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Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investi

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New post Updated on: 24 Jul 2018, 20:33
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Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investigating the high incidence in white lead factories of illness among employees, most of who were women, the Home Secretary proposed in 1895 that Parliament enact legislation that would prohibit women from holding most jobs in white lead factories. Although the Women's Industrial Defense Committee (WIDC), formed in 1892 in response to earlier legislative attempts to restrict women's labor, did not discount the white lead trade's potential health dangers, it opposed the proposal, viewing it as yet another instance of limiting women's work opportunities. Also opposing the proposal was the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (SPEW), which attempted to challenge it by investigating the causes of illness in white lead factories. SPEW contended, and WIDC concurred, that controllable conditions in such factories were responsible for the development of lead poisoning. SPEW provided convincing evidence that lead poisoning could be avoided if workers were careful and clean and if already extant workplace safety regulations were stringently enforced. However, the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), which had ceased in the late 1880s to oppose restrictions on women's labor, supported the eventually enacted proposal, in part because safety regulations were generally not being enforced in white lead factories, where there were no unions (and little prospect of any) to pressure employers to comply with safety regulations.


1. The passage suggests that WIDC differed from WTUL in which of the following ways?

(A) WIDC believed that the existing safety regulations were adequate to protect women's health, whereas WTUL believed that such regulations needed to be strengthened.
(B) WI DC believed that unions could not succeed in pressuring employers to comply with such regulations, whereas WTUL believed that unions could succeed in doing so.
(C) WIDC believed that lead poisoning in white lead factories could be avoided by controlling conditions there, whereas WTUL believed that lead poisoning in such factories could not be avoided no matter how stringently safety regulations were enforced.
(D) At the time that the legislation concerning white lead factories was proposed, WIDC was primarily concerned with addressing health conditions in white lead factories, whereas WTUL was concerned with improving working conditions in all types of factories.
(E) At the time that WIDC was opposing legislative attempts to restrict women's labor, WTUL had already ceased to do so.



2. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly support the contention attributed to SPEW in lines 17-20(bold)?

(A) Those white lead factories that most strongly enforced regulations concerning worker safety and hygiene had the lowest incidences of lead poisoning among employees.
(B) The incidence of lead poisoning was much higher among women who worked in white lead factories than among women who worked in other types of factories.
(C) There were many household sources of lead that could have contributed to the incidence of lead poisoning among women who also worked outside the home in the late nineteenth century.
(D) White lead factories were more stringent than were certain other types of factories in their enforcement of workplace safety regulations.
(E) Even brief exposure to the conditions typically found in white lead factories could cause lead poisoning among factory workers.



3. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) presenting various groups' views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation
(B) contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
(C) tracing the process whereby certain proposed legislation was eventually enacted
(D) assessing the success of tactics adopted by various groups with respect to certain proposed legislation
(E) evaluating the arguments of various groups concerning certain proposed legislation



4. According to the passage, the WIDC believed that the proposed legislation resembled earlier legislation concerning women’s labor in that it

(A) caused divisiveness among women’s organizations
(B) sought to protect women’s health
(C) limited women’s occupational opportunities
(D) failed to bolster workplace safety regulations
(E) failed to make distinctions among types of factory work




RC00558-01
RC00558-02
RC00558-06

Originally posted by betterscore on 08 Aug 2012, 14:41.
Last edited by bb on 24 Jul 2018, 20:33, edited 6 times in total.
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New post 06 Nov 2012, 08:05
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sanjoo wrote:
How E in question 84?

can anyone plz explain...


Hi, sanjoo,

Let me take a shot on it.

My strategy on verbal is to use process of elimination (POE) and use splits (usually the answer choices almost always boil down to a 3-2 split). So here we go.

Oh by the way, here is when note taking is very essential. You should note the differences among WIDC, SPEV and WTUL.

