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# After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma

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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
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Hello MikeScarn here it is.

6. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen an argument of the opponents of rDNA technology?

(A) Agricultural products developed through rDNA technology are no more attractive to consumers than are traditional crops.

(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.

(C) Drugs produced using rDNA technology cost more to manufacture than drugs produced with traditional technologies.

(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.

(E) Genetically altered microorganisms generally cannot survive for more than a few hours in the natural environment.

(D) would weaken, rather than strengthen, the critics’ case. If, as (D) says, the environment is unstable to start with, and prone to sudden collapse, then would releasing laboratory-created organisms into it be that much of an additional risk? Maybe not.

Hope it helps

MikeScarn wrote:
hazelnut workout SajjadAhmad Can we unhide these replies? I would love to see a good solution as to why #6 is B and not D. I debated between the two and couldn't figure out which one to go with.

Thanks,
Mike
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.

(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.

(D) would weaken, rather than strengthen, the critics’ case. If, as (D) says, the environment is unstable to start with, and prone to sudden collapse, then would releasing laboratory-created organisms into it be that much of an additional risk? Maybe not.

Hope it helps

Thank you sir! This perfectly clarifies my confusion. I was thinking (D) was saying that the new organisms could lead to the collapse of the ecosystem. But it is just saying that the ecosystem may fail regardless.

Thanks again,
Mike
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
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How did we infer 'sociopolitical' ramifications in Q5?
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
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Raj30 wrote:
How did we infer 'sociopolitical' ramifications in Q5?

Explanation

5. The author’s reference in the last sentence of the passage to a society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles serves to

Explanation

We need to determine the role in the passage of a specific reference. To do this, we must understand the context in which it appears. That can be accomplished by reading the lines around the reference itself. In this particular case, then, we need to read and understand the last. So, what’s being said here? Simply put, opponents of rDNA technology fear that it could be misused to create some sort of nightmarish totalitarian society. That makes choice (E) the answer.

(A)’s out because the critics’ opposition to rDNA technology on medical grounds appears in lines—way earlier than the last sentence.

(B) Opponents, not supporters, of rDNA technology refer to the possibility of a grim future in which people are genetically engineered to serve a specific function. Also, remember that we’re being asked why the author does something, and we decided above that this author is simply describing or summarizing an issue, not taking sides or “advocating” anything.

(C) True, critics of rDNA technology fear that its use could lead to a natural disaster, but the reference in the last sentence of the passage has nothing to do with this fear.

(D) Huxley’s Brave New World—a fascinating book, for those of you who haven’t already read it—is introduced by the author as an example of how society might develop in the future if rDNA technology is misused. That’s entirely different from saying that it “accurately predicted technological developments.”

• Keep your eyes open for answer choices that speak of things that may be supported in the text yet are irrelevant to the question at hand. Somewhere, someone is worried about the type of disaster mentioned in (C), but that has nothing to do with the purpose of the author’s reference in the final sentence.

Hope it Helps
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
4. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken an argument of opponents of rDNA technology?
Relevant text: A major concern of the critics of rDNA research is that genetically altered microorganisms might escape from the laboratory.
(A) New safety procedures developed by rDNA researchers make it impossible for genetically altered microorganisms to escape from laboratories. directly counters the claim cited above
(B) A genetically altered microorganism accidentally released from a laboratory is successfully contained. if anything this strengthens the argument, because it shows that some bio-engineered things can break loose
(C) A particular rDNA-engineered microorganism introduced into an ecosystem attracts predators that keep its population down. it appears to weaken the argument in that the engineered organisms would not dominate the world; however, it is still uncertain whether "their interaction with the natural world <...> It is possible that they could cause previously unknown perhaps incurable, diseases". Also, the question asks to weaken AN ARGUMENT of the opposition. The opponents do not address changes in population
(D) Genetically altered organisms designed to process sewage into methane cannot survive outside the waste treatment plant. Again, the question asks to weaken AN ARGUMENT of the opposition. The opponents do not address waste treatment, the proponents do
(E) A specific hereditary disease that has plagued humankind for generations is successfully eradicated. Again, the question asks to weaken AN ARGUMENT of the opposition. The opponents do not address the success of eradicating a decease

5. The author’s reference in the last sentence of the passage to a society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles serves to
Relevant text: The implications of such power [u]would become particularly profound if genetic engineers were to tinker with human genes[/u], a [b]practice that would bring us one step closer to Aldous Huxley’s grim vision in Brave New World of a totalitarian society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles. - so the author uses AH in order to show one way genetic modification could roll out[/b]
(A) emphasize the potential medical dangers of rDNA technology tempting, but this is not a medical issue; rather, it is social: some people control other people by genetically engineering the latter
(B) advocate research on the use of rDNA technology in human genetics
(C) warn of the possible disasters that could result from upsetting the balance of nature these are bad manipulative people about whom we're talking about
(D) present Brave New World as an example of a work of fiction that accurately predicted technological developments
(E) illustrate the sociopolitical ramifications of applying genetic engineering to humans correct; I suppose that "sociopolitical ramifications" could be translated into something like "social development"

6. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen an argument of the opponents of rDNA technology?
Relevant text: The effect of genetically altered microorganisms on the world’s microbiological predator-prey relationships is another potentially serious problem pointed out by the opponents of rDNA research. Introducing a new species may disrupt or even destroy the existing ecosystem.
(A) Agricultural products developed through rDNA technology are no more attractive to consumers than are traditional crops. Again going back to Q4, the question asks to strengthen AN ARGUMENT of the opposition. The opponents do not address agriculture in the context of genetic engineering
(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms. correct
(C) Drugs produced using rDNA technology cost more to manufacture than drugs produced with traditional technologies. Again going back to Q4, the question asks to strengthen AN ARGUMENT of the opposition. The opponents do not address the cost of drugs in the context of genetic engineering
(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so. if anything, this may weaken a little bit. If ecosystems are doomed to collapse, then why fret about some damage by genetically engineered organisms
(E) Genetically altered microorganisms generally cannot survive for more than a few hours in the natural environment. if anything, this may weaken their argument because genetically engineered organism cannot survive in the outer world beyond laboratory confinements, let alone do damage
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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
Hi everyone,
Solved this one in 14:20 minutes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

In paragraph 1 we are given that the discovery of rDNA technology allowed researchers to manipulate somehow the DNA. This discovery is followed by excitement and controversy since it involves such manipulations.

Brief summary: rDNA tech and reactions to its discovery

P2

In paragraph 2 we are given how this technology works. Researchers/scientists are able to transfer DNA parts from one organism to another. This work resembles a cut and transfer mechanism that gives birth to a new organism.

Brief summary: How the rDNA technology works

P3

Paragraph 3 presents the proponents of the rDNA technology. According to them the benefits of such technology are new ways of curing diseases and a better understanding of the organism development by considering genetic information. Plus there might be some positive aspects related also to the pharmaceutical industry since it is believed that many drugs will be produced with the aid of rDNA technology.

Brief summary: Proponents' view

P4

Other benefits related to non medical fields are presented in paragraph 4.

Brief summary: Non medical benefits of rDNA technology

P5

We are given that opponents of rDNA technology are afraid that the microorganisms studied might escape from the laboratory and, since such microorganisms are not present in nature, it is impossible to forecast with accuracy the result of such incident. In fact such microorganism might kill other species, endanger the current prey/predator relationship and in the worst case scenario they might lead to the end of the human species.

Brief summary: Opponents' view.

P6

There are also some ethical problems associated with rdna technology such as the fact that scientist would interfere with evolutionary mechanisms that took millenniums to occur. It would be even worse if scientists would play with human genes, bringing us a step closer to the vision of a writer that sees a society in which human are engineered to accomplish specific roles

Brief summary: Ethical problems associated with rDNA technology

Main point

The main point is to describe rDNA technology by reviewing proponent's and opponent's view

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point and summaries above

(A) explaining the process and applications of rDNA technology
Partial scope

(B) advocating continued rDNA research and development
The author never advocates research and development

(C) providing evidence indicating the need for regulation of rDNA research and development
No evidence provided

(D) summarizing the controversy surrounding rDNA research and development
Partial scope since the controversy is discussed only in the last 2 paragraphs and mentioned briefly in the first paragraph. This choice to me lacks of the proponents view to be a main point. [b]SajjadAhmad Would you shed light on this one?[/b]

(E) arguing that the environmental risks of rDNA technology may outweigh its medical benefits
Never mentioned in the passage

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which one of the following is an accurate statement about research into the genetic code of cells?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Let's refer to P1 to answer this question

(A) It led to the development of processes for the manipulation of DNA.
mentioned in P1

(B) It was initiated by the discovery of rDNA technology.
Not mentioned

(C) It led to the use of new treatments for major diseases.
Not mentioned

(D) It was universally heralded as a great benefit to humanity.
Not mentioned

(E) It was motivated by a desire to create new organisms.
Not mentioned

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The potential benefits of rDNA technology referred to in the passage include all of the following EXCEPT

Pre-thinking

Detail question

The benefits are discussed in paragraph 3 and 4

(A) new methods of waste treatment
Mentioned in P4

(B) new biological knowledge
Mentioned in P3

(C) enhanced food production
Mentioned in P4

(D) development of less expensive drugs
Never mentioned

(E) increased energy production
Mentioned in P4

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken an argument of opponents of rDNA technology?

Pre-thinking

Weaken question

The opponents' view is presented in the last 2 paragraphs.

