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The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa

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The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2017, 22:42
Question 1
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B
C
D
E

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31% (01:41) correct 69% (01:42) wrong based on 75

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Question 2
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A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

33% (00:47) correct 67% (00:33) wrong based on 81

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Question 3
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A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

63% (00:34) correct 37% (00:33) wrong based on 75

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The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) was not discovered until 1825 because its isolated state is so reactive that free nuggets or flakes of the metal are never found in nature; rather, the metal is typically found as part of an amalgam, most commonly bauxite ore. Moreover, elemental aluminum is extremely difficult—and expensive—to separate from its ores by traditional chemical means. Indeed, the extreme reactivity of aluminum helps protect its modern, ubiquitous manifestations, such as aluminum foil. The surface of pure aluminum instantly combines with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin but robust “passivization” seal of aluminum oxide that prevents further corrosion. Many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.

For several decades after its discovery, aluminum was considered a precious metal and was more costly than gold or platinum, not because of any fundamental scarcity, but because of its elevated cost of production. The price of aluminum suddenly plummeted in 1886, however, when two 23-year-old inventors independently developed an electrolytic process of separating pure aluminum from a bath of molten aluminum salts, primarily cryolite. Cryolite itself is rare enough that synthetic salts eventually replaced it as the solution medium.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
To answer this question, we must infer from facts given about iron. We are told that “many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” Since we are also told that the oxide layer on aluminum is “thin but robust” and “prevents further corrosion,” we can logically infer that the oxide layer on iron does not prevent further corrosion as effectively as the layer on aluminum, and therefore iron in all likelihood corrodes more quickly than aluminum.

(A) CORRECT. This answer choice states our inference clearly.
(B) We can indeed conclude that iron oxides form more slowly (“not as swiftly”), but we cannot conclude that iron oxides form more robustly than aluminum oxides. In fact, we are told that aluminum oxide forms a “thin but robust… seal,” while iron oxides, among others, “do not form as… completely, or impermeably.” If the iron oxides are less complete and less impermeable, then we cannot infer that they are more robust; if anything, we should assume that they are less robust.
(C) We know that iron is less reactive than aluminum, but we cannot conclude that iron is therefore cheaper to isolate from its ores. The extreme reactivity of aluminum was the reason for the difficulty and expense of separating aluminum from its ores by traditional chemical means, but iron could also be expensive to extract from its ores by traditional chemical means; we simply don’t know enough about the extraction process to make an inference here.
(D) This choice is directly contradicted by the passage: it is aluminum that forms a more effective “passivization” seal, not iron.
(E) Although iron is less reactive than aluminum, we do not know whether it is more likely to be found in its isolated, elemental state. If anything, because it does not form as effective passivization seals, we would expect pure iron to corrode away in nature.

1. What can be most logically inferred from the passage about iron?

(A) It corrodes more quickly than aluminum.
(B) Its oxides form more slowly and robustly than those of aluminum.
(C) It is cheaper to isolate from its ores by traditional chemical means than aluminum.
(D) It is more susceptible to passivization than is aluminum.
(E) It is more commonly found in its isolated, elemental state.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
We are asked to determine the role that the second paragraph plays in the passage as a whole. In the first paragraph, the author introduces his main point – that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history – and introduces nutmeg as an example. However, this example is incomplete at the end of the first paragraph. It is not until the second paragraph, when the example is further explored, that we learn how nutmeg actually altered the course of history.
(A) CORRECT. The second paragraph offers specific information – namely, the role that nutmeg played in the history of New York – to support the claim that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history.
(B) The second paragraph does not summarize the evidence already given. It presents additional information.
(C) The second paragraph does not present the author's main point - that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history. The main point is contained in the first paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph does demonstrate the relative importance of nutmeg in an event of historical significance, but it does not demonstrate the importance of historical change itself.
(E) The second paragraph does not discuss the outcomes, necessary or otherwise, of the author's claims. Instead, it offers evidence to support the claim made in the first sentence of the first paragraph.

