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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th

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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2009, 14:16
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.---This is wrong because the argument never mentions about the extent of becoming conscious...
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.---this cud be right because arg mentions "researchers observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief"
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs,---no mention about the origin of the conscious beliefs .
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.---again no mention about conscious beliefs in passage
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is some thing of which patients are consciously aware. ---which mechanism they are trying to refer here....it is OOS.
hence acc to me big B..
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2009, 03:20
I initially thought A was the answer. It's anyway not B, C or E.
But D is the answer since it says in the paragraph that when the person expressed a previously unconscious belief, they experienced an unusual decrease in the level of anxiety. That in turn leads to D - where Researchers can distinguish between conscious and unconscious beliefs

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2009, 08:13
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted,
then which of the following must also be true?

Explanation:
We believe that our "beliefs" are "true," for they fit our experience. They tell us what is real or not, what is possible or not, what is right and wrong, what is acceptable or not, and so on. Yet most of these beliefs are not conscious i.e., we are not really aware about them. These are unconscious beliefs. These beliefs (whether conscious or unconscious) are specific to an individual i.e, only they are aware about it (others may just guess).
-------------------
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs. ---> This option is going too far in saying that it’s an ‘accurate’ measure.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief. ---> The words …remains unconscious… are problematic here. It cannot be concluded from the passage. Rather, we can say that researchers find it (a previously unconscious belief) only when a patient informs them about the same (by using the following part from the excerpt: …expressed a previously…).

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs. ---> This information cannot be concluded from the passage.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed. ---> IMO, researchers can know about anyone’s belief only if they are expressed by that particular person. If the person tells/conveys (in whatever manner) the researcher that this particular belief was something that he wasn’t aware of earlier (i.e., it was an unconscious belief), only then can the researcher conclude that it was earlier an unconscious belief (and now the patient is aware/conscious about it). But if the patient thinks that a particular belief is not an unconscious belief, he would actually never express it to the researcher. He would only express those beliefs that he feels were unconscious earlier.

IMO, the explanation mentioned above is the basis on which the researchers differentiate.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is some thing of which patients are consciously aware. ---> IMO, the excerpt mentioned above doesn’t look sufficient enough to conclude the first part of this option (that psychological mechanism works on only unconscious beliefs). It may be possible that psychological mechanism works in some other cases/fields/areas too besides unconscious beliefs.

Coming to the second part, we cannot say that patients are aware about how the mechanism operates. They just become aware about their previously unconscious beliefs.
-------------------

Though option D was my first choice, I would have marked it mainly on the basis of process of elimination.

Hope that helps.


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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.

(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2009, 23:41
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Straight forward Assumption

Go through each answer choice & negate... 30 second CR.

Negate D:
(D) Researchers were NOT able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

Final Answer, D.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2009, 01:21
Very tricky question, IMO E (use POE)

According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.
If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs -->just mentioning about unconscious beliefs, we can't conclude anything about a conscious beliefs. One more, what is repressed belief ?
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief -->the fact is about unconscious belief became conscious belief (became aware of ...), so this choice is irrelevant
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs. -->ridiculous
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed. -->very wordy but impressive. However, conscious belief is not mentioned, so I eliminate it
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware --> initially choose by POE, after that, still stick with it: ...on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief...--> patients becomes awareness although still expressing an unconscious belief

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2009, 16:23
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
I've got this one right but I am posting here to know whether my reasoning was correct. Please provide your explanation.

According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.
If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.


I think (A) is the best. It seems consistent with the original info that suggests changes in anxiety level --> changes in repression mechanism --> awareness of unconscious belief

(B) The original info suggests patients EXPRESSED beliefs AFTER becoming aware of them, so this cannot be concluded from the info.
(C) Can't be determined by info.
(D) can't be determined
(E) don't know, can't be determined.

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Premise: Repression kept conscious thought from being unconscious.
Premise: Recent Research shows that decrease in anxiety reveals those unconsciousness.

I think that this should be an inference question because Assumption question must have a clear conclusion.

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
-- Too much specific "accurate measure"
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
-- this is nowhere mentioned.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
-- Again too specific.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
-- Yes. OA is the same
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware. -- New information OOS
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New post 11 Mar 2010, 17:38
shivganar wrote:
The options except B and D are not relevant.

Even though i've chose D as an answer, but can not specify exactly why should anyone eliminate B.

Will somebody confirm?


B is a shell game answer (it takes something that was mentioned in the stimulus and attributes it to something else).

(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.

It is not the researchers that are able to discover the belief, it is the patients.

check the stimulus:

"...Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief...."
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if you negate D, then the conclusion does not hold..

(D) Researchers were NOT able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.

If researchers cannot distinguish between what was an unconscious vs a conscious one, then how do they know the patient was able to discover an unconscious belief?

