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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun

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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.


A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been

B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from

C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from

D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be

E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

Originally posted by Jp27 on 01 Nov 2012, 05:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Sep 2018, 02:53, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 18:05
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TheRzS wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Sorry to bother. Could you please help out? I need to understand a concept
Here

D: paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be

Are we using singular appears because it refers to singular the second most massive dinosaur?

or

what appears to be is idiomatically always singular because appears refers to what, which is unknown and always takes singular form?

Thanks in advance

Best
RzS

Dear TheRzS,

I see that you already received a good response from my intelligent colleague sayantanc2k. I'll just add a few thoughts.

The subject of "appears" is the relative pronoun "what." The relative pronouns "who" and "what," as well as the indefinite "whoever," pose potential SVA questions, because all of these words can represent a target noun that is either singular or plural.

For example,
Whoever has/have broken the window will have to pay for it.
In that sentence, we could have either the singular or plural verb--the sentence provides absolutely no information about which is correct. Of course, the GMAT would never put us in such a position.

A somewhat more GMAT-like scenario,
Whoever has/have used the company computer account to hack into the federal server will face stiff legal penalties when discovered as well as deportation if they are not already citizens.
You see, that sentence is a bit over-the-top on this, but it makes us wait until the end until we can figure out whether indefinite pronoun at the beginning is singular or plural. Technically, though, the sentence does provide all information we need to determine the verb tense.

The moral is that when you see one of these pronouns {who, what, whoever} as a subject, you need to locate the noun to which it refers in order to determine whether it is singular or plural.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Nov 2012, 06:23
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A,B and C can be eliminated for improper modifiers. Between D and E, will go with D because dinosaur is singular. However, D also seems to convey the meaning that the bones were found from the dinosaur. Expert opinion would shed some light.

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Originally posted by MacFauz on 01 Nov 2012, 06:19.
Last edited by MacFauz on 01 Nov 2012, 06:23, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2012, 12:41
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bxn D n E :

D : paleontologists have found bones...........from X

E : paleontologists have found bones......... which are from X

guess we don't need the extra WHICH in E, as the intent is clear even without which and unambiguously refers back to FOSSIL BONES.

2nd split :

D : P have found bones................from what ?...............from the massive dinosaur ( singular ) : thus the verb should match in no ie APPEARS ( singular )

P have found bones ...... From ..................(what APPEARS to be )....................the massive Dinosaur

appears n dinosaur MATCH

thus D wins wrt sv agreement

my understanding.
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2015, 14:47
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Between D and E, one major issue is 'appears' vs 'appear'

the bones are from what appear to be the largest ...

Appear needs to be singular here since appear is for the largest dinosaur....
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GMATPrep SC Question - For Mike MCGarry  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2015, 03:16
Dear Mike,

I'm having a hard time trying to understand a particular structure in one GMATPrep SC question. The question is the following:

While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C) it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be (correct)
E) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

My doubt is related to the structure "from what appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived". How can I classify this structure using the magoosh terminology? What is the subject of the verb appears? Can you explain the role of the word "what" in this structure?

Many Thanks
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Re: GMATPrep SC Question - For Mike MCGarry  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2015, 16:05
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Hugoba wrote:
Dear Mike,

I'm having a hard time trying to understand a particular structure in one GMATPrep SC question. The question is the following:

While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C) it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be (correct)
E) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

My doubt is related to the structure "from what appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived". How can I classify this structure using the magoosh terminology? What is the subject of the verb appears? Can you explain the role of the word "what" in this structure?

Many Thanks

Dear Hugoba,
I'm happy to respond. :-) I'm sorry that there was a little delay: during the holidays, I didn't visit GC much.

What you ask is an excellent question. The word "what" in this context is a relative pronoun. Other relative pronouns are: who, whom, that, which, whoever, whatever. This is very important: a relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause and, unlike a subordinate conjunction, plays a role as a noun in the clause. The relative pronoun may be the subject of the clause:
This is the man who wrote that interesting article.
I would like to thank whoever pruned the trees out front.
The relative pronoun may be the direct object of the verb of clause:
The man whom the police detained refuses to cooperate.
The novel The Great Gatsby, which I read for the first time this past year, was made into a famous movie in 2013.

Here's the OA of that GMAT Prep sentence
While digging in the Egyptian desert, paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.
In the main clause of this sentence:
"paleontologists" is the main subject
"have found" is the main verb

The subordinate clause, a noun-clause or substantive clause, opens with the relative pronoun "what," which acts as the subject of the clause, the subject of the verb "appears." This entire substantive clause is the object of the preposition "from."

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: GMATPrep SC Question - For Mike MCGarry  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 01:54
mikemcgarry wrote:
Hugoba wrote:
Dear Mike,

I'm having a hard time trying to understand a particular structure in one GMATPrep SC question. The question is the following:

While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B) huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C) it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be (correct)
E) paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

My doubt is related to the structure "from what appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived". How can I classify this structure using the magoosh terminology? What is the subject of the verb appears? Can you explain the role of the word "what" in this structure?

Many Thanks

Dear Hugoba,
I'm happy to respond. :-) I'm sorry that there was a little delay: during the holidays, I didn't visit GC much.

What you ask is an excellent question. The word "what" in this context is a relative pronoun. Other relative pronouns are: who, whom, that, which, whoever, whatever. This is very important: a relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause and, unlike a subordinate conjunction, plays a role as a noun in the clause. The relative pronoun may be the subject of the clause:
This is the man who wrote that interesting article.
I would like to thank whoever pruned the trees out front.
The relative pronoun may be the direct object of the verb of clause:
The man whom the police detained refuses to cooperate.
The novel The Great Gatsby, which I read for the first time this past year, was made into a famous movie in 2013.

