GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 08 Jul 2020, 03:50

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 01 Oct 2009
Posts: 335
GMAT 1: 530 Q47 V17
GMAT 2: 710 Q50 V36
WE: Business Development (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 31 Aug 2019, 00:51
6
12
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 119 sessions

55% (03:02) correct 45% (03:26) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 175 sessions

49% (01:48) correct 51% (01:57) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 169 sessions

56% (01:01) correct 44% (01:14) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 163 sessions

68% (01:24) correct 32% (01:34) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 166 sessions

49% (01:23) correct 51% (01:28) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 140 sessions

64% (01:41) correct 36% (01:37) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 238, Date : 30-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to eliminate racial discrimination in employment and wages: the United States Congress enacted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, prohibiting employers from making employment decisions on the basis of race. In 1965 President Johnson issued Executive Order 11,246, which prohibited discrimination by United States government contractors and emphasized direct monitoring of minority representation in contractors’ work forces.

Nonetheless, proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis believe that United States federal law had a marginal impact on the economic progress made by black people in the United States between 1940 and 1975. Instead they emphasize slowly evolving historical forces, such as long-term trends in education that improved segregated schools for black students during the 1940s and were operative during and after the 1960s. They argue that as the quality of black schools improved relative to that of white schools, the earning potential of those attending black schools increased relative to the earning potential of those attending white schools.

However, there is no direct evidence linking increased quality of underfunded segregated black schools to these improvements in earning potential. In fact, even the evidence on relative schooling quality is ambiguous. Although in the mid-1940s term length at black schools was approaching that in white schools, the rapid growth in another important measure of school quality, school expenditures, may be explained by increases in teachers’ salaries, and historically, such increases have not necessarily increased school quality. Finally, black individuals in all age groups, even those who had been educated at segregated schools before the 1940s, experienced post-1960 increases in their earning potential. If improvements in the quality of schooling were an important determinant of increased returns, only those workers who could have benefited from enhanced school quality should have received higher returns. The relative improvement in the earning potential of educated black people of all age groups in the United States is more consistent with a decline in employment discrimination.

An additional problem for continuity theorists is how to explain the rapid acceleration of black economic progress in the United States after 1964. Education alone cannot account for the rate of change. Rather, the coincidence of increased United States government antidiscrimination pressure in the mid-1960s with the acceleration in the rate of black economic progress beginning in 1965 argues against the continuity theorists’ view. True, correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect. One could argue that changing altitudes about employment discrimination sparked both the adoption of new federal policies and the rapid acceleration in black economic progress. Indeed, the shift in national attitude that made possible the enactment of Title VII was in part produced by the persistence of racial discrimination in the southern United States. However, the fact that the law had its greatest effect in the South, in spite of the vigorous resistance of many Southern leaders, suggests its importance for black economic progress.

OA:E

1. According to the passage, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act differs from Executive Order 11. 246 in that Title VII

(A) monitors employers to ensure minority representation
(B) assesses the work forces of government contractors
(C) eliminates discriminatory disparities in wages
(D) focuses on determining minority representation in government
(E) governs hiring practices in a wider variety of workplaces


OA:B

2. Which one of the following statements about schooling in the United States during the mid-1940s can be inferred from the passage?

(A) School expenditures decreased for white schools.
(B) The teachers in white schools had more time to cover material during a school year than did teachers in black schools.
(C) The basic curriculum of white schools was similar to the curriculum at black schools.
(D) White schools did not change substantially in quality.
(E) Although the salaries of teachers in black schools increased, they did not keep pace with the salaries of teachers in white schools.


OA:C

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) explain why an argument about black economic progress is incomplete
(B) describe the impact of education on black economic progress
(C) refute an argument about the factors influencing black economic progress
(D) describe black economic progress before and after the 1960s
(E) clarify the current view about the factors influencing black economic progress


OA:C

4. Which one of the following best states the position of proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis regarding the relationship between law and racial discrimination?

(A) Individuals cannot be forced by legal means to behave in nondiscriminatory ways.
(B) Discriminatory practices in education have been effectively altered by legal means.
(C) Legislation alone has had little effect on racially discriminatory behavior.
(D) Legislation is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve changes in racial altitudes.
(E) Legislation can only exacerbate conflicts about racially discriminatory behavior.


