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Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou

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Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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ksung84 wrote:
Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold


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A is the correct answer

2 points are tested in this question i.e. Idiom (From X To Y) and Parallelism

B, C, & E use the correct idiom From X to Y but violate parallelism. X & Y are not parallel.

D has modifier error. The verb-inf modifier "Shifting from ...." either has to present the result of the first statement or provide additional information about the first clause. It does neither rather explain how the transformation took place.
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2013, 19:55
Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
best

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
they is ambiguous

(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
wordy and not parallel

(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
wordy

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
wordy


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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2014, 05:43
Is there any difference in meaning among the following sentences?

Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold - Looks good.

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding - Parallelism issue - From X to Y. X and Y should be parallel.

(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding - it is makes the option more wordy. It doesn't have an antecedent and acts as a placeholder which is not really required. - Incorrect

(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding -
Same issue as that of Option C)

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold - being - Indicates that it is happening right now. incorrect.

One more thing.
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea to keep me awake at night.
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea for keeping me awake at night.

2nd option doesn't provide the intent hence for keeping is not the correct usage. This is one more issue with "For holding" in Option B,C and D.


I am not sure if shifting is incorrect.

I changed my books orientation, shifting from bookshelf placed in my bedroom to bookshelf placed in my living room.

Shifting is verbing modifier provides more info about I changed my books.

And If I break the sentences in clauses:

Geologists have found
that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago
shifting from X to Y.
So the subject of the verbing modifier is still streams and shifting can be tagged to the subject and it makes sense.

I don't think "shifting" is a issue here.
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2014, 05:28
I was stumped too on this one.

Verb modifiers can be placed anywhere.

From X to Y is a verb modifier modifying 'changed suddenly' how streams changed?
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2014, 08:40
applying POE to get the answer.

Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding
(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2014, 02:15
kinjiGC wrote:
Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold - Looks good.

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding - Parallelism issue - From X to Y. X and Y should be parallel.

(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding - it is makes the option more wordy. It doesn't have an antecedent and acts as a placeholder which is not really required. - Incorrect

(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding -
Same issue as that of Option C)

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold - being - Indicates that it is happening right now. incorrect.

One more thing.
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea to keep me awake at night.
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea for keeping me awake at night.

2nd option doesn't provide the intent hence for keeping is not the correct usage. This is one more issue with "For holding" in Option B,C and D.


I am not sure if shifting is incorrect.

I changed my books orientation, shifting from bookshelf placed in my bedroom to bookshelf placed in my living room.

Shifting is verbing modifier provides more info about I changed my books.

And If I break the sentences in clauses:

Geologists have found
that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago
shifting from X to Y.
So the subject of the verbing modifier is still streams and shifting can be tagged to the subject and it makes sense.

I don't think "shifting" is a issue here.


Shifting is incorrect because is it redundant. Change is already mentioned earlier, so that makes the addtion of shifting unnecessarily wordy.

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2014, 22:27
kinjiGC wrote:
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea to keep me awake at night.
I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea for keeping me awake at night.

2nd option doesn't provide the intent hence for keeping is not the correct usage. This is one more issue with "For holding" in Option B,C and D.

Actually this is an interesting observation. While infinitives express intent is generally true, did you notice that you actually used prefer drinking and not prefer to drink.

When two verbs (or verb forms) appear together, the first verb determines whether the second verb will be in the gerund form (-ing form of the verb) or in the infinitive form (to + the basic form of the verb).

For example, let us take the word enjoy. We would always say:

I enjoy swimming.

And not

I enjoy to swim.

p.s. This topic has been discussed in detail in our book. If you can PM me your mail id, I can send the corresponding section to you.
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2014, 03:12
Is there a difference between the usage of "from" and "shifting from". If option E was copy paste of option A and had the word shifting in addition, which option would be the correct answer?
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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joseph0alexander wrote:
Is there a difference between the usage of "from" and "shifting from". If option E was copy paste of option A and had the word shifting in addition, which option would be the correct answer?


Hello joseph0alexander.

D and E are wrong because of redundancy. "shifting" is not necessary. You can look back to the non-underlined portion: ".......streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago......., shifting from X to Y....."

"change" means "shift". In fact, it's a very classical trick used by GMAT. It uses a same meaning word in the non-underlined portion, so if read too fast, we will ignore a small but important point.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 20:42
ksung84 wrote:
Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold


GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo Could you help to explain the different of "to hold" (A) and "for holding" (B) in this problem?
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo Could you help to explain the different of "to hold" (A) and "for holding" (B) in this problem?


Ziyuen, I don't think it's a major issue here. That particular part of the sentence describes the usefulness of the deep-rooted vegetation, and I don't think that "for holding" is necessarily wrong in this case. "To hold" is probably a little bit better, since "for holding" seems to imply some sort of specific design or intent -- and that's probably not ideal here. But I wouldn't automatically dismiss "for holding" in this particular sentence.

