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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked

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A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

(B) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

(C) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

(D) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

(E) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Oct 2017, 23:47, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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A) strengthens the the argument. It refutes the chances that depression leads to smoking. if there is correlation between smoking and depression and depression doesn't leads to smoking then argument is strengthened that smoking causes depression.

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2011, 17:33
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+1 for A.

Its a classic Cause - Effect Strengthener question

According to the argument,
Cause : Smoking ; Effect: Depression

Smoking caused Depression.

A choice that strengthens can aim at proving any of the following

1) "Effect" did not cause "cause".
2) Effect and cause cannot occur independently.
3) There was no alternate cause for the effect.

Choice A strengthens by indicating "Effect" did not cause the "cause", ie depression did not cause people to take up smoking.

Crick

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2011, 20:31
Aj85 wrote:
A) strengthens the the argument. It refutes the chances that depression leads to smoking. if there is correlation between smoking and depression and depression doesn't leads to smoking then argument is strengthened that smoking causes depression.



Thanks for figuring out point. Kudos to you both.
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

(B) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

(C) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

(D) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

(E) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.

Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Oct 2017, 20:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

This answer says that depression does not make the teenagers smoke. Defend the reverse cause-effect relationship. So, this is the correct answer.

Do you have any question? About your choice or confusion? Let's me know

Hope that helps.
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2011, 01:37
If X(smoking) then Y(depression)
If Y(depression) then may or may not X(smoking) => it means depression may or many not lead to smoking

By the way, only A is close to an educational guess!

Am I right?
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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eybrj2 wrote:
A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument? .



a) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed. eliminate the reversal of cause effect ( smoking leads to depression ). Correct

b) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers. study talks abt participants who never smoked before the study. irelevent

c) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants. irelelvent to the conclusion

d) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study. weaken as it shows that data is not correct

e) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers argument talks abt smoking. irrelevent. if it could do nything then it would weaken because it opens a new cause(alcohol) for depression (effect)

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2012, 19:13
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Cause = smoking
Effect = Depression

To strengthen we will show that reverse is not true ---Depression does not lead to smoking

A
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2013, 09:12
we need to prethink an assumption before looking at the answer choice.

Tp prethink an assumption, we should criticize the argument.

1. criticize
is two group the same at the beginning?

2 Prethink assumption: two group is the same before the smoking.

now with this weapon, this assumption we come to the answer choice.
choice A said that the cause-effect relation can be revert. This is what we look for
in fact I do not read other choices.

the process of criticizing and prethinking an assumption which look like not relevant to OA is important because it bing us close to the OA.

the rule" cause -effect can be revert" only help us partly to realize the OA. the key to success is to criticize and prethink an assumption.

There are two tools here:
1. criticize and prethink
2. understand some rules in answer choices.

both tool is imporrtant. use of tool 2 is meaningless without the use of tool 1. only use of tool 2 make us a machines remembering rules and will never win. gmat like a logic reasoner, not a machines.
tool 2:including some rules such as: another cause, reverted cause and effeect relation, languag shift, and many others. all of these rules are easy to learn and remember . but the rules is only help a little while the prethink step is the key.

please, comment my process of doing cr. I plan to retake gmat soon
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 03:27
Cause-Effect relationship

Conclusion-Smoking leads to depression
Assumption: depression does not make teenagers to start smoking.

Clearly,A is the answer

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 02:33
smoking causes depression

to strengthen above..show that depression does not cause smoking.This is exactly what choice A does.

A

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2017, 19:24
A. If participants with depression were more predisposed to start smoking, then the cause of the recorded incidences of depression cannot be as strongly linked to smoking.

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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 23:39
smodak wrote:
Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were no more likely to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.

(B) The study did not distinguish between participants who smoked only occasionally and those who were heavy smokers.

(C) Few, if any, of the participants in the study were friends or relatives of other participants.

(D) Some participants entered and emerged from a period of depression within the year of the study.

(E) The researchers did not track use of alcohol by the teenagers.


Because Strengthen and Weaken questions require you to perform opposite tasks, to strengthen a causal conclusion you take the exact opposite approach that you would in a Weaken question.

In Strengthen questions, supporting a cause and effect relationship almost always consists of performing one of the following tasks:

A. Eliminate any alternate causes for the stated effect
Because the author believes there is only one cause (the stated cause in the argument), eliminating other possible causes strengthens the conclusion.

B. Show that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs
Because the author believes that the cause always produces the effect, any scenario where the cause occurs and the effect follows lends credibility to the conclusion.This type of answer can appear in the form of an example.

C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur
Using the reasoning in the previous point, any scenario where the cause does not occur and the effect does not occur supports the conclusion. This type of answer also can appear in the form of an example.

D. Eliminate the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed
Because the author believes that the cause and effect relationship is correctly stated, eliminating the possibility that the relationship is backwards (the claimed effect is actually the cause of the claimed cause) strengthens the conclusion.

Conclusion : smoking depression

(A) Participants who were depressed at the start of the study were NO MORE LIKELY to be smokers after one year than those who were not depressed.


E. Show that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminate possible problems with the data
If the data used to make a causal statement are in error, then the validity of the causal claim is in question. Any information that eliminates error or reduces the possibility of error will support the argument.
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Re: A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2017, 23:39
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