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A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat

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A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2014, 09:00
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 231 ~ 235
Page: 392

Passage-08 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)

A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the present-day species.

In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not over represented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores—in particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present several explanations for a well-known fact
(B) suggest alternative methods for resolving a debate
(C) argue in favor of a controversial theory
(D) question the methodology used in a study
(E) discuss the implications of a research finding



2. According to the passage, compared with Pleistocene carnivores in other areas, Pleistocene carnivores in the La Brea area

(A) included the same species, in approximately the same proportions
(B) had a similar frequency of tooth fractures
(C) populated the La Brea area more densely
(D) consumed their prey more thoroughly
(E) found it harder to obtain sufficient prey



3. According to the passage, the researchers believe that the high frequency of tooth breakage in carnivores found at La Brea was caused primarily by

(A) the aging process in individual carnivores
(B) contact between the fossils in the pits
(C) poor preservation of the fossils after they were removed from the pits
(D) the impact of carnivores’ teeth against the bones of their prey
(E) the impact of carnivores’ teeth against the bones of other carnivores during fights over kills



4. The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that

(A) the older an individual carnivore is, the more likely it is to have a large number of tooth fractures
(B) the average age at death of a present-day carnivore is greater than was the average age at death of a Pleistocene carnivore
(C) in Pleistocene carnivore species, older individuals consumed carcasses as thoroughly as did younger individuals
(D) the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals
(E) data concerning the ages of fossil samples cannot provide reliable information about behavioral differences between extinct carnivores and present-day carnivores



5. According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that

(A) the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
(B) the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits
(C) Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses
(D) all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species
(E) predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high



6. The passage suggests that tooth fractures in Pleistocene carnivores probably tended to occur less frequently

(A) during periods in which more prey were available
(B) at sites distant from the La Brea area
(C) in older individual carnivores
(D) in species that were not preserved as fossils
(E) in species that regularly stole carcasses from other species


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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2014, 06:00
5
Time taken 7:30 min.
1.The passage suggests that tooth fractures in Pleistocene carnivores probably tended to occur less frequently
A. during periods in which more prey were available
" more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species.
Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities."

2.According to the passage, compared with Pleistocene carnivores in other areas, Pleistocene carnivores in the La Brea area
B. had a similar frequency of tooth fractures
"hey ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data."

3.According to the passage, the researchers believe that the high frequency of tooth breakage in carnivores found at La Brea was caused primarily by
D. the impact of carnivores’ teeth against the bones of their prey
"more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses"

4.The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that
D. the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals
"demographic bias because older individuals were not over represented in the fossil samples."

5.According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that
A. the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
"They rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits"

6.The passage suggests that tooth fractures in Pleistocene carnivores probably tended to occur less frequently
A during periods in which more prey were available
Duplicate of A
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2014, 21:28
2

1. A. Last paragraph implies that if the prey was scarce then the predator had more contact with the prey's bone.
2. B 5th line of the 2nd paragraph states this.
3. D The last few lines of paragraph 2 points to this. The rest of the options were all dismissed by the scientists.
4. D The premise of rejecting the hypothesis of not enough older samples breaks if this option were true. If the method of identifying younger from older was faulty and identified older dinos as younger, then there were clearly more older dinos among the samples under study.
5. A If either or both of those samples had breakage, then it would be possible that there was some damage done by the pits that stored the fossils for all of these years.
6. A Last paragraph says that prey was "seasonally available". Therefore, there were periods when prey was more available and periods when there was few or maybe none.

P.S. Question 5 has been repeated twice. The count of questions is 7 when in fact there are only 6 unique questions.

Originally posted by AmoyV on 11 Aug 2014, 17:13.
Last edited by PiyushK on 13 Aug 2014, 21:28, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 12 Aug 2014, 04:37
AmoyV wrote:
@PiyushK : OA's ?


Will post soon after few more replies on this thread, else people wont discuss their doubts or reasoning.
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2014, 00:12
Just added Q-1. OAs are updated.

6min 58sec

for old set of questions OA was A B D D A A and I got 4th wrong; I marked A, though D is also convincing.
4. The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that
A. the older an individual carnivore is, the more likely it is to have a large number of tooth fractures
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2014, 22:00
8 mins 46 secs
What is with Q1? I dont quite seem to understand the answers mentioned here.
My answers are
1.E
2.B
3.D
4.D
5.A
6.A
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New post 25 Nov 2014, 01:54
Time taken 9:15 seconds.
Got all correct.
A medium difficulty passage in my opinion.
Ideally 10 mins should be decent for this passage.
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New post 24 Feb 2015, 05:38
Is this really a gmatprep question? I have encountered it in official guide, too.
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New post 25 Jun 2015, 08:17
1E 2A(Incorrect) 3D 4D 5A 6A


Total time =3 minutes 21 seconds
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New post 26 May 2016, 20:28
Time for me 10'29'' - all correct! Medium for me.