OA:A

5. The author concedes that “correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect” (lines 58-60) primarily in order to

(A) strengthen the overall argument by anticipating an objection
(B) introduce another factor that may have influenced black economic progress
(C) concede a point to the continuity theorists
(D) change the overall argument in light of the views of the continuity theorists
(E) introduce a discussion about the impact of federal intervention on discrimination


OA:D

6. The “continuous change” hypothesis, as it is presented in the passage, can best be applied to which one of the following situations?

(A) Homes are found for many low-income families because the government funds a project to build subsidized housing in an economically depressed area.
(B) A depressed economy does not cause the closing of small businesses in a local community because the government provides special grants to aid these businesses.
(C) Unemployed people are able to obtain jobs because private contractors receive tax incentives for constructing office buildings in an area with a high unemployment rate.
(D) A housing shortage is remedied because the changing state of the economy permits private investors to finance construction in a depressed area.
(E) A community’s sanitation needs are met because neighborhood organizations lobby aggressively for government assistance.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 15 (June 1995)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by RaviChandra on 21 Jul 2015, 08:51.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 31 Aug 2019, 00:51, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (359).
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 19 Oct 2012
Posts: 253
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Operations
GMAT 1: 660 Q47 V35
GMAT 2: 710 Q50 V38
GPA: 3.81
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Dec 2016, 13:45
2
rajatbanik wrote:
I am still struggling with RC. Could you please provide me some tips and strategy. All I am doing is reading. It would of great help if you can shed some light. RC seems to be daunting too

Thank you

A kudos is always appreciated.


Well I m no pro at this; but looking for a RC Strategy is like a hunt in the wild. There are soo many tactics which work for various people; not all could work for you. What you could do is to engage into the passage from the getgo. Thats the strategy I use. I try to do one thorough read [which you already are doing; but actively read] trying to grasp as much as I could while noting important aspects such author tone, author point of views, contrasting words used to define or counter an opinion, etc. After this read I should be comfortable with central idea of the passage and handful of important info which are critical from Author's perspective. While solving questions, if you can point out in the passage where these critical aspects are mentioned, you are good to go. Rest is POE and reading carefully. One obviously has to revisit the passage for specifics. But regular practice will make you efficient with the process and you will be more attuned to pick small hidden nuances of the correct answer and trap answers.

Hope this helps. :)
_________________
Citius, Altius, Fortius
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 27 Jun 2015
Posts: 56
Location: India
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Dec 2016, 23:39
Can any one please explain why answers to Qs 22, 23 and 27 are E,B and D respectively?
I chose C,C and D respectively.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 09 Feb 2015
Posts: 312
Location: India
Concentration: Social Entrepreneurship, General Management
GMAT 1: 690 Q49 V34
GMAT 2: 720 Q49 V39
GPA: 2.8
Reviews Badge
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Dec 2016, 03:08
1
kkrrsshh wrote:
Can any one please explain why answers to Qs 22, 23 and 27 are E,B and D respectively?
I chose C,C and D respectively.


Q22:

read the first para. It clearly states that Title VII of the 1964 prohibited discrimination while hiring while
Executive order prohibited discrimination after hiring by directly monitoring the minority workforce. Now you should be able to narrow down the answer choice to E.

option C is wrong because the paragraph doesn't mention that Title VII of the 1964 prohibited discrimination on wages.

Q23:

C cannot be inferred from anywhere in the passage , on the other hand B can be inferred by the below sentence from the third para

Although in the mid-1940s term length at black schools was approaching that in white schools,

Q27 :

Whats the problem with 27 ?You seem to have chosen the correct answer.
The logic behind the “continuous change” hypothesis is that in order to bring about a change you need to change the underlying aspects.
Option D reflects that logic .