Here's the OA of that GMAT Prep sentence
While digging in the Egyptian desert, paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.
In the main clause of this sentence:
"paleontologists" is the main subject
"have found" is the main verb

The subordinate clause, a noun-clause or substantive clause, opens with the relative pronoun "what," which acts as the subject of the clause, the subject of the verb "appears." This entire substantive clause is the object of the preposition "from."

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)





Hi sir,
What part of the structure is each word after "appears to be ".???
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Re: GMATPrep SC Question - For Mike MCGarry  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 18:23
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thisisamarlast wrote:
Hi sir,
What part of the structure is each word after "appears to be ".???
Amardeep

Dear Amardeep,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the section after "appears to be":
...the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

The centerpiece of this is the noun "dinosaur." This noun is being modified by two different modifiers:
1) the phrase "second most massive." The words "second" and "most" are adverbs that modify the adjective "massive."
2) the noun-modifying clause "that ever lived." This is a relative clause. The relative pronoun "that" introduces the clause and is the subject of the clause. The verb "lived" is the verb of the clause, and the word "ever" is an adverb modifying that verb.

What this means is the following. Apparently there is some dinosaur of which scientist are aware which is known to be the biggest dinosaur of all-time. We don't know anything at all about this "biggest of all time" dinosaur. This particular sentence is about another dinosaur that is #2 on the all-time list, not the biggest ever, but the second biggest. In other words, the "second most massive" dinosaur of all time.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2016, 03:43
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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be
E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2017, 17:08
1
Hi mikemcgarry

Sorry to bother. Could you please help out? I need to understand a concept
Here

D: paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be

Are we using singular appears because it refers to singular the second most massive dinosaur?

or

what appears to be is idiomatically always singular because appears refers to what, which is unknown and always takes singular form?

Thanks in advance

Best
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 05:32
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TheRzS wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Sorry to bother. Could you please help out? I need to understand a concept
Here

D: paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be

Are we using singular appears because it refers to singular the second most massive dinosaur?

or

what appears to be is idiomatically always singular because appears refers to what, which is unknown and always takes singular form?

Thanks in advance

Best
RzS


Your first reasoning is correct. The pronoun "what" refers to "the second most massive dinosaur", which is singular. Hence the verb is also singular "appears".

On the other hand, the verb would be plural "appear", if "what" referred to a plural noun.

... what appear to be two large dinosaurs.... correct.
... what appears to be two large dinosaurs... wrong.
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2017, 23:02
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A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be
E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be
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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2017, 09:54
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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

The quick options that we have to choose whether the subject followed by Egyptian Desert is huge fossil or paleontologists. Options A and B are in a Passive voice which must be treated as a red flag as GMAT sentences will be parallel in voices ( Mostly Active). Options A and B can be eliminated for the usage of the restrictive clause "which" modifies the noun paleontologists.

Option C is eliminated due to the ambiguity in meaning, as it infers paleontologists found huge fossils from second most dinosaur lived with certainty.

Between option D and Option E. Option E uses an awkward construction "which are from" that is not necessary

A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be
E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 10:33
Why do we need 'appears' here? Appears is singular while the word huge fossil bones is plural. Don't we need the word 'appear' here?
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2017, 00:38
pra1785 wrote:
Why do we need 'appears' here? Appears is singular while the word huge fossil bones is plural. Don't we need the word 'appear' here?


Hi pra1785

Please note that "appears" here refers to "the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.".

Here is a great explanation given. Kindly check and let us know in case of any concern. :)
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2018, 01:15
how is what referring to the dinosaur i think what is referring to bones? please help.
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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Oct 2019, 08:32
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@dpkj

So, in D, to choose between bones and dinosaur, let us replace the word 'what' with both the contenders and see which makes sense.


Quote:
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be


1. Paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from bones appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

This choice says that bones from bones appears to be the dinosaur. Also, there is an S-V error.

2. Paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from dinosaur appears to be the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

This version says that bones from dinosaur appears to be the second most massive dinosaur.

Bones from bones is meaningless. Bones from dinosaur gives some sense.
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Originally posted by daagh on 29 Jul 2018, 12:01.
Last edited by daagh on 12 Oct 2019, 08:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 06:46
Jp27 wrote:
davidfrank wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be
E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

OA after some discussion .....


A ,which refers to paleontologists....meaning wise it should refer to bones
B for the same reasons
C Place holder "it" used to post infinitive or that clause, the usage is inocrrect
D SV agreement problem...what is subject of the verb appears...no singular subject
E Correct...
What is the OA..


As the above poster has noted, we need appearS because of "dinosaur"


NOTES for the incorrect explanation about what if the subject of "appear(s)"
Not because of "dinosaur". "What" NEVER stand for another noun but something that is not specifically named in the sentence =? Verb after "what" need a singular form
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 08:31
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While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been the second most massive dinosaur that ever lived.

A. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appears to have been
B. huge fossil bones have been found by paleontologists, which appear to be from
C. it appears that paleontologists have found huge fossil bones that are from
D. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones from what appears to be
E. paleontologists have found huge fossil bones, which are from what appear to be

It is understandable to feel that choice E has a fundamental subject-verb error that 'appear' should be rather 'appears' as the noun for the verb is the dinosaur, a word many assume that is singular. short. However, hold please, hold; The trap here is that dinosaur is plural in the context and refers not to a single dinosaur but to the entire species of the second most huge animals that seem to have lived at that time. It must be clear to us that neither was there just a single animal of that kind nor were the fossils were discovered from the bones of a single organism in the entire desert pan of The Egyptian Desert. No one would formulate a theory from a single specimen nor would science would take it numbly per se.


Therefore 'appear' is the logical verb in the given context in E
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Re: While digging in the Egyptian desert, huge fossil bones have been foun   [#permalink] 23 Sep 2018, 08:31

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