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# The majority of successful senior managers do not closely

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1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E

I am still not able to process why EXACTLY Option A is incorrect.
The passage does not clearly support option A by stating in the very first line: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model
So for ex: Total Successful managers - 10, then majority of Sr. Managers using intuition (not classical model) - 6 or more, Sr. Managers using Classical Model - 4 or less.

Hence, So if Option A states that Most of the Managers successful are the ones using Intuition and not classical model then this is supported by passage, Right?

So is option A wrong only because it is stressing and comparing the "DEGREE" of success of managers using either of the methods? As that is not mentioned in the passage.

Thank you.
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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision

This only means that majority of successful manager use intuition. This doesn't suggest that intuition users are more successful than other managers in other set. Look at the wording carefully.
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.

Lets say Intuition Category A =6 manager with success measured in % [60,65,77,66,88,90]
Other Category B =4 manager with success measured in % [95,95,95,95]

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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
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Hi experts!

Please explain the last question, many thanks!

And I wonder why i did not find this question in OG. Is it an self-made question by someone in our forum?

Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.
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leanhdung wrote:
Hi experts!

Please explain the last question, many thanks!

And I wonder why i did not find this question in OG. Is it an self-made question by someone in our forum?

Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

Thanks leanhdung for your comment. Yes, in the OG 12th edition, this passage only contains 6 questions, but the post includes an additional 7th and 8th question from an unknown source. I wouldn't worry about these unless teal can verify the source.

Thanks!
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
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Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

To all those who got the last question wrong.
Assertion meaning is to make a claim , declaration. But what we see from the first para is just fact .These are not claims rather these statement are discussing two models of thinking and dismissing the other .
C is just out of the picture as we do not have any results to show in fist para
D Two opposing view points are given but they are not evaluated only the second is discussed more deeply.
E No definition is introduced .
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
workout GMATNinjaTwo GMATNinja mikemcgarry Gnpth gmatexam439

Hi experts can you please explain in Q5
Why acknowledge is wrong over misunderstood ?
I have difficulties in such questions

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mallya12 wrote:
can some explain question 7? Why not only II?

Hi Mallya12,

Please conider this part of the passage: "Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later."

7th question asks us what would the result of thinking/acting cycle be. From the above part of the passage we can infer that managers praticing thinking/acting cycle often take action before they can explain why this action is right. The same thing is said in III (A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action).

I hope my responce was clear.
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
Hi GMATNinja

I am still not clear on 1st question.
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
I don't think that elimination should be based on "manager vs senior manager". Direct comparison is not mentioned in passage but still initially author mentioned that "The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model........rather these executives relied on intuition". Can't we understand that it's an implied comparison ?
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
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A Evaluating a problem is identified as assessing the problem.
B Creating solutions is identified as formulating options.
C Establishing goals is identified as clarifying goals.
D Correct. Acting in order to learn more about the problem is not identified in the passage as part of the rational classical model. It does appear as part of the acting/ thinking cycle in the last paragraph.
E Comparing probable effects is identified as estimating likelihoods of success.

I'm a bit concerned about Question 7 as we are told that "Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later" and in fact we aren't given any other reason to doubt that the managers CANNOT explain their actions, so I don't understand how III is correct also.

After a bit of digging, I can't seem to seem to see this question in any official guide. SajjadAhmad or GMATNinjaTwo

*EDIT: i see the comments above. So the question isn't official.

The statement I quoted from the passage says that managers act first before they explain - so if you stop reading here, III in Q7 is true, but if you keep reading it says "they frequently act first and explain later".

So I can't stand to reason why III is correct.
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
Can someone please explain how to arrive at the answer to question 1? How can we infer that "Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently."?
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Question #1

Can someone please explain how to arrive at the answer to question 1? How can we infer that "Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently."?

rahul12988 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

I am still not clear on 1st question.
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
I don't think that elimination should be based on "manager vs senior manager". Direct comparison is not mentioned in passage but still initially author mentioned that "The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model........rather these executives relied on intuition". Can't we understand that it's an implied comparison ?

