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Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u

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Orion Director of Academics
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 08:35
Hey Gagoosh,

The "including" clause modifies "other birds". What follows is then a list of other bird species that the cowbird might take care of. The first comma, before the word including, is there to offset that modifier, and the rest of the commas are there to indicate that you're dealing with a list :)
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 18:44
dear LauraOrion, thank you for your reply.
my confusion was that since comma + verb-ing modifies the action of the main clause (being the adverbial modifier), why is this structure modifying the preceding noun?
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 07:58
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The verb+ing (participle) construction can work as an adverb (and in that case would have to modify a verb), but it can also act as an adjective even though it retains some of its verb-like qualities. And because it can perform both functions, you have to fall back on the logic here - a group of birds can include a list of bird types, but a verb like build, care, or lays can't logically include a list of bird types.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2018, 06:48
(A) a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
(B) a female cowbird will use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(C) female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(D) female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
(E) up to 40 eggs a year are laid by female cowbirds in the nests of other birds, including
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 21:04
quantumliner wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 268

Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes.

A. a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
B. a female cowbird will use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
C. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
D. female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
E. up to 40 eggs a year are laid by female cowbirds in the nests of other birds, including


The first major problem is the modifier "Unable to build nests or care for their young". This modifier must be followed by 'female cowbirds'. Notice that the modifier says "care for their young" so needs the plural form of cowbird. Options A and B are out. E is out incorrect modification.

In C and D, at the end of the sentence we see "including.." this must modify the birds, giving examples of birds,whose nests cowbirds lay their eggs in. In C, the including incorrectly modifies year. D is the best choice.





Hi,

when a comma precedes -ing modifier, then modifier modifies whole clause. and in the sentence D subject is female cowbirds- more than 1 cowbird- option D seems making sentence illogical. multiple birds laying upto 40 eggs.
Please clarify me where I am doing mistake.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 21:06
LauraOrion wrote:
Hey Gagoosh,

The "including" clause modifies "other birds". What follows is then a list of other bird species that the cowbird might take care of. The first comma, before the word including, is there to offset that modifier, and the rest of the commas are there to indicate that you're dealing with a list :)




Hi,

when a comma precedes -ing modifier, then modifier modifies whole clause. and in the sentence D subject is female cowbirds- more than 1 cowbird- option D seems making sentence illogical. multiple birds laying upto 40 eggs.
Please clarify me where I am doing mistake.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2018, 09:05
"Unable to build nests or care for their young," should be immediately followed by the Noun/Subject it modifies. Also the word "their" indicates that the subject is plural.

Eliminate A, B & E.

"Including" modifies the immediately preceding Noun. So eliminate C for incorrectly modifying "year" instead of "birds".
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u &nbs [#permalink] 05 Dec 2018, 09:05

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