84. The passage suggests that WIDC differed from WTUL in which of the following ways?

(A) WIDC believed that the existing safety regulations were adequate to protect women's health, whereas WTUL believed that such regulations needed to be strengthened.

This is wrong. WTUL says that there are already regulations. They don't need to be strengthened. Factories should just implement them in order to make the workplace safer. So this is wrong.

(B) WI DC believed that unions could not succeed in pressuring employers to comply with such regulations, whereas WTUL believed that unions could succeed in doing so.

Again, the effectiveness of unions wasn't discussed in the passage. So this is automatic.

(C) WIDC believed that lead poisoning in white lead factories could be avoided by controlling conditions there, whereas WTUL believed that lead poisoning in such factories could not be avoided no matter how stringently safety regulations were enforced.

See, WTUL believed that leas poisoning in such factories COULD BE AVOIDED if and only if safety regulations were enforced. So eliminate this.

(D) At the time that the legislation concerning white lead factories was proposed, WIDC was primarily concerned with addressing health conditions in white lead factories, whereas WTUL was concerned with improving working conditions in all types of factories.

Again, if you check the passage, there wasn't any discussion with regards to WTUL's concern with improving working conditions in ALL TYPES OF FACTORIES. This is out of scope. Automatic elimination.


(E) At the time that WIDC was opposing legislative attempts to restrict women's labor, WTUL had already ceased to do so.

Of course I can't say that since 4 choices have already been eliminated then we should choose this. That is not learning. We have to prove that this answer choice is true. Now, this answer choice all boils down to chronology. WTUL ceased in 1880 whereas WIDC was founded in 1892. Isn't this the answer choice? :)

How about some Kudos Puhhhhlease? :D
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New post 03 Oct 2012, 09:50
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Can someone explain why option B is correct in 3rd question. What do we mean by "contrasting the reasoning"
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New post 02 Nov 2012, 06:10
How E in question 84?

can anyone plz explain...
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New post 06 Nov 2012, 08:08
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vivekdixit07 wrote:
Can someone explain why option B is correct in 3rd question. What do we mean by "contrasting the reasoning"


I was stuck on the same question and after re-reading the answer choices I concur that B is correct.

The passage mainly deals with the stance that each group, namely SPEW, WIDC and WTUL, has taken regarding the proposed legislation. However, even though all three groups contend that the unsafe conditions in the factories cause White lead poisoning, as to why each of these groups oppose the proposal varies. For example, WIDC is opposing the aforementioned proposal because it aims to restrict employment for women, SPEW is opposing it from their stance that the factories cause the lead poisoning and finally, WTUL's approach is that unions aren't strong enough at the Lead factories in order to pressure the factories from maintaining safe standards. Therefore, all three organizations approach the same problem but from different angles.

Hope this made sense...
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New post 22 Jan 2013, 03:57
nmehta3 wrote:
vivekdixit07 wrote:
Can someone explain why option B is correct in 3rd question. What do we mean by "contrasting the reasoning"


I was stuck on the same question and after re-reading the answer choices I concur that B is correct.

The passage mainly deals with the stance that each group, namely SPEW, WIDC and WTUL, has taken regarding the proposed legislation. However, even though all three groups contend that the unsafe conditions in the factories cause White lead poisoning, as to why each of these groups oppose the proposal varies. For example, WIDC is opposing the aforementioned proposal because it aims to restrict employment for women, SPEW is opposing it from their stance that the factories cause the lead poisoning and finally, WTUL's approach is that unions aren't strong enough at the Lead factories in order to pressure the factories from maintaining safe standards. Therefore, all three organizations approach the same problem but from different angles.

Hope this made sense...



Can you explain what was wrong with E for this question??
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New post 22 Jan 2013, 13:13
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roopika2990 wrote:
nmehta3 wrote:
vivekdixit07 wrote:
Can someone explain why option B is correct in 3rd question. What do we mean by "contrasting the reasoning"


I was stuck on the same question and after re-reading the answer choices I concur that B is correct.

