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Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged

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Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 21:04
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Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.


E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 07:03
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1) Take a First Glance (5 seconds)

The underline encompasses the entire long sentence, so pay careful attention to the Sentence Structure and watch out for any misplaced Modifiers. Had and if indicate a hypothetical, so make sure that the Verbs match.



(2) Read for Meaning

The sentence theorizes that when Stanislav Petrov decided that Russia’s early warning system’s reports of an incoming missile were incorrect and therefore disobeyed his superiors’ orders to retaliate, he likely prevented a nuclear war between Russia and the United States. Would likely have is the correct construction for this hypothetical. If you can’t spot a mistake in the original sentence, reserve judgment on answer choice (A). Since the entire sentence is underlined, it will be difficult to compare answers vertically to find splits. Read each answer on its own, and when you spot an error, investigate the remaining answers and eliminate any that make the same mistake.



(3) Find a Starting Point

Start with any difference that seems easiest to you, then move to the next easiest issue, and so on. Stop when you have one answer or you aren’t sure how to address the remaining differences. All errors for each choice are detailed in the next section.



(4) Eliminate (and Repeat)

(A) CORRECT. This sentence correctly says that Petrov judged the early warning system’s reports (rather than the system itself) to be false. The sequence of events is in the correct order.

(B) In the original sentence, Petrov judged the early warning system’s reports … to be false. This answer, however, says that Petrov judged the early warning system … to be false. The reports were false, not the system itself.

(C) A comma –ing modifier modifies the main subject and verb, so in this choice, disobeying is modifying Petrov likely prevented. However, it is not the case that the fact that Petrov prevented the war resulted in his decision to disobey his superiors. The reverse construction would make sense: Petrov disobeyed orders from his superiors, likely preventing a nuclear war.

(D) A comma –ing modifier modifies the main subject and verb, Petrov correctly judged. However, disobeying does not describe how Petrov correctly judged … the reports … to be false. In addition, the modifier preventing also points back to Petrov correctly judged, but judging the reports to be incorrect isn’t what prevented nuclear war; rather, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate is what prevented nuclear war, so preventing ought to modify disobeying.

(E) This sentence says that Petrov did two things: disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged the reports to be false. The second action (judging the reports to be false) necessarily occurred before the first (disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate) Since judging the reports to be false led directly to disobeying Petrov’s superiors’ orders, the order of these two clauses should be reversed.

hibobotamuss if you need more thorough explanation then lemme know
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 22:34
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.


E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.


This is a hypothetical condition, nothing wrong with the Original sentence, correct Answer must be (A)
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 23:45
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Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war. (Had and would have is rightly used) no other error


B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war. (The bold part of sentence is worng)


C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate. (likely prevented? the meaning if sentence is distorted)


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war. (the war was prevented because lieutenant judges the early warning system's report---its a cause and effect however; in this sentence disobeying and preventing are made parallel as the effects of correctly judging)


E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false. (why likely prevented? When must specify some time and it seems that he prevented when he disobeyed and judged after that)
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 02:45
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.
( this format of the sentence feels a little awkward though )

B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.
(If...............and............) wrong

C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.
(disobeying is placed very far from the Stanislav Petrov, which it modifies)


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.
(same as option C)

E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.

( Can someone please explain how Option- E is wrong ? how the usage of the word " LIKELY" changes the meaning ? )
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 02:56
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shiva007 wrote:
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.
( this format of the sentence feels a little awkward though )

B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.
(If...............and............) wrong

C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.
(disobeying is placed very far from the Stanislav Petrov, which it modifies)


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.
(same as option C)

E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.

( Can someone please explain how Option- E is wrong ? how the usage of the word " LIKELY" changes the meaning ? )



There is a subtle tense error in option E. If you understand the meaning then you'll know that the judgement happened earlier than the disobedience.. hence the placement of disobedience should be later than judgement.

The placement in option E makes the ans choice as if both the verbs are independent,making the answer choice incorrect.

We have to place the verb in such a way that there is clear sequencing

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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 06:51
Can someone please break this down more clearly? Isn't the correct expression"would have likely"?
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 07:32
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.


