Summer is Coming! Join the Game of Timers Competition to Win Epic Prizes. Registration is Open. Game starts Mon July 1st.

It is currently 18 Jul 2019, 00:24

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Current Student
User avatar
P
Status: Chasing my MBB Dream!
Joined: 29 Aug 2012
Posts: 1112
Location: United States (DC)
WE: General Management (Aerospace and Defense)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 27 Sep 2018, 04:41
5
62
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  15% (low)

Question Stats:

73% (01:08) correct 27% (01:18) wrong based on 2142 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics


The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.


A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue

B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue

C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue

D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs

E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government

_________________

Originally posted by Gnpth on 04 Jul 2016, 04:56.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Sep 2018, 04:41, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
Most Helpful Expert Reply
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jul 2018, 08:20
4
Top Contributor
1
It is futile to worry about whether the use of the past perfect in the given case is correct or not. It is 100% correct. That we use a past perfect or a simple past when a time reference such as 'before' or 'after' is already mentioned is a matter of option.

However, the most critical consideration in the context is to ask whether there is another choice (without other glaring errors) using the simple past. We do not have one in this case and therefore why waste time on the non-extant issue. We can rest assured that on the GMAT, we will never have both such choices in the same question.

B is the inevitable choice.
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
General Discussion
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 20 Feb 2015
Posts: 790
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
Premium Member
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jul 2016, 06:02
3
Gnpth wrote:
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.

A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue
B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue
C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue
D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs
E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government



A--The subject Federal govt is singular(collective noun) and does not take plural their as the verb
B. The correct answer
C. Wordy and awkward
D. this sentence distorts the meaning--how can the source be dependent on tariffs.
E. plural verb their and awkward construction
Board of Directors
User avatar
P
Status: QA & VA Forum Moderator
Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 4512
Location: India
GPA: 3.5
WE: Business Development (Commercial Banking)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jul 2016, 11:32
1
Gnpth wrote:
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.

A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue
B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue
C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue
D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs
E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government


Correct answer must be (B) for the highlighted errors above...

_________________
Thanks and Regards

Abhishek....

PLEASE FOLLOW THE RULES FOR POSTING IN QA AND VA FORUM AND USE SEARCH FUNCTION BEFORE POSTING NEW QUESTIONS

How to use Search Function in GMAT Club | Rules for Posting in QA forum | Writing Mathematical Formulas |Rules for Posting in VA forum | Request Expert's Reply ( VA Forum Only )
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 03 Aug 2015
Posts: 34
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jul 2016, 11:41
A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue
B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue
C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue
D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs
E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 13 Jun 2016
Posts: 103
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Technology
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jul 2016, 21:52
1
I chose answer choice D however it now makes sense why it distorts the meaning of the sentence.

Can anyone verify that when you have a time marker such as 'before' you don't have to have the sentence in perfect tense. I'm pretty sure it can go either way.
Retired Moderator
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2870
Location: Germany
Schools: German MBA
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Jul 2016, 02:28
4
alpham wrote:
I chose answer choice D however it now makes sense why it distorts the meaning of the sentence.

Can anyone verify that when you have a time marker such as 'before' you don't have to have the sentence in perfect tense. I'm pretty sure it can go either way.


Manhattan SC guide states that use of words such as "after" / " before" makes the use of past perfect unnecessary - following is an excerpt from the book:

Right: Laura LOCKED the deadbolt before she LEFT for work.
Likewise, we already know that locked happens before left because of the word before. The words before and after indicate the sequence of events clearly and emphatically enough to make the use of the Past Perfect unnecessary.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 22 Feb 2015
Posts: 75
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Jul 2016, 03:37
But here, the correct option uses past perfect. So, should we consider this an exception?
Retired Moderator
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 2870
Location: Germany
Schools: German MBA
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Jul 2016, 04:30
1
PrijitDebnath wrote:
But here, the correct option uses past perfect. So, should we consider this an exception?


Option B does not match with what Manhattan SC guide states, and I cannot see any reason that this should be an exception. Probably the question writer could explain the usage, unless it is an oversight.
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 11 Mar 2016
Posts: 4
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Sep 2016, 23:10
Yes. According to Manhattan SC guidelines, option B would be wrong.
Usage of before clearly states that action happened before the action states in past tense.
So what should one do in this case?
Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 17 Feb 2014
Posts: 98
Location: United States (CA)
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V35
GMAT 2: 740 Q48 V42
WE: Programming (Computer Software)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Feb 2017, 08:59
2
1
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.