The passage mainly deals with the stance that each group, namely SPEW, WIDC and WTUL, has taken regarding the proposed legislation. However, even though all three groups contend that the unsafe conditions in the factories cause White lead poisoning, as to why each of these groups oppose the proposal varies. For example, WIDC is opposing the aforementioned proposal because it aims to restrict employment for women, SPEW is opposing it from their stance that the factories cause the lead poisoning and finally, WTUL's approach is that unions aren't strong enough at the Lead factories in order to pressure the factories from maintaining safe standards. Therefore, all three organizations approach the same problem but from different angles.

Hope this made sense...



Can you explain what was wrong with E for this question??


Option E talks about evaluating the arguements, but if you see there is no arguement going on here. Two groups concur on their decision to go against the ban. Its actually one problem with different ways to look at it. Hope this makes sense.


Kudos please if it helped you in any way!
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New post 25 Jan 2013, 00:32
easy passage
however the last question is not easy. it take me a long time to see the difference between b and e.
anyone has exerience on answering this king of question. pls explain.
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New post 25 Feb 2013, 22:03
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84. The passage suggests that WIDC differed from WTUL in which of the following ways?

(A) WIDC believed that regulations were inadequate. False.
(B) WIDC is concerned about pressuring factories to improve regulations not unions. False.
(C) WTUL believed in improving conditions which is opposite the passage. False.
(D) This is just about white lead factories. False.
(E) Correct.

85. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly support the contention attributed to SPEW in lines 17-20(bold)?

SPEW believed in improving work conditions through regulations.

(A) Correct.
(B) We need something's about having or not having regulations.
(C) outside of scope.
(D) if the factories were already more stringent, this tends to weaken the claim.
(E) This shows the need for regulations but not support regulations could decrease illness incidents.

86. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) motives were not tackled....
(B) the passage simply described reasoning . correct.
(C) process of enactment not tackled....
(D) their view were discussed but not tactics....
(E) arguments were mentioned but not evaluated
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New post 19 Aug 2014, 03:18
vivekdixit07 wrote:
Can someone explain why option B is correct in 3rd question. What do we mean by "contrasting the reasoning"



Same question here. And why it is not Option A
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New post 02 Sep 2014, 21:55
OG13- 84-86. Time taken 8 mins.
Q3 Why not A?
(A) presenting various groups' views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation.
>> Involved parties are not sharing their views on the proposed legislation but not on the motives of the HS.
(B) contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
>> Yes All the 2 views of the involved parties WIDC and SPEW, and WTUL are compared in the argument.

BTW, even i selected A in rush but when i reread A and B , i found my mistake.A is only partly true not completely. Its pure game of words in A which i missed ,while answering the Q in rush. :(
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New post 14 Jun 2016, 10:19
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Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investigating the high incidence in white lead factories of illness among employees, most of whom were women, the Home Secretary proposed in 1895 that Parliament enact legislation that would prohibit women from holding most jobs in white lead factories. Although the Women’s Industrial Defence Committee (WIDC), formed in 1892 in response to earlier legislative attempts to restrict women’s labor, did not discount the white lead trade’s potential health dangers, it opposed the proposal,viewing it as yet another instance of limiting women’s work opportunities. Also opposing the proposal was the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (SPEW), which attempted to challenge it by investigating the causes of illness in white lead factories. SPEW contended, and WIDC concurred, that controllable conditions in such factories were responsible for the development of lead poisoning. SPEW provided convincing evidence that lead poisoning could be avoided if workers were careful and clean and if already extant workplace safety regulations were stringently enforced. However, the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL), which had ceased in the late 1880’s to oppose restrictions on women’s labor, supported the eventually enacted proposal, in part because safety regulations were generally not being enforced in white lead factories,where there were no unions (and little prospect of any) to pressure employers to comply with safety regulations.


