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Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u

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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 09:35
Hey Gagoosh,

The "including" clause modifies "other birds". What follows is then a list of other bird species that the cowbird might take care of. The first comma, before the word including, is there to offset that modifier, and the rest of the commas are there to indicate that you're dealing with a list :)
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 19:44
dear LauraOrion, thank you for your reply.
my confusion was that since comma + verb-ing modifies the action of the main clause (being the adverbial modifier), why is this structure modifying the preceding noun?
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New post 05 Oct 2018, 08:58
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The verb+ing (participle) construction can work as an adverb (and in that case would have to modify a verb), but it can also act as an adjective even though it retains some of its verb-like qualities. And because it can perform both functions, you have to fall back on the logic here - a group of birds can include a list of bird types, but a verb like build, care, or lays can't logically include a list of bird types.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2018, 07:48
(A) a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
(B) a female cowbird will use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(C) female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(D) female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
(E) up to 40 eggs a year are laid by female cowbirds in the nests of other birds, including
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 22:04
quantumliner wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 268

Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes.

A. a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
B. a female cowbird will use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
C. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
D. female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
E. up to 40 eggs a year are laid by female cowbirds in the nests of other birds, including


The first major problem is the modifier "Unable to build nests or care for their young". This modifier must be followed by 'female cowbirds'. Notice that the modifier says "care for their young" so needs the plural form of cowbird. Options A and B are out. E is out incorrect modification.

In C and D, at the end of the sentence we see "including.." this must modify the birds, giving examples of birds,whose nests cowbirds lay their eggs in. In C, the including incorrectly modifies year. D is the best choice.





Hi,

when a comma precedes -ing modifier, then modifier modifies whole clause. and in the sentence D subject is female cowbirds- more than 1 cowbird- option D seems making sentence illogical. multiple birds laying upto 40 eggs.
Please clarify me where I am doing mistake.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2018, 22:06
LauraOrion wrote:
Hey Gagoosh,

The "including" clause modifies "other birds". What follows is then a list of other bird species that the cowbird might take care of. The first comma, before the word including, is there to offset that modifier, and the rest of the commas are there to indicate that you're dealing with a list :)




Hi,

when a comma precedes -ing modifier, then modifier modifies whole clause. and in the sentence D subject is female cowbirds- more than 1 cowbird- option D seems making sentence illogical. multiple birds laying upto 40 eggs.
Please clarify me where I am doing mistake.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2018, 10:05
"Unable to build nests or care for their young," should be immediately followed by the Noun/Subject it modifies. Also the word "their" indicates that the subject is plural.

Eliminate A, B & E.

"Including" modifies the immediately preceding Noun. So eliminate C for incorrectly modifying "year" instead of "birds".
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 14:32
daagh wrote:
pikolo wrote

Quote:
Hello Daagh Sir,

I have 2 queries here

1. The word "including" is modifying the preceding clause - right? A few people on the thread commented it is modifying the nearest noun i.e.
- in Option C, "including" ----> year
- in option D, "including" ----> birds
2. How did you conclude that "those of" in option C is referring to "eggs" and not referring to "nests" ?






1. If you have a comma before including, then it will never modify the noun before.

2. C. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of

Let's replace the pronoun with both nouns:

1. C. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including the eggs of
2. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including the nests of

Both choices are equally weird, the second being more bizarre



Hi,

I understand why C is incorrect but I want to know how choice D is correct. Here including cannot refer to birds as per the rules right? Please explain what including is modifying.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2019, 01:59
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Ujaswin wrote:
Hi,

I understand why C is incorrect but I want to know how choice D is correct. Here including cannot refer to birds as per the rules right? Please explain what including is modifying.
We'll have to be careful about the "rules" we apply to ings in general, but this type of including is not like other ings, so we'll have to be doubly careful here. An including can refer to the noun just before it, and this has nothing to do with commas (there is nothing that restricts an including to only the noun just before it either). Here is an example from an official question:

Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own.

Even the following sentence is okay:
Ten people were arrested by the police, including two minors.

However, because the last sentence is not very clear, we'd prefer the following option:
Ten people, including two minors, were arrested by the police.

Or, if the ambiguity is too great (there are multiple nouns before the including), we could do away with the including entirely.
Ten people, two of whom were minors, were arrested by the police.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2019, 00:39
Do the comma + ing modifier rules apply to '??ncluding' in this case?
In answer choice C, why is the use of 'including' incorrect?
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2019, 01:14
mihir0710 wrote:
Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes.

A. a female cowbird lays up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
Pronoun number agreement error : Non-underlined part "their" must agree in number with "a female cowbird"..
B. a female cowbird will use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
Same error as A
E. up to 40 eggs a year are laid by female cowbirds in the nests of other birds, including
Non-underlined part "Unable to build...." so immediately after the comma the entity which is unable to do that activity should come.... The female cowbirds must come immediately after the comma ...

So, straight away option A, B and E are out..
Now my analysis of option C and D are as follows : Though I got this question wrong, on spending few more minutes this is what occurred to me :

C. female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
as per this sentence, the meaning becomes "the birds take help of the nests of other birds to lay eggs" - which seems a bit illogical as it means "the action of laying is aided by nests"
Hence, I think this option changes the meaning of the original sentences ...
However, I feel "those" correctly refers to "the nests" and there is NO error in this modification


D. female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including
Pronoun agreement error in option A is rectified here and the meaning error in C is not present as the sentence avoided the usage of verb "use".


Hi mikemcgarry,

Sir can you please confirm whether my analysis of option C is correct here ?


great explanation of choice C. thank you
use the nest is different from "in the nest". this is the point
"those" in choice C is inferior because it is far from "nests" but it is not decisive point.

once again, I see gmat cheat us in meaning analysis. gmat makes us think that "those " is wrong. but in fact, it is just inferior
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2019, 01:59
chirag95 wrote:
Do the comma + ing modifier rules apply to '??ncluding' in this case?
In answer choice C, why is the use of 'including' incorrect?

Quote:
Unable to build nests or care for their young, (C) female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes.

The problem with (C) is that "including those of warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes" seems to modify eggs! This sentence seems to indicate that female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay eggs of warblers, vireos, flycatchers, and thrushes. That, of course, doesn't make any sense: the cowbird doesn't lay eggs of other types of birds.

On the other hand, choice (D) makes it clear that we are talking about the NESTS of those other birds, not the eggs of those other birds.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 07:56
Hello experts,

I was wondering if you could help me with this one, I was between C and D.
In C doesn't "those of" modify nests? If not, why does it modify eggs? what I mean is.... how do we know whether it modifies eggs or nests?

In D if only it had something like "including the nests of warblers,vireos etc." plain including and the name of the others birds doesn't sound correct for me
Any help is appreciated because I'm confused.
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New post 25 May 2019, 08:03
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In C, notice how "far" including is from nests (the intended modifier). The general rule is that modifiers should preferably be placed as close as possible, to what the modifier is intended to modify.

In D, including is modifying birds and hence, those does not make sense.
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 23:55
Hi,

I usually tend to get confused on sentences which offer a choice between (including that/those of) and (including).

Would anyone care to explain why D is the most appropriate answer choice?

(C) female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(D) female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including

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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 08:37
Sourav700 wrote:
Hi,

I usually tend to get confused on sentences which offer a choice between (including that/those of) and (including).

Would anyone care to explain why D is the most appropriate answer choice?

(C) female cowbirds use the nests of other birds to lay up to 40 eggs a year, including those of
(D) female cowbirds lay up to 40 eggs a year in the nests of other birds, including

generis GMATNinja chetan2u


Both including and including those of are correct and the usage would depend on the meaning..
Here we want to give examples of birds after including, so THOSE OF is wrong..
However if we had a sentence -
female cowbirds use the nests, including those of other birds, to lay eggs.... Here those means nests
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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 08:49
Thanks chetan2u. Appreciate it!

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Re: Unable to build nests or care for their young, a female cowbird lays u   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2019, 08:49

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