Issue: Structure | Verb tense

Analysis:
1. The sentence connects two independent clause using ";". For such structures, the second clause should be independent and follow from previous clause.
2. In the second clause the action "government was dependent on tariffs" occurs before action in first clause "personal income tax did not become permanent...". Hence, we can use "past prefect" form of the verb in second clause.
.

I have highlighted the errors below:

A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue
- Incorrect verb form
- Pronoun ambiguity


B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue

C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue
- Incorrect verb form
- "were what" (not sure about this but this seems overly complex specially when a better option is present; Can someone explain if this is grammatically correct?)


D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs
- Changes the meaning. The sentence seems to indicate that the source was dependent.

E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government
- If you read the whole clause with this option, "before that time for their main source..." has structure issue
- Changes the meaning. The sentence seems to indicate that the source was dependent.


Answer: B.
Senior SC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 14 Nov 2016
Posts: 1329
Location: Malaysia
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Apr 2017, 07:45
3
sayantanc2k wrote:
alpham wrote:
I chose answer choice D however it now makes sense why it distorts the meaning of the sentence.

Can anyone verify that when you have a time marker such as 'before' you don't have to have the sentence in perfect tense. I'm pretty sure it can go either way.


Manhattan SC guide states that use of words such as "after" / " before" makes the use of past perfect unnecessary - following is an excerpt from the book:

Right: Laura LOCKED the deadbolt before she LEFT for work.
Likewise, we already know that locked happens before left because of the word before. The words before and after indicate the sequence of events clearly and emphatically enough to make the use of the Past Perfect unnecessary.


sayantanc2k, PrijitDebnath, Excerpt from Manhattan SC.

Note that we do not always use the Past Perfect for earlier actions. In general, you should use Past Perfect only to clarify or emphasize a sequence of past events. The earlier event should somehow have a bearing on the context of the later event. Moreover, if the sequence is already obvious, we often do not need Past Perfect.

[Right] Antonio DROVE to the store and BOUGHT some ice cream.

We already know that drove happened before bought. A sequence of verbs with the same subject does not require Past Perfect. Rather, use the Simple Past for all the verbs.

[Right] Antonio DROVE to the store, and Cristina BOUGHT some ice cream.

In the sentence above, which has two main clauses linked by and, we are not emphasizing the order of events (although drove probably happened before bought). Clauses linked by and or but do not require the Past Perfect as a general rule.

[Right] Laura LOCKED the deadbolt before she LEFT for work.

UNFORTUNATELY, in this problem, Past Perfect is applicable since the clauses do not linked by and or but . Take note!

[CORRECT] The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue.
_________________
"Be challenged at EVERY MOMENT."

“Strength doesn’t come from what you can do. It comes from overcoming the things you once thought you couldn’t.”

"Each stage of the journey is crucial to attaining new heights of knowledge."

Rules for posting in verbal forum | Please DO NOT post short answer in your post!

Advanced Search : https://gmatclub.com/forum/advanced-search/
Manager
Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 24 Sep 2018
Posts: 140
Premium Member
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Sep 2018, 04:37
himanshu644 wrote:
Yes. According to Manhattan SC guidelines, option B would be wrong.
Usage of before clearly states that action happened before the action states in past tense.
So what should one do in this case?

I 100% agree with the discussion here that when the event order indicators such as before/after et al are present, they deem the usage of present perfect unnecessary.
Manhattan guides state the same, but we need to be cognisant of the fact that POE is our best friend on the GMAT. All other options are terrible if we compare them to B.
The only thing I see in B is the usage of HAD. But there are options such as D and E, which change the meaning of the sentence all together.
_________________
Please award :thumbup: kudos, If this post helped you in someway. :student_man:
Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 14 Jan 2017
Posts: 115
Location: India
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Sep 2018, 08:09
daagh wrote:
It is futile to worry about whether the use of the past perfect in the given case is correct or not. It is 100% correct. That we use a past perfect or a simple past when a time reference such as 'before' or 'after' is already mentioned is a matter of option.

However, the most critical consideration in the context is to ask whether there is another choice (without other glaring errors) using the simple past. We do not have one in this case and therefore why waste time on the non-extant issue. We can rest assured that on the GMAT, we will never have both such choices in the same question.

