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The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 01:00
daagh wrote:
A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending --- which referring the object ‘the highway’ starts a subordinate clause having no verb; a fragment.
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended --- bad parallelism on the connector ‘and’ in which one side is a just a phrase and the other side is a clause
C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended --- a fragment; no verb for the road system.

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended – meaning awfully changed as if it was extended because it was 2500 miles long.

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending--- Correct structure.

Hello daagh,
In option B I thought 'was' and 'extended' were parallel! Both in past tense. When u say in B one is a phrase n the other a clause can u demarcate them for me please?
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 01:35
amanrsingh wrote:
This question tests Parallelism and Modifiers, always remember whenever you see a Parallelism indicator like 'And', you should always first look for the parallelism error, that being said:

scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.


(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending --- [color=#0000ff]here extending is a modifier and over 2500 is a noun phrase
[/color]
(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended ----same mistake as A, extended is a participle modifier

(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended --- Same as B

(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended -- we need a helping verb with being

(E) Columbus, the Incan Highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending --- Correct removes the parallelism error and extending is correctly modifying Incan highway



amanrsingh - Why do u say B is wrong? Can u please explain a lil more. I though 'was' and 'extended' were parallel verbs(past tense).
Thanks :)
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 01:54
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.


(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, which had extended
(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
(E) Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


SC37620.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION


A - which, over 2500 miles long and extending is not the complete clause. The clause doesn't have verb.
B - which had extended --- no need to have past participle form HAD... there are no 2 events...
C - and extended seems to be incorrect. ...it should be which extended.
D - being is incorrect. was extended is incorrect usage. it gives a different meaning that the road was extended to Southern Chile.
E - seems simple and correct.
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New post Updated on: 19 Aug 2019, 13:59
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Quote:
B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, and extended --- bad parallelism on the connector ‘and’ in which one side is a just a phrase and the other side is a clause
-- my comment

Previously I had written something based on a mis-typed transcription as given below.

Quote:
B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, which had extended


Therefore, my comments are irrelevant as far B is concerned.However, B is wrong for some other muddled reason that whether somebody extended the road or it was a natural self-extension by the road itself. The word 'extended' befits both situations because of the conjunction 'and'.

The comma plus participle (,extending) in E is a safer bet.
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Originally posted by daagh on 19 Aug 2019, 02:33.
Last edited by daagh on 19 Aug 2019, 13:59, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 12:23
Can we have the official explanation for B?
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 12:31
EpilepticLearner wrote:
Can we have the official explanation for B?

Hey, unfortunately there is no official explanation. This is a GMAT prep exam question which doesn't have explanation.
So we've to rely on experts' views/ logic for the same.
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New post 25 Aug 2019, 15:43
Hi daagh generis

Is (B) wrong or is it just that (E) is preferable over (B) ?

The Incan highway extended before Christopher Columbus is implied in (B) which does convey the intended/correct meaning, doesn't it ? Or the timeline (before/after) is additional information not available in the original (incorrect) sentence.
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New post 12 Oct 2019, 03:54
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.


(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, which had extended
(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
(E) Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


SC37620.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

manhattan RonPurewal Sir i feel e is correct but i have a doubt, when ,ing modifier is used you said it must satisfy with the previous clause subject and ron sir said that previous subject is personally doing that thing, but in this option highway can't extend himself on its own. PLEASE REPLY!!!! need urgent help
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New post 23 Oct 2019, 09:38
rishabhmishra1993 wrote:
scorpio7 wrote:
The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.


(A) Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending
(B) Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, which had extended
(C) Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended
(D) Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended
(E) Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending


SC37620.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

manhattan RonPurewal Sir i feel e is correct but i have a doubt, when ,ing modifier is used you said it must satisfy with the previous clause subject and ron sir said that previous subject is personally doing that thing, but in this option highway can't extend himself on its own. PLEASE REPLY!!!! need urgent help


Dear experts,
RonPurewal egmat GMATNinja GMATNinjatwo @empowergmat daagh mikemcgarry
I have the same doubt.
"Verb-ing + comma" plays 2 major roles - either it presents the result of previous clause or it presents the how aspect of the previous clause. However, in addition to this, the doer of the action needs to be the same.
While, I am thoroughly convinced that "extending ..." clearly describes the "Incan highway" I cannot convince myself about how can Incan highway be the doer of the action "extending .."
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New post 23 Oct 2019, 11:17
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Here 'extending' is modifying the Incan Highways being 2500 miles long. In other words, it explains the why or how of the 2500 mile length. That is why they say, an adverbial modifier modifies the doer and more importantly the action or the status of the doer.
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 02:06
daagh wrote:
Here 'extending' is modifying the Incan Highways being 2500 miles long. In other words, it explains the why or how of the 2500 mile length. That is why they say, an adverbial modifier modifies the doer and more importantly the action or the status of the doer.


Dear daagh sir,
I completely agree with your first two statements - extending is modifying ... , and it explains the why ...
My understanding of doer is that, the doer performs the action.
Let me illustrate this with an example: Oliver won the best writer award, making him famous in no time.
Here making correctly explains the "result" aspect of winning the best award.
However, if we consider the doer --> Oliver did not make himself famous, the winning of the award made him famous.
Similarly, the Incan highway did not extend itself from region X to region Y.

