence: OPENING MODIFIER --> MAIN POINT --> MODIFIER
> if you can spot this, notice the last phrase is a modifier, so it's logical to begin that with "verb-ing" and not "AND + SOMETHING".

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New post 10 May 2018, 17:22
him1985 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

- Lets analyze the question- subject are highlighted in Bold and verb in italic font

Clause 1 : The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus wasthe Incan highway
Clause 2: which, over 2,500 miles long and
extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

So 2nd clause do not have any verb.


A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended - "Comma + and" starts a new clause, which do not have any subject.

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended - Clause 1 do not contain the verb and extended is a modifier, which is not parallel to was over

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended - Shift the main focus of scentence and use of being is incorrect here.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending - extending is modifying the Greatest road system and correctly expressing intent of the sentence. This is correct answer


I think the modifier 'extending' is actually modifying the Incan Highway.
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
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