P/s: manishkhare what a speed!
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 02:13
time 10 mins
all correct.
Accuracy not a problem,but i seem to be taking little more time than others. :(
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 09:42
Easy passage. Time taken 6 mins. All correct
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2016, 07:56
5. According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that
A. the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
B. the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits
C. Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses
D. all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species
E. predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high

"The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores"
So if the tooth -breakage problem was not there then they would have considered that Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another.
I dont understand why A.

ALso The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. present several explanations for a well-known fact

E. discuss the implications of a research finding

Implication discussion is just a part of the entire passage so why not A. Because passage explore finding, then method and then implication.
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2016, 08:14
3
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abrakadabra21 wrote:
5. According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that
A. the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
B. the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits
C. Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses
D. all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species
E. predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high

"The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores"
So if the tooth -breakage problem was not there then they would have considered that Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another.
I dont understand why A.

ALso The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. present several explanations for a well-known fact

E. discuss the implications of a research finding

Implication discussion is just a part of the entire passage so why not A. Because passage explore finding, then method and then implication.



5. According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that
A. the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits
B. the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits
C. Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses
D. all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species
E. predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high

"The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores"
So if the tooth -breakage problem was not there then they would have considered that Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another.
I dont understand why A.


The passage states that they rejected preservational bias because of the absence of Tooth decay. So, if they found that there was some touch decay, they could not have have proceeded further and concluded that preservational bias is the possible explanations for the finding mentioned. hence, they could not have proceeded further. Hence, A clearly states this idea.

Again, we are not sure if Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses or not. There is no information supporting this idea , hence, we cannot assume it on our own. May be they couldn't have proceeded to provide this explanation. Hence, it is a very weak answer choice.


ALso The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. present several explanations for a well-known fact

E. discuss the implications of a research finding

Implication discussion is just a part of the entire passage so why not A. Because passage explore finding, then method and then implication.


The passage states an Idea and then trying to get the possible explanation for the same. But it rejected a couple of explanations and came to a final conclusion. hence, He is providing the Only explanation for the finding. Hence, E.

A is not the right answer because the author has not provided the several explanations for the finding, rather ruled out the possible explanations and provided only One. Hence, we can say he is providing information on what the finding is implying. Hence, E.

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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2016, 00:08
Interesting passage . Took 9 mins 50 seconds ,including 2 mins and 50 seconds to read
-The author does not provide an opinion
- He is only concerned with providing information on predator-prey dynamics
- The author presents various explanations for a finding

1 .
The author is concerned with the implications of the findings which is suggested in the following lines.. "Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities "
Hence option (E) is the right answer.

2 .
"They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data"
The above excerpt suggests that both carnivores had similar breakage patterns and thereby similar frequency in tooth fractures. Hence option (B) is the right answer.

3.
"The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores—in particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species."
Answer D

4.
the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals

Answer D

5.
"They rejected preservational bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits."
Answer A

6.
Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

Answer A
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2016, 22:39
1
1
oasis90 wrote:
Hello sayantanc2k,

Can you please help me understand what why A is wrong and E is right for question 1 on the link below?

Thanks,

Humam
gmatprep-challengeq-a-recent-study-has-provided-clues-to-176177.html



That carcasses were consumed thoroughly is the research finding. The passage discusses what this finding might imply. Therefore E is correct.

Nowhere in the passage is stated that tooth fracture is a well-known fact. Hence option A is wrong.
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New post 31 Dec 2016, 23:33
Only one wrong (third, mistaken because of confusion).... Taken 8 minutes 40 seconds...
Medium passage for me..
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2017, 09:11
Time taken 8 minutes 20 seconds 1 wrong

4. The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that
A. the older an individual carnivore is, the more likely it is to have a large number of tooth fractures
B. the average age at death of a present-day carnivore is greater than was the average age at death of a Pleistocene carnivore
C. in Pleistocene carnivore species, older individuals consumed carcasses as thoroughly as did younger individuals
D. the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals
E. data concerning the ages of fossil samples cannot provide reliable information about behavioral differences between extinct carnivores and present-day carnivores

Chose B got thrown off by thinking D is out of scope. Remember to read full answer choice and don't get baited/ sold on B.

D is correct
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2017, 09:26
Level of difficulty seemed easy.
Answers E B D D A A
Time consumed 8 mins.

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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 00:37
Hi,
can someone please help me in the "Primary Purpose" Question

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. present several explanations for a well-known fact
B. suggest alternative methods for resolving a debate
C. argue in favor of a controversial theory
D. question the methodology used in a study
E. discuss the implications of a research finding

Why Option A is rejected.
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Re: A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the lat &nbs [#permalink] 13 Feb 2017, 00:37

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