1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) presenting various groups’ views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation
(B) contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
(C) tracing the process whereby certain proposed legislation was eventually enacted
(D) assessing the success of tactics adopted by various groups with respect to certain proposed legislation
(E) evaluating the arguments of various groups concerning certain proposed legislation



2. The passage suggests that WIDC differed from WTUL in which of the following ways?

(A) WIDC believed that the existing safety regulations were adequate to protect women’s health, whereas WTUL believed that such regulations needed to be strengthened.
(B) WIDC believed that unions could not succeed in pressuring employers to comply with such regulations, whereas WTUL believed that unions could succeed in doing so.
(C) WIDC believed that lead poisoning in white lead factories could be avoided by controlling conditions there, whereas WTUL believed that lead poisoning in such factories could not be avoided no matter how stringently safety regulations were enforced.
(D) At the time that the legislation concerning white lead factories was proposed, WIDC was primarily concerned with addressing health conditions in white lead factories, whereas WTUL was concerned with improving working conditions in all types of factories.
(E) At the time that WIDC was opposing legislative attempts to restrict women’s labor, WTUL had already ceased to do so.



3. According to the passage, the WIDC believed that the proposed legislation resembled earlier legislation concerning women’s labor in that it

(A) caused divisiveness among women’s organizations
(B) sought to protect women’s health
(C) limited women’s occupational opportunities
(D) failed to bolster workplace safety regulations
(E) failed to make distinctions among types of factory work



4. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly support the contention attributed to SPEW in the highlighted text?

(A) Those white lead factories that most strongly enforced regulations concerning worker safety and hygiene had the lowest incidences of lead poisoning among employees.
(B) The incidence of lead poisoning was much higher among women who worked in white lead factories than among women who worked in other types of factories.
(C) There were many household sources of lead that could have contributed to the incidence of lead poisoning among women who also worked outside the home in the late nineteenth century.
(D) White lead factories were more stringent than were certain other types of factories in their enforcement of workplace safety regulations.
(E) Even brief exposure to the conditions typically found in white lead factories could cause lead poisoning among factory workers


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New post 31 Jul 2016, 14:37
Done within 7:10, all correct (´ε` )♡
It is my first time posting explanation. Hope this explanation helps.

84. The passage suggests that WIDC differed from WTUL in which of the following ways?

(A) WIDC believed that the existing safety regulations were adequate to protect women's health, whereas WTUL believed that such regulations needed to be strengthened.- Not mentioned.
(B) WI DC believed that unions could not succeed in pressuring employers to comply with such regulations, whereas WTUL believed that unions could succeed in doing so.-Not mentioned.
(C) WIDC believed that lead poisoning in white lead factories could be avoided by controlling conditions there, whereas WTUL believed that lead poisoning in such factories could not be avoided no matter how stringently safety regulations were enforced. SPEW believed that lead poisoning in white lead factories could be avoided.
(D) At the time that the legislation concerning white lead factories was proposed, WIDC was primarily concerned with addressing health conditions in white lead factories, whereas WTUL was concerned with improving working conditions in all types of factories. -Not mentioned about improving working conditions.
(E) Correct At the time that WIDC was opposing legislative attempts to restrict women's labor, WTUL had already ceased to do so.

If we look into the passage again, it says that: " which attempted to challenge it by investigating the causes of illness in white lead factories. SPEW contended, and WIDC concurred, that controllable conditions in such factories were responsible for the development of lead poisoning. However, the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), which had ceased in the late 1880s to oppose restrictions on women's labor, supported the eventually enacted proposal, in part because safety regulations were generally not being enforced in white lead factories, where there were no unions (and little prospect of any) to pressure employers to comply with safety regulations. - Means WIDC was still taking an action opposing legislative attempts to restrict women's labor while WTUL stopped/ceased to do so.

85. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly support the contention attributed to SPEW in lines 17-20(bold)?

