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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began

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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Apr 2018, 15:53
1
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Question 1
00:00
A
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C
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E

based on 143 sessions

46% (03:23) correct 54% (02:56) wrong

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Question 2
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based on 161 sessions

59% (01:11) correct 41% (01:34) wrong

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based on 161 sessions

51% (00:51) correct 49% (01:06) wrong

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based on 165 sessions

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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began to walk upright because it freed their hands to use stone tools, which they had begun to make as the species evolved a brain of increased size and mental capacity. But discoveries of the three-million-year-old fossilized remains of our hominid ancestor Australopithecus have yielded substantial anatomical evidence that upright walking appeared prior to the dramatic enlargement of the brain and the development of stone tools.

Walking on two legs in an upright posture (bipedal locomotion) is a less efficient proposition than walking on all fours (quadrupedal locomotion) because several muscle groups that the quadruped uses for propulsion must instead to provide the biped with stability and control. The shape and configuration of various bones must likewise be modified to allow the muscles to perform these functions in upright walking. Reconstruction of the pelvis (hipbones) and femur (thighbone) of “Lucy”, a three-million-year-old skeleton that is the most complete fossilized skeleton from the australopithecine era, has shown that they are much more like the corresponding bones of the modern human than like those of the most closely related living primate, the quadrupedal chimpanzee. Lucy’s wide, shallow pelvis is actually better suited to bipedal walking than is the rounder, bowl-like pelvis of the modern human, which evolved to form the larger birth canal needed to accommodate the head of a large-brained human infant. By contrast, the head of Lucy’s baby could have been no larger than that of a baby chimpanzee.

If the small-brained australopithecines were not toolmakers, what evolutionary advantage did they gain by walking upright? One theory is that bipedality evolved in conjunction with the nuclear family: monogamous parents cooperating to care for their offspring. Walking upright permitted the father to use his hands to gather food and carry it to his mate from a distance, allowing the mother to devote more time and energy to nurturing and protecting their children. According to this view, the transition to bipedal walking may have occurred as long as ten million years ago, at the time of the earliest hominids, making it a crucial initiating event in human evolution.

1. The passage suggests that proponents of the theory mentioned in line 50 (One theory is … offspring.) assume that which of the following steps in human evolution occurred most recently?

(A) development of a nuclear family structure
(B) transition from walking on all fours to walking upright
(C) dramatic enlargement of the brain
(D) use of the hands to gather and carry food
(E) modification of propulsive muscles to provide stability and control in locomotion


2. The passage suggests that, in comparison with the hominid australopithecines, modern humans are

(A) less well adapted to large group cooperation
(B) less well adapted to walking upright
(C) more agile in running and climbing
(D) more well suited to a nuclear family structure
(E) more well suited to cooperative caring for their offspring


3. According to the passage, the hominid australopithecine most closely resembled a modern human with respect to which of the following characteristics?

(A) brain size
(B) tool making ability
(C) shape of the pelvis
(D) method of locomotion
(E) preference for certain foods


4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present an interpretation of the chronological relationship between bipedal locomotion and certain other key aspects of human evolution

(B) compare the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of bipedal locomotion to those of quadrupedal locomotion

(C) argue that the transition to a nuclear family structure was a more crucial step in human evolution than was the development of stone tools

(D) analyze anatomical evidence of bipedal locomotion to show that the large brain of modern humans developed at a later stage of evolution than was previously believed

(E) use examples of muscle and bone structure to illustrate the evolutionary differences between modern humans, australopithecines, and chimpanzees


Originally posted by eybrj2 on 21 Dec 2011, 14:41.
Last edited by hazelnut on 25 Apr 2018, 15:53, edited 3 times in total.
Reformatted question, OAs added
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2011, 06:23
i am getting
1.c
2.d
3.c
4.c

answers pls !!
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2012, 08:04
Please reply with OA .. Thanks
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New post 22 Jan 2012, 05:35
Question 20 : C

The last paragraph suggest that the human started to walk upright before it developed large brain
It suggests the reason for walking upright as (1) nuclear family, (2)male collecting food using 2 hands. That understanding puts those options chronologically behind the development of large brain.