(A) tells us that managers who rely on intuition are "more successful" than managers who rely on formal decision analysis. This compares the degree of success between the two groups. Let's see how that comparison holds up in light of the exact wording of the relevant piece of the passage:
Quote:
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of [decision making]... Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition.”

This tells us that the number of successful senior managers who use intuition is larger than the number of successful senior managers who use formal decision making processes.

Unfortunately, it tells us nothing about the degree of success of these managers. Perhaps there are fewer successful managers using formal processes, but these managers are wildly successful, while their intuitive counterparts are only marginally successful.

Because the passage doesn't compare exactly how successful intuitive and unintuitive managers are, we cannot infer that intuitive managers are the "more successful" group. (A) is out.

Quote:
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

Practical experience is discussed in the second way in which senior managers use intuition:
Quote:
Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills.

Here, we see that intuition allows managers to use their experience to take action quickly. This aligns well with (E), which is the correct answer to question #1.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
I have a concern over Q7-D. Why III is an inference?
It can be inferred from the passage that “thinking/acting cycles” (line 45) in managerial practice would be likely to result in which of the following?

I. A manager analyzes a network of problems and then acts on the basis of that analysis.
II. A manager gathers data by acting and observing the effects of action.
III. A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

We have "Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue.". I think the statement can be considered a reason why they act - "to learn more abt an issue". So we can't say (III) "A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.". A manager can articulate the reason, which is "to learn more abt an issue".

Could anyone shed some light on this?
I am also looking forward to the OA of this question! teal
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Tracy95 wrote:
I have a concern over Q7-D. Why III is an inference?
It can be inferred from the passage that “thinking/acting cycles” (line 45) in managerial practice would be likely to result in which of the following?

I. A manager analyzes a network of problems and then acts on the basis of that analysis.
II. A manager gathers data by acting and observing the effects of action.
III. A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

We have "Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue.". I think the statement can be considered a reason why they act - "to learn more abt an issue". So we can't say (III) "A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.". A manager can articulate the reason, which is "to learn more abt an issue".

Could anyone shed some light on this?
I am also looking forward to the OA of this question! teal

Although the writer of this passage is able to articulate this reason (to learn more about an issue), the managers themselves might not be able to articulate that reason.

More importantly, we can trace the third inference back to paragraph three, where another implication of thinking/acting cycles is described:

Quote:
One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

• Managers don't analyze a problem first and then act. Instead, they engage in thinking/acting cycles, in which action and analysis are intertwined -- "thinking" is inseparable from acting.
• Managers who engage in such thinking/acting cycles will "frequently act first and explain later." Why? Because they "often 'know' what is right before they can analyze and explain it."
• So it is reasonable to infer that intuitive managers who engage in thinking/action cycles often take action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]
Can anyone explain why not option A in question 5? and why not option E in Q4? Thanks in advance
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Bhawanshu wrote:
Can anyone explain why not option A in question 5? and why not option E in Q4? Thanks in advance

Question 4

Here's choice (E):

Quote:
According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
(E) evaluate possible solutions to a problem

The third paragraph tells us that some managers will rely on intuition to evaluate solutions that have been reached through formal decision analysis:

"Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action."

We were asked which answer choice is NOT a way that senior managers use intuition, so (E) can be eliminated.

Question 5

Here's choice (A):

Quote:
The passage suggests which of the following about the “writers on management” mentioned in line 12?
(A) They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis.

(A) can be eliminated because the author never indicates that these generations of writers on management have criticized managers — let alone criticized managers for not following the classical rational model.

You can check out my previous explanation of question 5 if you're still not sure how to get to the correct answer. But without more information on why you think (A) could be correct, I can't say much more about why it's not. The evidence simply isn't there.

I hope this helps!
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