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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of

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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Nov 2018, 02:39
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.


(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending

(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended

(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended

(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended

(E) Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

Originally posted by scorpio7 on 14 Jun 2009, 19:35.
Last edited by Bunuel on 12 Nov 2018, 02:39, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2015, 09:18
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A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending --- which referring the object ‘the highway’ starts a subordinate clause having no verb; a fragment.
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended --- bad parallelism on the connector ‘and’ in which one side is a just a phrase and the other side is a clause
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended --- a fragment; no verb for the road system.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended – meaning awfully changed as if it was extended because it was 2500 miles long.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending--- Correct structure.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 09:39
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E.

With C, the sentence would be:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

The issue is the presence of and above. If this "and" was replaced by a comma, it would have been a much better sentence:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length, extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

Now let's look at the problem that "and" introduces, from a parallelism perspective. As you would appreciate, "and" joins two or more entities. So, since C uses and extended there must be another entity to the left of "and" that this "and" joins/is parallel with. The most logical thought would be that this "and" connects the two verbs: was and extended. In other words, the sentence is intended to be as follows:

The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and which extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

In other words, the parallelism is between: which X (was over 2,500 miles in length) and which Y (extended from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili)

The issue however is that there is no main "verb" in this sentence; in other words, there is no Independent clause. All complete sentence [u]must
have at least one Independent clause.

Think about C in this way:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast.

- Is this a complete sentence? Clearly no. A correct sentence would have been:

fozzy's car, which was old and drove fast, met with an accident.

- Now this is a complete sentence because it has a "main verb": met. This sentence now has an Independent clause: fozzy's car met with an accident.

Similarly:

the Incan highway, which was over 2500 miles in length and extended from...

- Is this a complete sentence? Again no, because it does not have a main verb.

While most of this is more detail than you would care to know, but a holistic understanding helps in tacking SC better.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2009, 23:40
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


Ans shud be E.
Reason: 'extending ......' is a participle-modifier. In case of 'C' the sentence is not complete. The Incan highway should be described further in case of 'C'.
Let me know the OA.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2009, 08:47
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paneer wrote:

In all options other than A, B and E, don't you think that the Incan highway wrongly modifies Christopher Columbus?

I have my own doubts on E!



IMO,

First, the subject of the sentence is Incan highway, not Christopher columbus.

Second, the first clause that consists of Christopher columbus is the modifier because it starts by saying "The greatest system built...."

and the clause "extending...." is a modifier of the incan highway.

IMO E.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 08:02
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the difference between C and E. They are the clear contenders in this question


The greatest road system built in the Americas ( modifies) .... the Incan highway


The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.


C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended==> THIS OPTION DONT HAVE A VERB FOR THE SUBJECT..INCAN HIGH
HIGHLITED PART IS ACTING AS A MODIFIER...HENCE THIS ONE IS A FRAGMENT.


E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending==>THIS ONE HAS CLEARLY HAVE A SUB-VERB PAIR.
MOREOVER EXTENDING IS MODIFYING THE INCAN HIGHWAY..

HOPE IT HELPS
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 11:41
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In A, the which-clause (which...Chile) lacks a verb.
Eliminate A.

In C, the Incan highway (subject) lacks a verb.
Eliminate C.

With regard to B and D: extended and extending convey different meanings.
Case 1: a highway extended implies that SOMEONE STRETCHED the highway beyond its initial length.
Case 2: a highway extending implies that the HIGHWAY ITSELF was long enough to STRETCH across the indicated distance.
The intended meaning here is Case 2.
Eliminate B and D.

The correct answer is E.

Analysis of the OA:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.
Here, the subject of the sentence is the Incan highway.
The greatest road system is as an APPOSITIVE serving to DEFINE the Incan highway.
The COMMA + VERBing modifier (extending from Northern Ecuador through Peru) serves an as adverb modifying the preceding clause, providing context for HOW the Incan highway WAS over 2,500 miles long.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2014, 07:45
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

- Lets analyze the question- subject are highlighted in Bold and verb in italic font

Clause 1 : The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus wasthe Incan highway
Clause 2: which, over 2,500 miles long and
extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

So 2nd clause do not have any verb.


A. Underlined portion
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended - "Comma + and" starts a new clause, which do not have any subject.

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended - Clause 1 do not contain the verb and extended is a modifier, which is not parallel to was over

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended - Shift the main focus of scentence and use of being is incorrect here.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending - extending is modifying the Greatest road system and correctly expressing intent of the sentence. This is correct answer
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2015, 20:12
Structurally B is completely wrong. "The Incan Highway" should be placed between two commas as it has been appropriately done in E. Moreover, "long" and "extend" do not belong to the same list of items. Hence, "and" is not needed here at all.
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New post 09 Apr 2016, 21:07
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


The incan highway is modifying Columbus in CDE. So out
between A and B
A is wrong because of wrong usage of extending....it is not a continuous process..
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2016, 00:06
RatneshS wrote:
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to Southern Chile.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


The incan highway is modifying Columbus in CDE. So out
between A and B
A is wrong because of wrong usage of extending....it is not a continuous process..


Here "extending" is not a verb, but a participle. Therefore "extending" does not necessarily mean a continuous process. Option A is wrong because the relative clause starting with "which" does not have a verb.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 00:44
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Please, note that the phenomenon of extension from Ecuador through Chile is a modifier that describes the enormous length of the road. In B, the second part is a fragment because it does not have a subject. Even so, because the extension through three countries is a describer or modifier of the system running for 2500 miles long, the second part should have been placed with just a comma rather than with a conjunction.
All in all, the important point is that B is incorrect and time to rollover to the remaining choices.
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New post 04 Sep 2017, 02:11
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B without'and'
Quote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles long extended

Without the conjunction 'and', the sentence will be a double verbed clause with the Incan highway as the subject and two verbs namely ' was'and 'extended' without a proper connector. Obviously, this is wrong, some kind of a fragment, without a subject for the second part.
It is also not clear whether somebody extended the highway after some time or whether the highway ran the whole distance from day one without additional laying.
The most obvious and easily visible error seems to the parallelism error with a clause on one side of the conjunction and just a predicate on the other
I didn't go further on B because that much was enough for me to understand that wasn't among the contenders.
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Re: The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 16:02
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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chili.

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
- "and extending" = incorrect. ", which" not necessary b/c you're not giving it a verb.

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended
- "and extended" = incorrect. "over 2,500 miles in length" = incomplete - where is verb? also, "in length" should be "long"

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
- "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction. "and extended" = incorrect.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
- "being" = incorrect. also, "was extended" = incorrect. the road system was not extended. "in length" should be "long". This is awkward, wordy construction.

E. Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending
- correct as is

key thing to note here is the STRUCTURE of the sentence: OPENING MODIFIER --> MAIN POINT --> MODIFIER
> if you can spot this, notice the last phrase is a modifier, so it's logical to begin that with "verb-ing" and not "AND + SOMETHING".

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