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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma

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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Mar 2019, 05:52
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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers made startling discoveries in the 1960s and early 1970s which culminated in the development of processes, collectively known as recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology, for the active manipulation of a cell’s genetic code. The technology has created excitement and controversy because it involves altering DNA—which contains the building blocks of the genetic code.

Using rDNA technology, scientists can transfer a portion of the DNA from one organism to a single living cell of another. The scientist chemically “snips” the DNA chain of the host cell at a predetermined point and attaches another piece of DNA from a donor cell at that place, creating a completely new organism.

Proponents of rDNA research and development claim that it will allow scientists to find cures for disease and to better understand how genetic information controls an organism’s development. They also see many other potentially practical benefits, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. Some corporations employing the new technology even claim that by the end of the century all major diseases will be treated with drugs derived from microorganisms created through rDNA technology. Pharmaceutical products already developed, but not yet marketed, indicate that these predictions may be realized.

Proponents also cite nonmedical applications for this technology. Energy production and waste disposal may benefit: genetically altered organisms could convert sewage and other organic material into methane fuel. Agriculture might also take advantage of rDNA technology to produce new varieties of crops that resist foul weather, pests, and the effects of poor soil.

A major concern of the critics of rDNA research is that genetically altered microorganisms might escape from the laboratory. Because these microorganisms are laboratory creations that, in all probability, do not occur in nature, their interaction with the natural world cannot be predicted with certainty. It is possible that they could cause previously unknown perhaps incurable, diseases. The effect of genetically altered microorganisms on the world’s microbiological predator-prey relationships is another potentially serious problem pointed out by the opponents of rDNA research. Introducing a new species may disrupt or even destroy the existing ecosystem. The collapse of interdependent relationships among species, extrapolated to its extreme, could eventually result in the destruction of humanity.

Opponents of rDNA technology also cite ethical problems with it. For example, it gives scientists the power to instantly cross evolutionary and species boundaries that nature took millennia to establish. The implications of such power would become particularly profound if genetic engineers were to tinker with human genes, a practice that would bring us one step closer to Aldous Huxley’s grim vision in Brave New World of a totalitarian society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles.


1. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

(A) explaining the process and applications of rDNA technology
(B) advocating continued rDNA research and development
(C) providing evidence indicating the need for regulation of rDNA research and development
(D) summarizing the controversy surrounding rDNA research and development
(E) arguing that the environmental risks of rDNA technology may outweigh its medical benefits



2. According to the passage, which one of the following is an accurate statement about research into the genetic code of cells?

(A) It led to the development of processes for the manipulation of DNA.
(B) It was initiated by the discovery of rDNA technology.
(C) It led to the use of new treatments for major diseases.
(D) It was universally heralded as a great benefit to humanity.
(E) It was motivated by a desire to create new organisms.



3. The potential benefits of rDNA technology referred to in the passage include all of the following EXCEPT
(A) new methods of waste treatment
(B) new biological knowledge
(C) enhanced food production
(D) development of less expensive drugs
(E) increased energy production



4. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken an argument of opponents of rDNA technology?

(A) New safety procedures developed by rDNA researchers make it impossible for genetically altered microorganisms to escape from laboratories.
(B) A genetically altered microorganism accidentally released from a laboratory is successfully contained.
(C) A particular rDNA-engineered microorganism introduced into an ecosystem attracts predators that keep its population down.
(D) Genetically altered organisms designed to process sewage into methane cannot survive outside the waste treatment plant.
(E) A specific hereditary disease that has plagued humankind for generations is successfully eradicated.



5. The author’s reference in the last sentence of the passage to a society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles serves to

(A) emphasize the potential medical dangers of rDNA technology
(B) advocate research on the use of rDNA technology in human genetics
(C) warn of the possible disasters that could result from upsetting the balance of nature
(D) present Brave New World as an example of a work of fiction that accurately predicted technological developments
(E) illustrate the sociopolitical ramifications of applying genetic engineering to humans



6. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen an argument of the opponents of rDNA technology?

(A) Agricultural products developed through rDNA technology are no more attractive to consumers than are traditional crops.
(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.
(C) Drugs produced using rDNA technology cost more to manufacture than drugs produced with traditional technologies.
(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.
(E) Genetically altered microorganisms generally cannot survive for more than a few hours in the natural environment.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 8 (June 1993)
  • Difficulty Level: 600

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Originally posted by hazelnut on 05 Jul 2017, 06:13.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 27 Mar 2019, 05:52, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 21:10

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 21:30
Can anyone explain Question 1? I am confused between option A and option D.