2. For what purpose does the author include the second paragraph?

(A) It offers specific information to complete the logic of the author's claims.
(B) It summarizes and evaluates the evidence given thus far.
(C) It presents the author's main point to explain a unique situation.
(D) It cites a particular case to demonstrate the importance of historical change.
(E) It discusses the necessary outcome of the author's assertions.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
This question asks us about a specific detail mentioned in the passage: the “passivization” layer on the surface of aluminum metal. The passage indicates that this layer: (1) is formed from the combination of atmospheric oxygen with the pure metal, (2) is thin but robust, and (3) prevents further corrosion. We should look for an answer that matches one of these facts.

(A) This choice reverses the stated cause-and-effect sequence. The layer is the result of the reaction between oxygen and aluminum—not the cause of that reaction.

(B) We are told that this layer is “thin but robust”; in fact, in the next sentence, we are told that the superficial (= surface) oxides of iron “do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably” (as the surface oxides of aluminum). Thus, the passivization layer on aluminum is actually more impenetrable than the one that forms on iron.

(C) We cannot conclude that this layer “lowers the utility” or usefulness of pure aluminum. If anything, we would guess that this layer, because it prevents further corrosion, makes pure aluminum very long-lasting and therefore more useful—and that guess would be an inference anyway.

(D) CORRECT. The passivization seal of aluminum oxide “prevents further corrosion” in aluminum, while “many other metals” do not form such seals “as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” The passivization layer, then, provides aluminum with at least one advantage relative to other metals.

(E) We do not know whether this layer is what causes the “traditional” purification of aluminum to be an expensive process.

3. According to the passage, the natural passivization layer on the surface of aluminum metal

(A) causes atmospheric oxygen to react chemically with the metal
(B) is less impenetrable than typical iron oxide films formed on pure iron
(C) lowers the utility of aluminum in its uncontaminated state
(D) provides aluminum with a chemical advantage, relative to other metals
(E) precludes the inexpensive purification of the metal by traditional chemical processes

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

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The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 06:02
hazelnut wrote:
The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) was not discovered until 1825 because its isolated state is so reactive that free nuggets or flakes of the metal are never found in nature; rather, the metal is typically found as part of an amalgam, most commonly bauxite ore. Moreover, elemental aluminum is extremely difficult—and expensive—to separate from its ores by traditional chemical means. Indeed, the extreme reactivity of aluminum helps protect its modern, ubiquitous manifestations, such as aluminum foil. The surface of pure aluminum instantly combines with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin but robust “passivization” seal of aluminum oxide that prevents further corrosion. Many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.

For several decades after its discovery, aluminum was considered a precious metal and was more costly than gold or platinum, not because of any fundamental scarcity, but because of its elevated cost of production. The price of aluminum suddenly plummeted in 1886, however, when two 23-year-old inventors independently developed an electrolytic process of separating pure aluminum from a bath of molten aluminum salts, primarily cryolite. Cryolite itself is rare enough that synthetic salts eventually replaced it as the solution medium.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
To answer this question, we must infer from facts given about iron. We are told that “many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” Since we are also told that the oxide layer on aluminum is “thin but robust” and “prevents further corrosion,” we can logically infer that the oxide layer on iron does not prevent further corrosion as effectively as the layer on aluminum, and therefore iron in all likelihood corrodes more quickly than aluminum.