(A) New safety procedures developed by rDNA researchers make it impossible for genetically altered microorganisms to escape from laboratories.
Opponents, according to P5, are afraid of the consequences related to the escape of genetically modified microorganisms. If this option is true, then opponents should not be afraid at all. This option is a weakener.

(B) A genetically altered microorganism accidentally released from a laboratory is successfully contained.
Just one, what about the others. No impact on the opponents' argument. OUT

(C) A particular rDNA-engineered microorganism introduced into an ecosystem attracts predators that keep its population down.
This option strengthen the opponent' argument since it shows how the relationship predator/prey will be affected by the introduction of a new microorganism

(D) Genetically altered organisms designed to process sewage into methane cannot survive outside the waste treatment plant.
This option talks just about one category of GMO. What about the others. No impact--->OUT

(E) A specific hereditary disease that has plagued humankind for generations is successfully eradicated.
No impact on the opponent's view. OUT

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. The author’s reference in the last sentence of the passage to a society that engineers human beings to fulfill specific roles serves to

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

The purpose is to detail a concrete risk the humanity would face

(A) emphasize the potential medical dangers of rDNA technology
the medical dangers are not an issue here, the ethical problems are

(B) advocate research on the use of rDNA technology in human genetics
the author does not advocate research

(C) warn of the possible disasters that could result from upsetting the balance of nature
There is no warning

(D) present Brave New World as an example of a work of fiction that accurately predicted technological developments
We don't know whether the book is accurate and plus the current world is still far from the one depicted in the book

(E) illustrate the sociopolitical ramifications of applying genetic engineering to humans
In line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen an argument of the opponents of rDNA technology?

Pre-thinking

Strengthen question

[b]Let's consider the last two paragraphs to identify the opponents' view

[/b]

(A) Agricultural products developed through rDNA technology are no more attractive to consumers than are traditional crops.
opponents are not concerned with attractiveness

(B) Genetically altered microorganisms have no natural predators but can prey on a wide variety of other microorganisms.
Opponents are afraid that the introduction of microorganism in the environment could affect the prey/predator relationship. This option strengthen this belief.

(C) Drugs produced using rDNA technology cost more to manufacture than drugs produced with traditional technologies.
Cost is irrelevant

(D) Ecosystems are impermanent systems that are often liable to collapse, and occasionally do so.
Too general statement

(E) Genetically altered microorganisms generally cannot survive for more than a few hours in the natural environment.
This option is a weakener

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
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auradediligodo trying to make sense let me know if it does.

Explanation

1. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

This is a Global question asking about the author’s purpose. The author’s intent is to discuss the debate over rDNA technology, noting the arguments of both proponents and opponents of the technology, without taking sides on the matter. That points directly to choice (D). Both the tone and content of this choice are consistent with the tone and content of the passage, which is as it should be. The notion of “controversy” is introduced right up front, and the proponents/opponents structure bears this out.

(A) completely ignores the most important element of the passage, the controversy surrounding rDNA. (A) would be closer to correct if the passage consisted of only paras 2-4.

(B), (C) and (E) have the wrong tone. Phrases like “advocating continued...research,” in (B), “providing evidence...for regulation of...research,” in (C), and “arguing that the...risks...may outweigh its...benefits,” in (E), are out of sync with the neutral tone of the passage.

They suggest that the author takes some sort of stand on rDNA technology, which is simply not the case here. Additionally, none of these choices mentions the scientific controversy that’s at the heart of the passage (the controversy between supporters and critics of rDNA technology).

Hope it helps
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After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
auradediligodo trying to make sense let me know if it does.

Explanation

1. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

This is a Global question asking about the author’s purpose. The author’s intent is to discuss the debate over rDNA technology, noting the arguments of both proponents and opponents of the technology, without taking sides on the matter. That points directly to choice (D). Both the tone and content of this choice are consistent with the tone and content of the passage, which is as it should be. The notion of “controversy” is introduced right up front, and the proponents/opponents structure bears this out.

(A) completely ignores the most important element of the passage, the controversy surrounding rDNA. (A) would be closer to correct if the passage consisted of only paras 2-4.

(B), (C) and (E) have the wrong tone. Phrases like “advocating continued...research,” in (B), “providing evidence...for regulation of...research,” in (C), and “arguing that the...risks...may outweigh its...benefits,” in (E), are out of sync with the neutral tone of the passage.

They suggest that the author takes some sort of stand on rDNA technology, which is simply not the case here. Additionally, none of these choices mentions the scientific controversy that’s at the heart of the passage (the controversy between supporters and critics of rDNA technology).

Hope it helps

It helped a lot, thanks. My mistake was thinking that the controversy was only represented by the opponents while the actual controversy of the rDNA technology is represented by the good points both made by opponents and proponents.
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Re: After thirty years of investigation into cell genetics, researchers ma [#permalink]
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