(A) Correct. Those white lead factories that most strongly enforced regulations concerning worker safety and hygiene had the lowest incidences of lead poisoning among employees.
Passage: "SPEW provided convincing evidence that lead poisoning could be avoided if workers were careful and clean and if already extant workplace safety regulations were stringently enforced."- They provided evidence to contend against legislation attempt.
(B) The incidence of lead poisoning was much higher among women who worked in white lead factories than among women who worked in other types of factories.
(C) There were many household sources of lead that could have contributed to the incidence of lead poisoning among women who also worked outside the home in the late nineteenth century.
(D) White lead factories were more stringent than were certain other types of factories in their enforcement of workplace safety regulations.
(E) Even brief exposure to the conditions typically found in white lead factories could cause lead poisoning among factory workers.

86. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) presenting various groups' views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation
(B) Correct. contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
(C) tracing the process whereby certain proposed legislation was eventually enacted
(D) assessing the success of tactics adopted by various groups with respect to certain proposed legislation
(E) evaluating the arguments of various groups concerning certain proposed legislation
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New post 17 Jun 2017, 03:19
Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2,
I have a query regarding understanding of words - contend and concur in this passage.
Contend means to argue and concur means to be in harmony with.
My query is regarding part in bold, if SPEW opposes initial proposal of home secretary that women should be stopped from working in lead factories due to high chance of illness,
How can concur we place another contrasting word concur so adjacent to WIDC which in fact also opposes home secretary's proposal?
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New post 21 Jul 2017, 19:08
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adkikani wrote:
Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2,
I have a query regarding understanding of words - contend and concur in this passage.
Contend means to argue and concur means to be in harmony with.
My query is regarding part in bold, if SPEW opposes initial proposal of home secretary that women should be stopped from working in lead factories due to high chance of illness,
How can concur we place another contrasting word concur so adjacent to WIDC which in fact also opposes home secretary's proposal?

Quote:
SPEW contended, and WIDC concurred, that controllable conditions in such factories were responsible for the development of lead poisoning.

In this context, "concur" means to "agree" and "content" means to "argue" or "assert" (as in, to assert something as a position in an argument).

For example, Mike contends that going to the gym is a waste of time, and Charles concurs. In other words, Mike argues that going to the gym is a waste of time, and Charles agrees with Mike (i.e. Charles would also contend that going to the gym is a waste of time).

Referring to the part in bold, SPEW argues that controllable conditions were responsible for the development of lead poisoning, and WIDC agrees with SPEW (i.e. WIDC would also contend that controllable conditions were responsible).

I hope that helps!
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New post 23 Jul 2017, 21:40
Regarding Q3 (Book #86), I was also stuck between B and D, but eventually chose B.
Here is my reasoning:
In E, when you say "evaluate," you present the positive and negative points of a certain topic.
However, the article did not present the positive and negative points of the arguments of each of the 3 groups.
Only WIDC's argument was evaluated (the article stated a negative point: it did not discount the white lead trade's potential health dangers), not the arguments of the 2 or more groups.
Thus, the correct answer is B.
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New post 30 Jul 2017, 02:05
Hi GMATNinja,

Why is B better than E for Q3. Can you please provide your explanation?

What's the meaning of contrast here?
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New post 30 Jul 2017, 12:13
3
Vyshak wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

Why is B better than E for Q3. Can you please provide your explanation?

What's the meaning of contrast here?

Quote:
86. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) presenting various groups' views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation
(B) contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
(C) tracing the process whereby certain proposed legislation was eventually enacted
(D) assessing the success of tactics adopted by various groups with respect to certain proposed legislation
(E) evaluating the arguments of various groups concerning certain proposed legislation

The problem with (E) is that the author does not evaluate the arguments of the various groups. The author simply explains those arguments and the reasoning behind them, without assessing (or "evaluating") their validity.