(A) CORRECT. This answer choice states our inference clearly.
(B) We can indeed conclude that iron oxides form more slowly (“not as swiftly”), but we cannot conclude that iron oxides form more robustly than aluminum oxides. In fact, we are told that aluminum oxide forms a “thin but robust… seal,” while iron oxides, among others, “do not form as… completely, or impermeably.” If the iron oxides are less complete and less impermeable, then we cannot infer that they are more robust; if anything, we should assume that they are less robust.
(C) We know that iron is less reactive than aluminum, but we cannot conclude that iron is therefore cheaper to isolate from its ores. The extreme reactivity of aluminum was the reason for the difficulty and expense of separating aluminum from its ores by traditional chemical means, but iron could also be expensive to extract from its ores by traditional chemical means; we simply don’t know enough about the extraction process to make an inference here.
(D) This choice is directly contradicted by the passage: it is aluminum that forms a more effective “passivization” seal, not iron.
(E) Although iron is less reactive than aluminum, we do not know whether it is more likely to be found in its isolated, elemental state. If anything, because it does not form as effective passivization seals, we would expect pure iron to corrode away in nature.

1. What can be most logically inferred from the passage about iron?

(A) It corrodes more quickly than aluminum.
(B) Its oxides form more slowly and robustly than those of aluminum.
(C) It is cheaper to isolate from its ores by traditional chemical means than aluminum.
(D) It is more susceptible to passivization than is aluminum.
(E) It is more commonly found in its isolated, elemental state.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
We are asked to determine the role that the second paragraph plays in the passage as a whole. In the first paragraph, the author introduces his main point – that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history – and introduces nutmeg as an example. However, this example is incomplete at the end of the first paragraph. It is not until the second paragraph, when the example is further explored, that we learn how nutmeg actually altered the course of history.
(A) CORRECT. The second paragraph offers specific information – namely, the role that nutmeg played in the history of New York – to support the claim that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history.
(B) The second paragraph does not summarize the evidence already given. It presents additional information.
(C) The second paragraph does not present the author's main point - that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history. The main point is contained in the first paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph does demonstrate the relative importance of nutmeg in an event of historical significance, but it does not demonstrate the importance of historical change itself.
(E) The second paragraph does not discuss the outcomes, necessary or otherwise, of the author's claims. Instead, it offers evidence to support the claim made in the first sentence of the first paragraph.

2. For what purpose does the author include the second paragraph?

(A) It offers specific information to complete the logic of the author's claims.
(B) It summarizes and evaluates the evidence given thus far.
(C) It presents the author's main point to explain a unique situation.
(D) It cites a particular case to demonstrate the importance of historical change.
(E) It discusses the necessary outcome of the author's assertions.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
This question asks us about a specific detail mentioned in the passage: the “passivization” layer on the surface of aluminum metal. The passage indicates that this layer: (1) is formed from the combination of atmospheric oxygen with the pure metal, (2) is thin but robust, and (3) prevents further corrosion. We should look for an answer that matches one of these facts.

(A) This choice reverses the stated cause-and-effect sequence. The layer is the result of the reaction between oxygen and aluminum—not the cause of that reaction.

(B) We are told that this layer is “thin but robust”; in fact, in the next sentence, we are told that the superficial (= surface) oxides of iron “do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably” (as the surface oxides of aluminum). Thus, the passivization layer on aluminum is actually more impenetrable than the one that forms on iron.

(C) We cannot conclude that this layer “lowers the utility” or usefulness of pure aluminum. If anything, we would guess that this layer, because it prevents further corrosion, makes pure aluminum very long-lasting and therefore more useful—and that guess would be an inference anyway.

(D) CORRECT. The passivization seal of aluminum oxide “prevents further corrosion” in aluminum, while “many other metals” do not form such seals “as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” The passivization layer, then, provides aluminum with at least one advantage relative to other metals.

(E) We do not know whether this layer is what causes the “traditional” purification of aluminum to be an expensive process.

3. According to the passage, the natural passivization layer on the surface of aluminum metal

(A) causes atmospheric oxygen to react chemically with the metal
(B) is less impenetrable than typical iron oxide films formed on pure iron
(C) lowers the utility of aluminum in its uncontaminated state
(D) provides aluminum with a chemical advantage, relative to other metals
(E) precludes the inexpensive purification of the metal by traditional chemical processes



Not sure how Qs can have A as the answer-D looks clearly the right one to me.