The last options remaining suggests the modifications of muscle as transition from walking on four feet to walking on 2 feet. We can associate this phase also to walking upright phase.... Thus answer C
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2012, 05:40
Q21: B


Q 22: There are two options that are close

Shape of pelvis and method of locomotion. I think C is a trap, this choice is obviously discussed on the second para. How ever the passage also suggests that the pelvic bone in modern humans evolved to accommodate children with large brains. SO there is some difference

But both are bipedal ..

So answer D

Q 23:C
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New post 15 Apr 2012, 10:05
I got A/B/D/D prob wrong, any one has OA? Thnkx
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2012, 07:29
My option is C / E / D / A ...

OA pls??
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New post 29 Apr 2012, 23:11
My answer is C, B, D, D. Eybrj2 , Please post the answer.
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New post 30 Apr 2012, 20:46
My Answers are CBDA. so many different answers? what is the OA, please...

20 - C - Nuclear families and food gathering happened first, then transition to 2 legs, and stability later. last would be the big brain. so i chose C

23 - confused between ACD...
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2015, 09:55
Hi Guys,

Found the OA!!

OA: C, B, D, A
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New post 26 Aug 2017, 17:24
can someone help shed some light on Q22 why C is wrong?
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2017, 07:37
YangYichen wrote:
can someone help shed some light on Q22 why C is wrong?


Hi YangYichen

Q22
We have to answer which characteristic is similar in both modern human beings and hominid australopithecine
As per the passage there is only one characteristic that was same in both i.e walking upright .


"Lucy’s wide, shallow pelvis is actually better suited to bipedal walking than is the rounder, bowl-like pelvis of the modern human, which (?) evolved to form the larger birth canal needed to accommodate the head of a large-brained human infant. By contrast, the head of Lucy’s baby could have been no larger than that of a baby chimpanzee."

C is a difference not a similarity
Hope it helps
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New post 28 Aug 2017, 03:59
arvind910619 wrote:
YangYichen wrote:
can someone help shed some light on Q22 why C is wrong?


Hi YangYichen

Q22
We have to answer which characteristic is similar in both modern human beings and hominid australopithecine
As per the passage there is only one characteristic that was same in both i.e walking upright .


"Lucy’s wide, shallow pelvis is actually better suited to bipedal walking than is the rounder, bowl-like pelvis of the modern human, which (?) evolved to form the larger birth canal needed to accommodate the head of a large-brained human infant. By contrast, the head of Lucy’s baby could have been no larger than that of a baby chimpanzee."

C is a difference not a similarity
Hope it helps

i c the referred sentances indicating the right answer~thx a lot~
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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2018, 16:27
Easy passage but slightly tricky questions. Took 8:48 min to do all Qs.
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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2018, 20:01
workout

Can you please help in approaching Q2.

Thanks!
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New post 23 Oct 2018, 21:18
gmat1393 wrote:
workout

Can you please help in approaching Q2.

Thanks!


Hey!

Please refer to the following portion of the passage to understand the source of the answer for Question#2 :


Lucy’s wide, shallow pelvis is actually better suited to bipedal walking than is the rounder, bowl-like pelvis of the modern human, which evolved to form the larger birth canal needed to accommodate the head of a large-brained human infant. By contrast, the head of Lucy’s baby could have been no larger than that of a baby chimpanzee.

Lucy = hominid australopithecines
pelvis BETTER suited to BIPEDAL walking = better for walking in an UPRIGHT position

Hope this helps!

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Re: Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began &nbs [#permalink] 23 Oct 2018, 21:18
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Anthropologists once thought that the ancestors of modern humans began

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