Hence, I am still unable to understand your 3rd statement - That is why they say, an adverbial modifier modifies the doer and more importantly the action or the status of the doer.
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 02:26
daagh (aka Narendran Thulaisram Sir) :) Thanks for your contributions to this forum. Your posts have enriched and enlightened many aspirants over the years. Thanks Again for taking the time to write detailed answers to almost all the verbal questions on this forum :)
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 02:59
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If the verb of a clause so modified is a non-action or status verb, such as is, was, were etc, which involves no action on the part of the subject, then what action would you attribute to? That way, one can never attribute an inanimate thing or a linking verb with an adverbial modifier

Take the case--

I am the tallest in my office, measuring over 6.5 feet. Now you have not done any action to be the tallest or to measure 6.5, but it is just that you are the tallest and over 6.5 feet. Similarly, in the case of the Incan, the road is neither extending itself nor is anyone deliberately extending. Here extend indicates a status rather than an action.
The question is whether the modifier gives some additional info or not. Doesn't it say about how it was 2500 miles long, by giving the starting point and the finishing points?

Please look into my explanation. I have clearly said that it is the action or the status of the doer.

Finally, in this official question, do you suspect, GMAC was not aware of this. Are we able to tick any other answer?

HTH
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New post 29 Oct 2019, 03:14
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Thank you for the kind words, God bless!!
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New post 30 Oct 2019, 06:05
daagh wrote:
aniket

If the verb of a clause so modified is a non-action or status verb, such as is, was, were etc, which involves no action on the part of the subject, then what action would you attribute to? That way, one can never attribute an inanimate thing or a linking verb with an adverbial modifier

Take the case--

I am the tallest in my office, measuring over 6.5 feet. Now you have not done any action to be the tallest or to measure 6.5, but it is just that you are the tallest and over 6.5 feet. Similarly, in the case of the Incan, the road is neither extending itself nor is anyone deliberately extending. Here extend indicates a status rather than an action.
The question is whether the modifier gives some additional info or not. Doesn't it say about how it was 2500 miles long, by giving the starting point and the finishing points?

Please look into my explanation. I have clearly said that it is the action or the status of the doer.

Finally, in this official question, do you suspect, GMAC was not aware of this. Are we able to tick any other answer?

HTH


Thank you sir for the explanation. I missed the point of "status" and hence got confused.
Your explanation has certainly provided a much better clarity in the use of "verb-ing" modifier.

Just to summarize the use of verb-ing modifier -
The "verb-ing" modifier can represent the "how/result" aspect of the previous clause. Hence the verb-ing must correctly answer the how/result question asked to the verb in the previous clause.
In addition to that, the doer of the previous clause and the doer of action represented by "verb-ing" must be the same.
The doer may/may not perform the action by itself. The "verb-ing" will represent the action performed or will describe the doer (or describe the status of the doer).
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New post 30 Oct 2019, 14:26
rishabhmishra1993 wrote:
manhattan RonPurewal Sir i feel e is correct but i have a doubt, when ,ing modifier is used you said it must satisfy with the previous clause subject and ron sir said that previous subject is personally doing that thing, but in this option highway can't extend himself on its own. PLEASE REPLY!!!! need urgent help




Hello rishabhmishra1993,

I am not sure if your doubt still persists. Here is my reply to your question anyway. :-)

It is correct that a "comma + verb-ing" modifier must fulfill the following two conditions for its correct usage in any sentence:

1. It must logically modify/connect with the action in the preceding clause.

2. It must logically associate with the subject of the modified action.

In Choice E, the use of comma + extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile is correct because this modifier presents the logical explanation for the clause the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long. The modifier presents the geographical stretch of this 2,500 miles long Incan highway. So, the modifier fulfills the first condition.

Now, does the modifier logically associates with the subject the Incan highway? The answer is "yes" because this highway did extend from point A to point B. Hence, the modifier fulfills the second condition also.


At e-GMAT, our SC course has two concepts dealing with the usage of Verb-ing Modifiers. These concepts are part of our Free Trial course. You can register at e-GMAT.com for free and learn it all about this modifier.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 30 Oct 2019, 14:32
altairahmad wrote:
Hi daagh generis

Is (B) wrong or is it just that (E) is preferable over (B) ?

The Incan highway extended before Christopher Columbus is implied in (B) which does convey the intended/correct meaning, doesn't it ? Or the timeline (before/after) is additional information not available in the original (incorrect) sentence.



Hello altairahmad,

Although your question is not addressed to me, here is my answer to the same. :-)

Choice B is INCORRECT for the usage of the past perfect tense verb had extended.

In GMAT SC, past perfect tense is used to denote the earlier of the two past related events to explicitly present the sequencing between them. Use of had extended conveys that the Incan highway first extended from point A to point B, and then it became 2,500. I am sure you can see that this meaning is totally illogical.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 03 Nov 2019, 23:27
Please help with the explanation of the answer and secondly how to approach identifying sentence fragment error?
Thanks!
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New post 15 Nov 2019, 21:01
Hi daagh, I still wonder about this question. Please help me explain. Why can we use: A noun phrase + a clause in this question? In detail: "The greatest road system ..., the Incan highway ..."
I think that the right structure must be: "AS the greatest road system ..., the Incan highway ..."
Then, because no answer choice has "AS", I think the structure is "The greatest road system ... was the Incan highway."
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New post 18 Feb 2020, 07:19
seems like something is missing because in the below solution in option B no one wrote "had" but in the question had is mentioned not sure what happened as in every solution provided below all are missing had. Can you please provide me the solution why not B
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