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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 17:30
The Answer to Question 1..how is it option A?.....According to the passage, it's mentioned very clearly...Alum Oxides are the one that prevents Corrosion....whereas Iron is less reactive...which means it slowly reacts right?.....Please clarify further...all the OA's are very unreasonable
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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 17:31
hazelnut wrote:
The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) was not discovered until 1825 because its isolated state is so reactive that free nuggets or flakes of the metal are never found in nature; rather, the metal is typically found as part of an amalgam, most commonly bauxite ore. Moreover, elemental aluminum is extremely difficult—and expensive—to separate from its ores by traditional chemical means. Indeed, the extreme reactivity of aluminum helps protect its modern, ubiquitous manifestations, such as aluminum foil. The surface of pure aluminum instantly combines with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin but robust “passivization” seal of aluminum oxide that prevents further corrosion. Many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.

For several decades after its discovery, aluminum was considered a precious metal and was more costly than gold or platinum, not because of any fundamental scarcity, but because of its elevated cost of production. The price of aluminum suddenly plummeted in 1886, however, when two 23-year-old inventors independently developed an electrolytic process of separating pure aluminum from a bath of molten aluminum salts, primarily cryolite. Cryolite itself is rare enough that synthetic salts eventually replaced it as the solution medium.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
To answer this question, we must infer from facts given about iron. We are told that “many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” Since we are also told that the oxide layer on aluminum is “thin but robust” and “prevents further corrosion,” we can logically infer that the oxide layer on iron does not prevent further corrosion as effectively as the layer on aluminum, and therefore iron in all likelihood corrodes more quickly than aluminum.

(A) CORRECT. This answer choice states our inference clearly.
(B) We can indeed conclude that iron oxides form more slowly (“not as swiftly”), but we cannot conclude that iron oxides form more robustly than aluminum oxides. In fact, we are told that aluminum oxide forms a “thin but robust… seal,” while iron oxides, among others, “do not form as… completely, or impermeably.” If the iron oxides are less complete and less impermeable, then we cannot infer that they are more robust; if anything, we should assume that they are less robust.
(C) We know that iron is less reactive than aluminum, but we cannot conclude that iron is therefore cheaper to isolate from its ores. The extreme reactivity of aluminum was the reason for the difficulty and expense of separating aluminum from its ores by traditional chemical means, but iron could also be expensive to extract from its ores by traditional chemical means; we simply don’t know enough about the extraction process to make an inference here.
(D) This choice is directly contradicted by the passage: it is aluminum that forms a more effective “passivization” seal, not iron.
(E) Although iron is less reactive than aluminum, we do not know whether it is more likely to be found in its isolated, elemental state. If anything, because it does not form as effective passivization seals, we would expect pure iron to corrode away in nature.

1. What can be most logically inferred from the passage about iron?

(A) It corrodes more quickly than aluminum.
(B) Its oxides form more slowly and robustly than those of aluminum.
(C) It is cheaper to isolate from its ores by traditional chemical means than aluminum.
(D) It is more susceptible to passivization than is aluminum.
(E) It is more commonly found in its isolated, elemental state.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
We are asked to determine the role that the second paragraph plays in the passage as a whole. In the first paragraph, the author introduces his main point – that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history – and introduces nutmeg as an example. However, this example is incomplete at the end of the first paragraph. It is not until the second paragraph, when the example is further explored, that we learn how nutmeg actually altered the course of history.
(A) CORRECT. The second paragraph offers specific information – namely, the role that nutmeg played in the history of New York – to support the claim that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history.
(B) The second paragraph does not summarize the evidence already given. It presents additional information.
(C) The second paragraph does not present the author's main point - that seemingly unremarkable items can alter the course of history. The main point is contained in the first paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph does demonstrate the relative importance of nutmeg in an event of historical significance, but it does not demonstrate the importance of historical change itself.
(E) The second paragraph does not discuss the outcomes, necessary or otherwise, of the author's claims. Instead, it offers evidence to support the claim made in the first sentence of the first paragraph.