B is the inevitable choice.


Thanks daagh. You are always very direct in your explanations. B is the best choice among others.
But considering the debate about the usage of past perfect with the words before/after, which already defines the sequencing of events, what I believe is usage of past perfect tense with these words (before / after) is OPTIONAL but not redundant. Also, as it is an official question and the correct answer choice is B, so GMAT is okay with this construction.
When you use the words before/after -
Simple past for earlier event + Simple past for later event - Correct
Past perfect for earlier event + Simple past for later event - Correct

Also, the same was written in DmitryFarber's post -
https://gmatclub.com/forum/literacy-ope ... l#p1830588 (nothing can stop us, we're all the way up ;) )

Any experts would want to comment on my explanation? sayantanc2k GMATNinja mikemcgarry DmitryFarber
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 22 Sep 2018
Posts: 65
CAT Tests
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Apr 2019, 08:41
'before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.'

Would like to clarify a doubt on the above sentence. The word 'before' in the sentence already indicates the time when the event happened. So why do we have to add the past perfect tense ' had depended' as shown in option B.
Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Status: On the journey of achieving
Affiliations: Senior Manager, CA by profession, CFA(USA) Level 2
Joined: 06 Feb 2016
Posts: 215
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Finance
GMAT 1: 560 Q44 V21
GPA: 3.82
WE: Other (Commercial Banking)
Reviews Badge CAT Tests
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2019, 04:30
VeritasKarishma Mam GMATNinja sir daagh sir mikemcgarry sir
Kindly explain why Option B is correct here
Whenever time markers "before" or "after" are used in a sentence, it makes usage of past perfect tense had futile
_________________
Never Settle for something less than what you deserve...........

I've failed over and over and over again in my life and that is why I succeed--Michael Jordan
Kudos drives a person to better himself every single time. So Pls give it generously
Wont give up till i hit a 700+
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4775
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jun 2019, 22:24
Top Contributor
Vasuka asked

Quote:
Kindly explain why Option B is correct here
Whenever time markers "before" or "after" are used in a sentence, it makes usage of past perfect tense had futile


Let us face it.

1. No one says it is out rightly wrong or unacceptable. At worst, it is redundant, superfluous, or unnecessary.

2. Look at the other four choices. They are either unidiomatic or with unacceptably twisted meaning.

If this question came in the Test, which choice would one take? Alternatively, would one leave the question saying none is correct?

SC is not only a test of just grammar but also a choice of the fittest.

If this question appears in the Exam, I would reckon, GMAT is testing how worldly- wise one is or whether one stands on one's prefixed notions.

Now, Vasuka, please tell me whether B is correct "here"(with emphasis on 'here'.)
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
User avatar
D
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 9442
Location: Pune, India
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jun 2019, 23:35
vasuca10 wrote:
VeritasKarishma Mam GMATNinja sir daagh sir mikemcgarry sir
Kindly explain why Option B is correct here
Whenever time markers "before" or "after" are used in a sentence, it makes usage of past perfect tense had futile


The usage of past perfect with marker words such as "before" and "after" is optional, not wrong.
_________________
Karishma
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor

Learn more about how Veritas Prep can help you achieve a great GMAT score by checking out their GMAT Prep Options >
Director
Director
avatar
G
Joined: 29 Jun 2017
Posts: 771
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Jun 2019, 07:29
Gnpth wrote:
The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States until the First World War; before that time the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue.


A. the federal government was dependent on tariffs to be their main source of revenue

B. the federal government had depended on tariffs as its main source of revenue

C. tariffs were what the federal government was dependent on to be its main source of revenue

D. the main source of revenue for the federal government was dependent on tariffs

E. for their main source of revenue, tariffs were depended on by the federal government



look at choice E, pls
revenue for is incorrect. revenue of is better. choice B is better.
"tariffs as its main source" means " tariffs is its main source of revenue". but "main source of revenue was dependent on tariffs " dose not mean that "tariffs is main source of revenue". it is possible that the main source of revenue is 20 percent of revenue of the rice production which is dependent on tariffs. there is quite different meaning inhere. so, choice E offer a different meaning
GMAT Club Bot
Re: The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States   [#permalink] 26 Jun 2019, 07:29
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The personal income tax did not become permanent in the United States

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne