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V61-06

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V61-06  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 23:18
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E

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In 2005, near the small town of Dmanisi, Georgia, a 1.8 million-year-old skull was discovered by the anthropologist David Lordkipanidze. The skull was not the first archeological finding uncovered in the area, but in fact was the most recent of five skulls, all said to be from the same era. The skull, simply named Dmanisi skull 5, is the most complete skull specimen of a Pleistocene Homo species, and the oldest complete adult hominin skull found to date. What is truly groundbreaking about the discovery, however, is that it provides evidence to suggest that two species of early hominins, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis, are actually both subspecies of Homo erectus. Furthermore, the discovery also implies that the Homo erectus georgicus ventured out of Africa as far back as 1.85 million years ago, hundreds of thousands of years earlier than anthropologists had previously thought.
Naturally, the skull has been the cause of a paleontological controversy, one still going on today. While these findings are quite compelling, even Lordkipanidze himself admits that his interpretation of the Dmanisi discoveries is far from certain. Skeptics tend to point to the clear differences between the skulls of Dmanisi and the skull structure of Homo erectus. They note that the Dmanisi skulls are smaller and rounded instead of angled at the back, which is reminiscent of the earlier species, Homo habilis, which appeared in Africa two million years ago. Those who support the notion of a single lineage mention the multiple features of the Dmanisi skulls, particularly skull 5, which resemble those of classic homo erectus fossils. These features include straight brow ridges, a line of heavy bone running front-to-back across the top of the skull, and the shape of the nasal cavity. Although there has yet to be a clear agreement regarding the meaning of these findings, it is clear that the long-held notions as to which of our ancestors first left Africa, when they left, and why, have been challenged.

What can be assumed about Lordkipanidze’s interpretation of his findings?

A. Very few people in the scientific community agree with his interpretation.
B. He now believes he was probably wrong.
C. It is based solely on examining skull 5, and not the other four.
D. It is based only on the similarities found between the Dmanisi skulls and the Homo erectus skulls, and not on their differences.
E. It is the first instance of a skull that is dated 1.8 million years old and identified as Homo erectus.

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Re V61-06  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 23:18
Official Solution:

In 2005, near the small town of Dmanisi, Georgia, a 1.8 million-year-old skull was discovered by the anthropologist David Lordkipanidze. The skull was not the first archeological finding uncovered in the area, but in fact was the most recent of five skulls, all said to be from the same era. The skull, simply named Dmanisi skull 5, is the most complete skull specimen of a Pleistocene Homo species, and the oldest complete adult hominin skull found to date. What is truly groundbreaking about the discovery, however, is that it provides evidence to suggest that two species of early hominins, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis, are actually both subspecies of Homo erectus. Furthermore, the discovery also implies that the Homo erectus georgicus ventured out of Africa as far back as 1.85 million years ago, hundreds of thousands of years earlier than anthropologists had previously thought.
Naturally, the skull has been the cause of a paleontological controversy, one still going on today. While these findings are quite compelling, even Lordkipanidze himself admits that his interpretation of the Dmanisi discoveries is far from certain. Skeptics tend to point to the clear differences between the skulls of Dmanisi and the skull structure of Homo erectus. They note that the Dmanisi skulls are smaller and rounded instead of angled at the back, which is reminiscent of the earlier species, Homo habilis, which appeared in Africa two million years ago. Those who support the notion of a single lineage mention the multiple features of the Dmanisi skulls, particularly skull 5, which resemble those of classic homo erectus fossils. These features include straight brow ridges, a line of heavy bone running front-to-back across the top of the skull, and the shape of the nasal cavity. Although there has yet to be a clear agreement regarding the meaning of these findings, it is clear that the long-held notions as to which of our ancestors first left Africa, when they left, and why, have been challenged.


What can be assumed about Lordkipanidze’s interpretation of his findings?

A. Very few people in the scientific community agree with his interpretation.
B. He now believes he was probably wrong.
C. It is based solely on examining skull 5, and not the other four.
D. It is based only on the similarities found between the Dmanisi skulls and the Homo erectus skulls, and not on their differences.
E. It is the first instance of a skull that is dated 1.8 million years old and identified as Homo erectus.

We’ll go for ExamPal Strategy called ALTERNATIVE Straregy because it is easier to criticize the answers than come up with our own idea.

We’ll look for an answer that describes something that can be understood from the passage about Lordkipanidze’s interpretation, but thatisn’t explicitly stated.

(A) The passage states that there are people in the scientific community who disagree, but not that most of them do.
(B) This is false; Lordkipanidze says his interpretation is ‘far from certain’ – but this doesn’t mean that it is wrong.
(C) As all five skulls are from the same era; the interpretation was probably based on all of them, even if skull 5 was the leading example.
(D) There is no reason to assume this: although it’s true that Lordkipanidze’s critics point to the differences while he naturally focuses on the similarities, it should also be assumed that he did take the differences into account. (E) is directly implied by the fact that this identification (which is stated explicitly) is presented as groundbreaking.


This question was provided by ExamPal

Answer: E
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Re: V61-06  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 18:22
Question prompt is :

What can be assumed about Lordkipanidze’s interpretation of his findings?

D) It is based only on the similarities found between the Dmanisi skulls and the Homo erectus skulls, and not on their differences.

E) It is the first instance of a skull that is dated 1.8 million years old and identified as Homo erectus.

workout DmitryFarber

Can you please explain why choice E to be preferred over D?
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It seems Kudos button not working correctly with all my posts...

Please check if it is working with this post......

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Anyways...Thanks for trying :cool:

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Re: V61-06 &nbs [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 18:22
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