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# Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of

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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
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The passage says.
=> 1st study implies,
Any species with Trait A will have At least one of the trait B and C
That means If any insect have A he will have either B or C or Both
A = B/C or B + C -------(1)

=> 2nd study implies,
Any species with Trait C will have At least one of the trait D and E
That means If any insect have C he will have either D or E or Both
C = D/E or D + E -------(2)

=> 3rd study implies,
Any species with Trait B will have C as trait
That means If any insect have A he will have trait C in him in addition
B = B + C -------(3)

Now, for ex.
If an insect have Trait A
Other following traits will be.
=>>> A+B+C+D/E ------(4) (because A has to have atleast B/C with it and B will surely have C, also C will have either of Trait D/E)

Also, the other traits that could be followed are,
A+C+D/E ----(5) (since a can have any of the B and C and C follows Any of the D and E)

If you followed all three equations in other traits combinations you will see A and C are must together

From above we can determine that Trait A will have Trait C for sure.

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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
Given:
Trait A = B or C
Trait C= D or E
Trait B has Trait C

Analysis:
If A then B then must C then should have D or E
or
If A then C then D or E

If B then C then D or E

Result: In above cases,
If B then C must be present ( given in question. In addition to this relation)
if A then C must be present.
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
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Official Explanation

We are asked to identify, in addition to the relationship between Traits B and C, a relationship between two of the five significant traits of a certain type of insect that is implied by the information in the passage.

The passage states that any species of insects with Trait A has at least one of the Traits B and C—any insects with Trait A will have Trait B, Trait C, or both. The passage also states that any of the species with Trait B has Trait C. Taken together, these claims imply that any of the insects that has Trait A also has Trait C—an insect with Trait A will either have Trait C and not Trait B, or it will have both Trait B and Trait C. The passage does not imply any other relationships between the five significant traits such that any insect that has any one of the significant traits must also have another of the significant traits. Therefore, the statement that the passage implies that any of the insects that has Trait A also has Trait C most accurately describes the passage.

The correct answer are A and C
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
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But why not A to B? It is not certain that A will lead to B. Why are not both options valid: A to B and A to C?
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
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SergejK wrote:
But why not A to B? It is not certain that A will lead to B. Why are not both options valid: A to B and A to C?

­From the passage we know that
1. if A is present then at least one of B and C are also present. So the possible combinations are -
a. if A then B
b. if A then C
c. if A then (B and C)

2. And if B is present then C is present. So, if B then C

Combining these two statements, we can see from statement 1,
a. if A then B, and if B then C so, if A then C
b. if A then C - we can't infer anything more because if B then C is not the same as if C then B.
c. if A then (B and C). The intersection of B and C will be the same as B (from statement 2), and since if B then C. So we get the same as (a), if A then C again.

So, looking at the possible combinations, we can only infer that if A then C is MUST BE TRUE. But if A then B is COULD BE TRUE (true in case a. and case c. but FALSE in case b.) and we can't conclude that relation with the given data.

Hope this helps­
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
8Harshitsharma wrote:
SergejK wrote:
But why not A to B? It is not certain that A will lead to B. Why are not both options valid: A to B and A to C?

­From the passage we know that
1. if A is present then at least one of B and C are also present. So the possible combinations are -
a. if A then B
b. if A then C
c. if A then (B and C)

2. And if B is present then C is present. So, if B then C

Combining these two statements, we can see from statement 1,
a. if A then B, and if B then C so, if A then C
b. if A then C - we can't infer anything more because if B then C is not the same as if C then B.
c. if A then (B and C). The intersection of B and C will be the same as B (from statement 2), and since if B then C. So we get the same as (a), if A then C again.

So, looking at the possible combinations, we can only infer that if A then C is MUST BE TRUE. But if A then B is COULD BE TRUE (true in case a. and case c. but FALSE in case b.) and we can't conclude that relation with the given data.

Hope this helps­

Thanks, yes it does. The focus should lie on the difference what is explicitly stated and what is implied. Study 1 explicitly states that if A then B or C, leaving out the possibility that A must lead to C, as such information is not yet provided. Only through study 3 that explicitly mentions that B leads to C, we now know for certain, that if A then there must be C, but not B. Only if A leads to B, then all three will be present. But A can also go directly to C, leaving B out. And as there is no study provided that would show that C leads to B, the only thing that we can infer with 100% certainty is that A will lead to C.