Thanks in advance :)

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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 23:32
Passage was easy but i answered 2 questions wrong..I took almost 12 mins.
Does ethical means sociopolitical?
Can we discuss question 4 and 5?
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 07:54
1
Para 1: a tech good and bad
para2: how tech helps
para3: points in favour
para4 : points in favour
para5: opponents view
para 6 : opponents view

main idea: a tech and summary of techs + and -

Q1 :D
as we have pre thought its a summary of plus and -

Q2. A
apply poe
(A) It led to the development of processes for the manipulation of DNA.

(B) It was initiated by the discovery of rDNA technology.: no where mentioned

(C) It led to the use of new treatments for major diseases.: wrap answer : it could be useful in treating but not the reason for researching

(D) It was universally heralded as a great benefit to humanity.: it has mixed views so cannot say great benefit

(E) It was motivated by a desire to create new organisms.: no one wanted to create new organism at first its reversal of cause and effect

Q3 D
all other options are mentioned except D : passage says new drugs will be manufactured for diseases with no cure but cost isnt mentioned at all

Q4 A
refer to para 5 : greatest fear the new organism may escape option A says they cant do so at any cost : the word impossible makes it the best contender

Q5 E
refer to para6 the author uses the line in context of ethical problems that eliminates other choices so : E

Q6 B
for this we need something that strengthens the opponents view
2 views
ethical problem
escaping organism interfering problem

now looking at answer choices only option B says that organism that escapes interferes with ecosystem so a win win for opponents to prove the tech is bad
all other option have either no effect or weaken the opponents view
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 12:18
Please discuss 5. Not able to eliminate D.
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 11:30
hazelnut workout SajjadAhmad Can we unhide these replies? I would love to see a good solution as to why #6 is B and not D. I debated between the two and couldn't figure out which one to go with.

Thanks,
Mike
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 13:01
Hello MikeScarn here it is.

6. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen an argument of the opponents of rDNA technology?

(A) Agricultural products developed through rDNA technology are no more attractive to consumers than are traditional crops.

(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.

(C) Drugs produced using rDNA technology cost more to manufacture than drugs produced with traditional technologies.

(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.

(E) Genetically altered microorganisms generally cannot survive for more than a few hours in the natural environment.

(D) would weaken, rather than strengthen, the critics’ case. If, as (D) says, the environment is unstable to start with, and prone to sudden collapse, then would releasing laboratory-created organisms into it be that much of an additional risk? Maybe not.

Hope it helps

MikeScarn wrote:
hazelnut workout SajjadAhmad Can we unhide these replies? I would love to see a good solution as to why #6 is B and not D. I debated between the two and couldn't figure out which one to go with.

Thanks,
Mike

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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2019, 13:07
SajjadAhmad wrote:
(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.

(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.

(D) would weaken, rather than strengthen, the critics’ case. If, as (D) says, the environment is unstable to start with, and prone to sudden collapse, then would releasing laboratory-created organisms into it be that much of an additional risk? Maybe not.

Hope it helps


Thank you sir! This perfectly clarifies my confusion. I was thinking (D) was saying that the new organisms could lead to the collapse of the ecosystem. But it is just saying that the ecosystem may fail regardless.

Thanks again,
Mike
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2019, 03:07
How did we infer 'sociopolitical' ramifications in Q5?
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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2019, 12:33
Raj30 wrote:
How did we infer 'sociopolitical' ramifications in Q5?


Explanation


5. The author’s reference in the last sentence of the passage to a society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles serves to

Explanation

We need to determine the role in the passage of a specific reference. To do this, we must understand the context in which it appears. That can be accomplished by reading the lines around the reference itself. In this particular case, then, we need to read and understand the last. So, what’s being said here? Simply put, opponents of rDNA technology fear that it could be misused to create some sort of nightmarish totalitarian society. That makes choice (E) the answer.

(A)’s out because the critics’ opposition to rDNA technology on medical grounds appears in lines—way earlier than the last sentence.

(B) Opponents, not supporters, of rDNA technology refer to the possibility of a grim future in which people are genetically engineered to serve a specific function. Also, remember that we’re being asked why the author does something, and we decided above that this author is simply describing or summarizing an issue, not taking sides or “advocating” anything.

(C) True, critics of rDNA technology fear that its use could lead to a natural disaster, but the reference in the last sentence of the passage has nothing to do with this fear.

(D) Huxley’s Brave New World—a fascinating book, for those of you who haven’t already read it—is introduced by the author as an example of how society might develop in the future if rDNA technology is misused. That’s entirely different from saying that it “accurately predicted technological developments.”

• Keep your eyes open for answer choices that speak of things that may be supported in the text yet are irrelevant to the question at hand. Somewhere, someone is worried about the type of disaster mentioned in (C), but that has nothing to do with the purpose of the author’s reference in the final sentence.

ANSWER: E


Hope it Helps
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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma   [#permalink] 27 Mar 2019, 12:33
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