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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh

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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 21:10
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According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers who reduced their nicotine intake from cigarettes, even by up to 50 percent, did not achieve significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back on cigarettes was not lower than that for heavier smokers; moreover, the rate of cardiovascular disease was similar across all subsets of smokers in the study. As a result, the sponsors of the study claim that reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?

(A) The majority of study participants minimized their nicotine withdrawal symptoms through the use of skin patches and chewing gum that provide nicotine to the body.

(B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.

(C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.

(D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.

(E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 23:05
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Question Type: Weaken

Main Point: Decrease in nicotine intake does not help to improve ones health
Assumption: Some other factor caused an increase in nicotine intake.

(A) The majority of study participants minimized their nicotine withdrawal symptoms through the use of skin patches and chewing gum that provide nicotine to the body. - Correct. Participants reduced intake of nicotine through cigarettes but compensated the reduction by using nicotine skin patches and chewing gums.

(B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted. - Incorrect. Out of scope. We do not know the effect a smoking area has on the participants.

(C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake. - Incorrect. Initial nicotine intake may vary but the reduction of nicotine intake should have resulted in some improvement, but there is no improvement. This option doesn't affect the conclusion in any way.

(D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking. - Incorrect. Irrelevant. We are worried about the effects of reduction in nicotine intake, not about the effects of stopping the nicotine intake completely.

(E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study. - Incorrect. Irrelevant.

Answer: A
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Re: According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 11:21
hazelnut wrote:
According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers who reduced their nicotine intake from cigarettes, even by up to 50 percent, did not achieve significant health benefits. The mortality rate for those who cut back on cigarettes was not lower than that for heavier smokers; moreover, the rate of cardiovascular disease was similar across all subsets of smokers in the study. As a result, the sponsors of the study claim that reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the findings of the study described above?

(A) The majority of study participants minimized their nicotine withdrawal symptoms through the use of skin patches and chewing gum that provide nicotine to the body.

(B) Many of the study’s participants periodically dined in restaurants in which smoking was permitted.

(C) The study’s participants started smoking at different ages and had varied initial nicotine intake.

(D) Quitting smoking entirely results in a marked reduction in the ill effects of smoking.

(E) Men and women who smoked pipes and cigars were excluded from the study.


Here the conclusion is : reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health.
why :
Smokers who reduced their nicotine intake from cigarettes, even by up to 50 percent, did not achieve significant health benefits..

Now A says that although ppl reduced the number of cigg smoked , there nicotine intake was not decreased.
So it basically point that result published was flawed.
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Re: According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2018, 02:18
"A" should be the correct answer.

The conclusion: "the sponsors of the study claim that reducing nicotine intake does not improve one's health."

Now "A" states that the smokers adapted other means of nicotine intake that do not show symptoms of nicotine intake. Now during the survey these smokers will be treated as if they have quit smoking/ nicotine intake thereby they should show the signs of health improvement but in fact they have continued nicotine intake and nobody will make it that they are taking nicotine intake because the symptoms are suppressed though the body is still taking nicotine intake thereby not showing health improvement..

hence the conclusion is weakened..
Re: According to a study of more than 50,000 Norwegian smokers, smokers wh   [#permalink] 14 Jan 2018, 02:18
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