I have to work on that, what is the cause, what the effect and what it is not. But thanks again.
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
why can't it be B & C? since that is there in the options itself and the statement 3 says that as well.­

Because ideally it said additional to B & C, so I thought it has to be options other than B & C in it and now seeing the answer I realise it has to be a different combination - can someone please explain the grammar part of it?
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
akshitagandhi wrote:
why can't it be B & C? since that is there in the options itself and the statement 3 says that as well.­

Because ideally it said additional to B & C, so I thought it has to be options other than B & C in it and now seeing the answer I realise it has to be a different combination - can someone please explain the grammar part of it?

­It says "B and C" already and asks to "imply", thus, the direct rewrite B to C is not as good as implying A to C.
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
1) A-> B/C
2) C->D/E
3)B->C

Implies:
A->B->C->D/E
or
A->C-D/E

Hence A will always lead to C

(A,C) is ans
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
We are able to form the below cases
AC
ABC
CD
CE
CDE

Cant we say that whereever E trait is present, C trait is also present? Please tell me why is this ans choice incorrect?
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
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nikitathegreat wrote:
We are able to form the below cases
AC
ABC
CD
CE
CDE

Cant we say that whereever E trait is present, C trait is also present? Please tell me why is this ans choice incorrect?
GMATNinja MartyMurray karishma @E-GMAT­

­It says whereever C is there, at least one of D and E is there. This does not mean the opposite, that is whereever E is there C will be there.

The possible options would be many more, few are added below
• AC
• ABC
• CD
• CE
• CDE
• D
• E
• ABCD
• ABCE
• ABCDE
• BCD
• BCDE
• BCDE
• ACD
• ACDE
• ACE
• DE
So, in the combinations E and DE, C is not present.
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Re: Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of [#permalink]
­Each of the species of a certain type of insect has at least one of five significant traits: A, B, C, D, and E. Furthermore, one study has determined that any species with Trait A has at least one of the Traits B and C. Another study has determined that any species with Trait C has at least one of the Traits D and E. And a third study has determined that any of the species with Trait B has Trait C. The results of each study are correct.

In addition to the relationship between Traits B and C that is stated explicitly with respect to the third study, the passage implies that any of the insects that has Trait ____X____ also has Trait ____Y____.

Select different options for X and for Y such that the following statement most accurately describes the passage. Make only two selections, one in each column.­

Reading the statement with the blanks, we see that, for X and Y, we have to find traits such that, if an insect has the first, the X trait, the insect must also have the second, the Y trait.

Also, the relationship that the completed statement describes must be "in addition to the relationship between Traits B and C." So, the correct answers won't be B and C.

We can start to determine which traits fill the blanks by listing what the passage says in short form:

A --> B or C

C --> D or E

B --> C

Considering the first statement, A --> B or C, we see that that information does not allow us to answer the question because it indicates that an insect that has A could have B or C and thus doesn't indicate that an insect that has A must have one of the two traits B and C.

Also, it doesn't indicate that an insect that has B or C must have A. In fact, for all we know from the first statement, an insect with B or C may not have any of the other traits listed. After all, the first statement does not say that an insect that has B or C must have any other trait.

The second statement also does not allow us to answer the question because it indicates that an insect that has C could have D or E and thus doesn't indicate that an insect that has trait C must have one of the two traits D or E.

Also, it doesn't indicate that an insect that has D or E must have C. In fact, for all we know from the second statement, an insect with D or E may not have any of the other traits listed. After all, the second statement does not say that an insect that has D or E must have any other trait.

The final statement, B --> C is interesting. If we combine it with the first statement, we see the following.

From the first statement, we know A --> B or C.

Combining that information with B --> C, we get the following.

A could be associated with B, in which case, since B --> C, then A is also associated with C. In other words, A --> B ALWAYS means A --> B --> C.

Alternatively, A could be associated with C alone, as in A --> C.

In either case, A --> C.

So, we see that the following is true:

the passage implies that any of the insects that has Trait ____A____ also has Trait ____C____.