The author contrasts the reasoning behind those arguments by comparing them and explaining their differences. Thus, choice (B) is the best answer.
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Re: Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investi  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2017, 01:10
84) E is correct
eliminated all ABCD
85) A is correct
If more strictly following regulations => lowest evidences => SPEW contention was accurate
86) B is correct
A) grps not proposing motives
C) no tracing involved
D) no tactics were accessed
E) No arguments were evaluated rather reasoning were given by groups for their position ( judgement/ belief) on proposed legislation.
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Re: Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investi  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2017, 01:53
betterscore wrote:
Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investigating the high incidence in white lead factories of illness among employees, most of who were women, the Home Secretary proposed in 1895 that Parliament enact legislation that would prohibit women from holding most jobs in white lead factories. Although the Women's Industrial Defense Committee (WIDC), formed in 1892 in response to earlier legislative attempts to restrict women's labor, did not discount the white lead trade's potential health dangers, it opposed the proposal, viewing it as yet another instance of limiting women's work opportunities. Also opposing the proposal was the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women (SPEW), which attempted to challenge it by investigating the causes of illness in white lead factories. SPEW contended, and WIDC concurred, that controllable conditions in such factories were responsible for the development of lead poisoning. SPEW provided convincing evidence that lead poisoning could be avoided if workers were careful and clean and if already extant workplace safety regulations were stringently enforced. However, the Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), which had ceased in the late 1880s to oppose restrictions on women's labor, supported the eventually enacted proposal, in part because safety regulations were generally not being enforced in white lead factories, where there were no unions (and little prospect of any) to pressure employers to comply with safety regulations.
The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) presenting various groups' views of the motives of those proposing certain legislation
(B) contrasting the reasoning of various groups concerning their positions on certain proposed legislation
(C) tracing the process whereby certain proposed legislation was eventually enacted
(D) assessing the success of tactics adopted by various groups with respect to certain proposed legislation
(E) evaluating the arguments of various groups concerning certain proposed legislation




Passage: White Lead

Question: Main Idea

The Simple Story

Lead poisoning was once common among the mostly-female workforce of white lead factories. In 1895, the Home Secretary proposed banning women from working in these factories. The passage focuses on the ways in which three groups reacted to the proposal: WIDC and SPEW opposed the ban, while WTUL supported it. The passage also details the reasons for these groups’ reactions.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1:

WL factories → illness for women

Home Sec: ban women

WIDC: no, this limits women’s work opps

P2:

SPEW: also oppose Home Sec; illness can be controlled with regs

WTUL: supported Home Sec b/c of no safety regs

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrasing primarily concerned with indicates that this is a Primary Purpose, or main idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The support for a main idea question comes from your understanding of the passage as a whole; main idea answers will focus on the point of the entire passage, rather than any specific detail.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage can be divided into four sections. The first section introduces background information: a proposal was made for certain reasons. Each of the next three sections describes the reaction of a particular group to this proposal. The passage does not argue in favor of or against any of these groups. Instead, it limits itself to describing their reactions and their reasoning, including how and why they differed. The right answer will probably refer to describing or contrasting the reactions of the three groups.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The three groups are described as being concerned with why the lead poisoning occurred, not with why the proposal about poisoning was made.

(B) CORRECT. The three groups supported or opposed the proposal for different reasons. For instance, WTUL supported the proposal due to concerns about enforcement. The majority of the passage is dedicated to explaining these reasons.

(C) At the end of the passage, it is briefly mentioned that the proposal was enacted. However, the passage does not specify how the groups influenced the legislative process, or how that process proceeded. It is possible that WTUL’s support helped the proposal become enacted, but the passage does not specifically state this.

(D) Since the proposal was enacted, WIDC’s and SPEW’s opposition to the proposal was presumably less successful than WTUL’s support. However, the passage does not state this and does not specifically describe any of the groups as successful or unsuccessful. Also, the groups’ tactics are not described, only their positions and reasoning.

(E) The passage does not evaluate the arguments of the groups. Instead, it just describes these arguments, without judging their merits.
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Re: Acting on the recommendation of a British government committee investi &nbs [#permalink] 28 Sep 2017, 01:53

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