Not coincidentally, it's a non-issue in the sentence. The GMAT gives us very clear errors (pronouns and redundancies) in the other answer choices -- so there's no real reason to even worry about the idiom. That's classic GMAT SC: distract us with a split that doesn't matter much, while the real issues lie elsewhere. :)
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 19:00
wouldn't answer choice D and E be considered participle phrases since it contains the ,ing structure at the end? If so, wouldn't it modify the subject Geologists?

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2017, 11:32
The first thing I realized after reading this sentence is that after "comma", there shud be somethng that modifies "changed suddenly" (how did it changed suddenly is the first question that i asked myself). So i started looking for somethng with "ing". So i directly went to 4th and 5th option. But i found "areas where" and "for holding" in option 4 as incorrect. So i went to option 5. Here also i didnt like "being". So i discared. I had taken for granted that when you try to modify preceding clause you should use "comma+ing" or "comma+with". I was confused. But anyhow i selected the correct ansr(which is "a"). But i didnt understand why a? So after thinking for some time I figured out that "at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago" is just a prepositional phrase and "from" in option a can be used to modify "changed" in the previous sentence. Is my interpretation correct ? Does this sentence give us any extra takeawy (beside the one which we know that except "comma+with" all "comma+prepositions" are used to modify somethng just before the comma? Does "comma+from" in this sentence work like "comma+with" type of sentences?).

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2017, 15:04
mogarza08 wrote:
wouldn't answer choice D and E be considered participle phrases since it contains the ,ing structure at the end? If so, wouldn't it modify the subject Geologists?



Hello mogarza08,

I am not sure whether you still have this doubt. Here are my two cents anyway. :-)

It is true that comma + shifting in Choice D and E is the comma + verb-ing modifier that modifies the preceding action.

In this case, the action that precedes comma + shifting is changed. So comma + shifting modifies the action changed and hence associates with streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa, the doer of the modified action.

Since the modification is logical and the modifier makes sense with the doer of the modified action, use of comma + shifting is correct in Choice D and E.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2017, 15:14
sambit66 wrote:
The first thing I realized after reading this sentence is that after "comma", there shud be somethng that modifies "changed suddenly" (how did it changed suddenly is the first question that i asked myself). So i started looking for somethng with "ing". So i directly went to 4th and 5th option. But i found "areas where" and "for holding" in option 4 as incorrect. So i went to option 5. Here also i didnt like "being". So i discared. I had taken for granted that when you try to modify preceding clause you should use "comma+ing" or "comma+with". I was confused. But anyhow i selected the correct ansr(which is "a"). But i didnt understand why a? So after thinking for some time I figured out that "at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago" is just a prepositional phrase and "from" in option a can be used to modify "changed" in the previous sentence. Is my interpretation correct ? Does this sentence give us any extra takeawy (beside the one which we know that except "comma+with" all "comma+prepositions" are used to modify somethng just before the comma? Does "comma+from" in this sentence work like "comma+with" type of sentences?).



Hello sambit66,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

IMHO, your analysis is very grammar oriented and looks a little inorganic, something that you are arriving at to justify the correct answer choice.

This is how I looked at the sentence. The sentence intends to say that some streams changed from X to Y to do something. Rest everything is additional information about some entity or the other.

I also do not give undue importance to the usage of comma in a sentence. I did not in this one too. For me, the comma before form just presents the necessary pause in the sentence so that I can understand well what this long sentence is actually trying to convey.

I only went by the context and the meaning conveyed by the original sentence. I did check for the grammatical nuances, but the very basic ones, nothing too complicated. But for me, the conveyed meaning makes it clear what the sentence is all about. That's our approach at e-GMAT.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 11:12
Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa changed suddenly at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegitated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold the soil together.

(A) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold

Correct : from X to Y (parallel) ; Infinitive form "to hold' is correct

(B) from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern that they find in areas without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

Change in meaning : Incorrect


(C) from the meandering shape typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

"For holding " is In correct , "To hold" indicates purpose correctly


(D) shifting from the meandering shape typically found in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern found in areas where it is without deep-rooted vegetation for holding

Verb -ing modifier "shifting...holding" modifies verb in preceding clause : Incorrect

(E) shifting from the meandering shape that is typical in well-vegetated zones to the braided pattern being found in areas without deep-rooted vegetation to hold

Same as D

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 11:23
egmat wrote:
mogarza08 wrote:
wouldn't answer choice D and E be considered participle phrases since it contains the ,ing structure at the end? If so, wouldn't it modify the subject Geologists?



Hello mogarza08,

I am not sure whether you still have this doubt. Here are my two cents anyway. :-)

It is true that comma + shifting in Choice D and E is the comma + verb-ing modifier that modifies the preceding action.

In this case, the action that precedes comma + shifting is changed. So comma + shifting modifies the action changed and hence associates with streams in the Karoo basin of South Africa, the doer of the modified action.

Since the modification is logical and the modifier makes sense with the doer of the modified action, use of comma + shifting is correct in Choice D and E.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha




Geologist have found (something) , shifting from X to Y
This seems nonsensical .
Did geologist shift ?

Pls suggest.

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Re: Geologists have found that streams in the Karoo basin of Sou   [#permalink] 17 Aug 2017, 11:23

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