2. For what purpose does the author include the second paragraph?

(A) It offers specific information to complete the logic of the author's claims.
(B) It summarizes and evaluates the evidence given thus far.
(C) It presents the author's main point to explain a unique situation.
(D) It cites a particular case to demonstrate the importance of historical change.
(E) It discusses the necessary outcome of the author's assertions.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
This question asks us about a specific detail mentioned in the passage: the “passivization” layer on the surface of aluminum metal. The passage indicates that this layer: (1) is formed from the combination of atmospheric oxygen with the pure metal, (2) is thin but robust, and (3) prevents further corrosion. We should look for an answer that matches one of these facts.

(A) This choice reverses the stated cause-and-effect sequence. The layer is the result of the reaction between oxygen and aluminum—not the cause of that reaction.

(B) We are told that this layer is “thin but robust”; in fact, in the next sentence, we are told that the superficial (= surface) oxides of iron “do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably” (as the surface oxides of aluminum). Thus, the passivization layer on aluminum is actually more impenetrable than the one that forms on iron.

(C) We cannot conclude that this layer “lowers the utility” or usefulness of pure aluminum. If anything, we would guess that this layer, because it prevents further corrosion, makes pure aluminum very long-lasting and therefore more useful—and that guess would be an inference anyway.

(D) CORRECT. The passivization seal of aluminum oxide “prevents further corrosion” in aluminum, while “many other metals” do not form such seals “as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.” The passivization layer, then, provides aluminum with at least one advantage relative to other metals.

(E) We do not know whether this layer is what causes the “traditional” purification of aluminum to be an expensive process.

3. According to the passage, the natural passivization layer on the surface of aluminum metal

(A) causes atmospheric oxygen to react chemically with the metal
(B) is less impenetrable than typical iron oxide films formed on pure iron
(C) lowers the utility of aluminum in its uncontaminated state
(D) provides aluminum with a chemical advantage, relative to other metals
(E) precludes the inexpensive purification of the metal by traditional chemical processes




All the answers seem very deviating from the Passage....particularly the one with A's....any explanation given ?
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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 18:46
2.5 minutes in total including reading the passage and all correct :-)

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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 18:51
Tridhipal wrote:
The Answer to Question 1..how is it option A?.....According to the passage, it's mentioned very clearly...Alum Oxides are the one that prevents Corrosion....whereas Iron is less reactive...which means it slowly reacts right?.....Please clarify further...all the OA's are very unreasonable


"Many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably" - in this line, it nowhere says explicitly that "iron oxides more slowly....." It's a trap option. But since it's written that iron is less reactive than aluminum, we reach the conclusion that it's not able to form the "passivization seal' as aluminium that prevents corrosion. Thus option (A). Hope it's clear!

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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 19:23
Tridhipal wrote:
The Answer to Question 1..how is it option A?.....According to the passage, it's mentioned very clearly...Alum Oxides are the one that prevents Corrosion....whereas Iron is less reactive...which means it slowly reacts right?.....Please clarify further...all the OA's are very unreasonable



Passage excerpt: The surface of pure aluminum instantly combines with atmospheric oxygen to form a thin but robust “passivization” seal of aluminum oxide that prevents further corrosion. Many other metals, such as iron, are less reactive than aluminum, but their superficial oxides do not form as swiftly, completely, or impermeably.

Aluminium + oxygen = aluminium oxide - prevents aluminium from corrosion
Iron is less reactive => can not form iron oxide to prevent iron from corrosion, as was the case of aluminium--> because their oxides do not form swiftly.

==> Iron corrodes more quickly than aluminum.
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Re: The most common metal in the Earth’s crust, aluminum (or aluminium) wa   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2017, 19:23
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