E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 08:26
san22 wrote:
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


B. If Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov had not correctly judged the early warning system that reported an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983 to be false and then disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States likely would have entered a large-scale nuclear war.


C. Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and Russia on September 26, 1983 by correctly judging that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate.


D. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile were false, disobeying orders from his superiors to retaliate and likely preventing the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war.


E. On September 26, 1983, Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov likely prevented the United States and Russia from entering a large-scale nuclear war when he disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate and correctly judged that the early warning system’s reports that a nuclear missile was incoming were false.



san22

seems its your first post...u can mention your doubt after quoting the question :)

Option A presents a reason to conclude something ie war between US and Russia.
and is correct structurally as well grammatically.

Ans A
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 05:52
Hi Folks,
Its the sequence of events in the statement that requires such sentence construction. Option A is the only option that maintains its integrity and thats more important.
Not only rest of the options have additional errors but also have lost the meaning.

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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 05:57
hibobotamuss wrote:
Can someone please break this down more clearly? Isn't the correct expression"would have likely"?


Hi,
If we use "would have likely", it would modify entered. So it'd read would have likely entered. This is not what author intends to say at all. This whole statement is hypothetical, and we only want to modify "have" part.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 14:05
we need an expert view on this question, especially to explain this unusual form of making conditions that begin with a verb "Had Russian lieutenan colonnel..." instead of makin an if-clause or even attack the probleme as in choice C that appears to be the best
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 17:37
A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.

Please explain the position of phrase-in-bold to understand the construction of sentence.
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 18:48
gvij2017 wrote:
A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.

Please explain the position of phrase-in-bold to understand the construction of sentence.



See you have to understand that the author is trying to show a hypothetical condition...

He means to say that "had X not done something , Y would happen"

"Had stanislov not correct judged to be false ( this is the beginning of hypothetical condition- if something wouldn't have happened) and (had he not )disobeyed the orders.... A war WOULD happen ( Y would happen).

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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2019, 03:44
A is the correct option as,

B- ‘Likely would have’ is incorrectly constructed
C- ‘disobeying’ refers to the actions of Petrov but is place too far away from Petrov
D- Same as C
E- Mixes up the order of events, Petrov judged first and then disobeyed.
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2019, 13:39
gvij2017 wrote:
A. Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged the early warning system’s reports of an incoming nuclear missile on September 26, 1983, to be false and disobeyed orders from his superiors to retaliate, Russia and the United States would likely have entered a large-scale nuclear war.

Please explain the position of phrase-in-bold to understand the construction of sentence.


I don’t understand the use of the comma after 1983—it’s throwing me off completely. Can someone please explain? I can’t help but feel it’s an error, but it would be helpful to know whether this is a valid grammatical construct.

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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2019, 19:23
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fogarasm wrote:
I don’t understand the use of the comma after 1983—it’s throwing me off completely. Can someone please explain? I can’t help but feel it’s an error, but it would be helpful to know whether this is a valid grammatical construct.
This is a style issue.

1. September 26 1983
2. September 26, 1983
3. September 26, 1983, ← The comma after the year is dropped if there is a period immediately after it.

All of these are possible. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends (3), which is what is used in this question as well.

We don't need to worry about being tested on this though. Apart from things like comma splices, the GMAT is not really interested in testing the usage of commas. :)
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2019, 19:48
AjiteshArun wrote:
fogarasm wrote:
I don’t understand the use of the comma after 1983—it’s throwing me off completely. Can someone please explain? I can’t help but feel it’s an error, but it would be helpful to know whether this is a valid grammatical construct.
This is a style issue.

1. September 26 1983
2. September 26, 1983
3. September 26, 1983, ← The comma after the year is dropped if there is a period immediately after it.

All of these are possible. The Chicago Manual of Style recommends (3), which is what is used in this question as well.

We don't need to worry about being tested on this though. Apart from things like comma splices, the GMAT is not really interested in testing the usage of commas. :)


Huh - wow, I never knew that. Thanks for the explanation!
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Re: Had Russian lieutenant colonel Stanislav Petrov not correctly judged   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2019, 19:48
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