When the conclusion fails with a negated assumption then that assumption must be true in order for the conclusion to be true.
Answer is D
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2010, 17:50
GMATaddict wrote:
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
I've got this one right but I am posting here to know whether my reasoning was correct. Please provide your explanation.

According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.
If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?
(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.


I think (A) is the best. It seems consistent with the original info that suggests changes in anxiety level --> changes in repression mechanism --> awareness of unconscious belief

(B) The original info suggests patients EXPRESSED beliefs AFTER becoming aware of them, so this cannot be concluded from the info.
(C) Can't be determined by info.
(D) can't be determined
(E) don't know, can't be determined.



This is a correlation error. Just because two things happen at the same time doesn't mean that one caused the other or is required by the other. The stimulus never says that a lower anxiety is a required condition for awareness of unconscious belief. It doesn't say that a lower anxiety causes, precedes or follows awareness/expression of unconscious beliefs...etc..
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According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.


Source: GMAT Paper Test No. 55

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New post 08 Aug 2010, 05:37
how in the world can OA be D ?
the passage does not talk about distinction between unconscious and concious beliefs. The argument is basically concerned about unconscious beliefs.

Option A is kind of on par with the argument. A points out that when a patient becomes concious of a previously repressed belief, patients anxity level changes. A would have been precise had it mentioned about decrease in patient’s level of anxiety instead of changes in anxity level.
A is not strongly convincing either which is unconvincing due to the fact that change in anxity could be either increased or decreased.
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" unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious" are referred to as repressed beliefs. When a patient goes through therapy, the patient becomes aware of the unconscious belief and expresses them.

In order for the last claim to be true, the therapist must be able to distinguish between conscious beliefs that have not been expressed yet and unconscious belief that the patient became aware of and expressed.

tryingharder, i don't think the issue is between unconscious of conscious beliefs. The questions says the patient became aware of and expressed repressed beliefs.

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2011, 00:43
Gryphon wrote:
According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs that are kept from becoming conscious by a psychological mechanism termed “repression.” Researchers investigating the nature of this mechanism observed occasions on which a patient undergoing therapy became aware of and expressed a previously unconscious belief. They found that such occasions were marked by an unusual decrease in the patient’s level of anxiety.

If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.--> an observation happens A (concious + expressed) happens then B (anxiety decrease) happens, It doesnt need to be a must
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.irrelevant
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed. if researchers couldnt define whether the patient's belief is conscious or not before this patient can express it then this fact will destroy the argument
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware.irrelevant


Source: GMAT Paper Test No. 55


I pick D after spending 6 minutes. How poorly i performed.
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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 21:49
Minheequang wrote:
scthakur wrote:
It took a while to understand that it is an assumption question and not an inference question.

Answer is clearly D.


Why is it an assumption question ? From which evidence stated in the question ? Can you give me a clearer explanation ?

If it is an assumption, yes, D is the best, obviously


I am also confused, why it is an assumption question. According to me it is an must be true question because we have been told to take the stimulus as such whereas in assumption questions we are suppose to take the answer choices as such. I think, it is a must be true question but answer choices are created in a manner that it looks like an assumption question since D is not only paraphrasing but combination answer. Options A, B & C are wrong because they are out of scope. Between D and E, E is also out of scope because nowhere in the stimulus it is talked about the mechanism of repression, So we are only left with D which must be true.

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2011, 08:00
To me it seems the answer is D

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2011, 20:51
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
Premise: Repression kept conscious thought from being unconscious.
Premise: Recent Research shows that decrease in anxiety reveals those unconsciousness.

I think that this should be an inference question because Assumption question must have a clear conclusion.

(A) Changes in the patient’s anxiety level during therapy can generally be used as an accurate measure of the extent to which the patient is becoming conscious of previously repressed beliefs.
-- Too much specific "accurate measure"
(B) Even when one of a patient’s unconscious beliefs remains unconscious, researchers are sometimes able to discover this belief.
-- this is nowhere mentioned.
(C) If psychoanalytic theory is correct, then most conscious beliefs originate as unconscious beliefs.
-- Again too specific.
(D) Researchers were able to distinguish expressed beliefs that had previously been unconscious from those that had long been conscious but that the patient had not previously expressed.
-- Yes. OA is the same
(E) Although the beliefs on which the mechanism of repression works are all unconscious, the operation of the mechanism itself is something of which patients are consciously aware. -- New information OOS


nice explanation! it was btw (C) and (D) for me, i picked (C) :|

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Re: According to psychoanalytic theory, people have unconscious beliefs th [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2011, 01:44
took me 2:09 minutes to get to D, A can be discarded because it talks about 'changes' not about reduction in anxiety level . A seems to establish (direct) proportionality as a relationship between change in anxiety level and consciousness of the patient in understanding repressed belief.

shell game again.
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