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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in

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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2010, 07:04
Statements with "involving" are adverbial phrases. They did not contain a standard verb to modify.

While D is run-on, B is correct as the verb "involved" modifies "widespread changes in agriculture".
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2010, 13:08
B.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, [strike]known as the agrarian revolution[/strike], involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2010, 18:23
The correct ans is B.

Only B and D are proper sentences.B is better

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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2010, 02:14
B

The main clause in this sentense is
widespread changes in agriculture involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming

Obviously from above, involving is wrong tense. Most of the other answers clubs "involved......crops, and" to the subordinate phrase "the eg....... revolution" with that. Doing so makes the main clause itself incomplete.

Does this make sense?
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2010, 02:50
Of course B :-)
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2010, 04:43
OA is B.
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New post 29 Jun 2010, 07:09
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not parallel

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - involved the introduction of X and of Y, and the substitution of new farming..... - CORRECT

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - incomplete sentence

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - we need 'of' for 'new farming techniques'

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - awkward
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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Although the passage looks like a jumble of endless apposite, still the revolution in essence involves two things only: 1. the large-scale introduction (of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops) and 2. The substitution (of commercial blah.) The trick is to temporally ignore the prepositional phrases and converge on the arms of the list. In this symmetrical structure, the two factors i.e. The introduction and the substitution should be parallelly placed.

A.C and E can be instantly dropped, because they each are fragments without working verbs.

Between B and D, D missies parallelism by unnecessarily adding a preposition - of - to the second arm of the list – the substitution -, while dropping it for the first arm, - the introduction

Of course, the multiple use of the conjunction – and - is appropriately done in both the contenders.

B is the choice
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2010, 09:57
This Q is testing parallelism in a very rough way.

(A) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(B) correct parallelism, very complicated though
(C) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(D) lack of comma introduces ambiguity: "revolution involved"
(E) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
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Re: During the eighteenth century [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2010, 23:57
raghavs wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian
revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming
techniques and crops, and
the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new
farming techniques and crops, and
B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new
farming techniques and crops, and
C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of
new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming
techniques and crops, and of
E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new
farming techniques and crops, and of



Here A states revolution, involving which makes the sentence very awkward...

B is correct in saying ...the large-scale introduction of A and of B... ,and C- here basically there is hierarchy of conjunctions.... [A and B] and c... it is maintained perfectly...

In C use of 'which' is redundant...

In D 'introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of' distorts the meaning...

In E usage of 'of' in climax changes the meaning of sentence.. it suggests that 'large-scale introduction.... of A and B, and of C' ie also large scale introduction of 'substitution of commercial for subsistence farming' ... which is so incorrect...


Definitely B is perfect...
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2013, 21:05
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause. :? :shock: :| :arh :beat
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause. :? :shock: :| :arh :beat


as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2013, 13:22
blueseas wrote:
MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause. :? :shock: :| :arh :beat


as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS



It did! Thanks so much - if I understand correctly then, the large scale introduction here refers to enclosed fields and the farming techniques = X. Great! that's really helpful.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2015, 01:13
Question:

'And' indicates parallelism. In option B shouldn't 'of' come before the substitution of commercial as well.?
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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B is no doubt the best of the lot. Still a small hazy area---The revolution involved two things namely 1. the large scale introduction of X and the substitution of Y. There are only two items in the main list. Do we need a comma between them, i.e before the second ‘and’? One might observe that there is no comma before the ‘and’ in the subordinate modifier namely ‘of enclosed fields’ and ‘of new farming techniques and crops’ and rightly so in IMO.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2015, 20:48
daagh : Thank you for the response. Observed the question again, in option E there is a 'that' after revolution. That refers to the noun before it. So I interpret it as it's not the revolution that involved the so called 'methods' rather the widespread changes. And in option B, the comma introduces a meaningful split.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2015, 20:35
Core sentence is Wide spread changes in agriculture involved.....
In that context, A, C, E are out because these are just phrases if you remove the modifiers.

Between B and D, D has parallelism issue so I will go with B as correct answer.

ykaiim wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 05:20
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. Main clause in bold! - no 'real' verb is given in A - furthermore the right tense should be used

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of no comma between revolution and involved

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of no verb in the main clause
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in   [#permalink] 29 Dec 2015, 05:20
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