Hope this helps.
Feel free to point out any logical gaps .
Manager
Manager
User avatar
P
Joined: 25 Aug 2015
Posts: 52
Reviews Badge
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jul 2019, 12:39
4

Explanations:




1. According to the passage, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act differs from Executive Order 11. 246 in that Title VII

(A) monitors employers to ensure minority representation
(B) assesses the work forces of government contractors
(C) eliminates discriminatory disparities in wages
(D) focuses on determining minority representation in government
(E) governs hiring practices in a wider variety of workplaces --> The 1st line of the passage - "the United States Congress enacted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, prohibiting employers from making employment decisions on the basis of race." - clearly implies that employers were ordered not to discriminate based on race while hiring or providing employment. However, "Executive order 11. 246" does NOT state anything particularly about this option.




2. Which one of the following statements about schooling in the United States during the mid-1940s can be inferred from the passage?

(A) School expenditures decreased for white schools.
(B) The teachers in white schools had more time to cover material during a school year than did teachers in black schools. --> The 2nd line of the 3rd para - "Although in the mid-1940s term length at black schools was approaching that in white schools" implies that curriculum length at black schools had long been shorter than that at white schools. And because of the increase in quality of black schools, their curriculum length increased but was still behind white school's one.
(C) The basic curriculum of white schools was similar to the curriculum at black schools.
(D) White schools did not change substantially in quality.
(E) Although the salaries of teachers in black schools increased, they did not keep pace with the salaries of teachers in white schools.



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain why an argument about black economic progress is incomplete
(B) describe the impact of education on black economic progress
(C) refute an argument about the factors influencing black economic progress --> 1st line of 3rd para - "However, there is no direct evidence linking increased quality of underfunded segregated black schools to these improvements in earning potential.", 1st line of last para - "An additional problem for continuity theorists is how to explain the rapid acceleration of black economic progress in the United States after 1964.", and the last line of last para - "However, the fact that the law had its greatest effect in the South, in spite of the vigorous resistance of many Southern leaders, suggests its importance for black economic progress." clearly state that the intent of the author is to deny the claim of the proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis mentioned in the first two lines of 2nd para.
(D) describe black economic progress before and after the 1960s
(E) clarify the current view about the factors influencing black economic progress



4. Which one of the following best states the position of proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis regarding the relationship between law and racial discrimination?

(A) Individuals cannot be forced by legal means to behave in nondiscriminatory ways.
(B) Discriminatory practices in education have been effectively altered by legal means.
(C) Legislation alone has had little effect on racially discriminatory behavior. --> 1st line of 2nd para - "Nonetheless, proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis believe that United States federal law had a marginal impact on the economic progress made by black people in the United States between 1940 and 1975" - depicts the position of "continuous change" proponents.
(D) Legislation is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve changes in racial altitudes.
(E) Legislation can only exacerbate conflicts about racially discriminatory behavior.



5. The author concedes that “correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect” (lines 58-60) primarily in order to

(A) strengthen the overall argument by anticipating an objection --> The usage of the word "True" in 3rd line of last para - "True, correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect." suggests that author has already anticipated and acknowledged this possibility. But author considers this only a possibility that might be one of the factor, as suggested in the the words "one COULD argue..." in the very next line. But using the fact presented in the last line - "However, the fact that the law had its greatest effect in the South, in spite of the vigorous resistance of many Southern leaders, suggests its importance for black economic progress.", author strengthens his claim that the concerned objection is just one of the minor factor, and certainly not the major one, which author throughout supported, behind the black economic progress during 1964.
(B) introduce another factor that may have influenced black economic progress
(C) concede a point to the continuity theorists
(D) change the overall argument in light of the views of the continuity theorists
(E) introduce a discussion about the impact of federal intervention on discrimination



6. The “continuous change” hypothesis, as it is presented in the passage, can best be applied to which one of the following situations?

(A) Homes are found for many low-income families because the government funds a project to build subsidized housing in an economically depressed area.
(B) A depressed economy does not cause the closing of small businesses in a local community because the government provides special grants to aid these businesses.
(C) Unemployed people are able to obtain jobs because private contractors receive tax incentives for constructing office buildings in an area with a high unemployment rate.
(D) A housing shortage is remedied because the changing state of the economy permits private investors to finance construction in a depressed area. --> This is the only option, among all of them, which suggests that people's problem has been remedied or solved WITHOUT government assistance or help.
(E) A community’s sanitation needs are met because neighborhood organizations lobby aggressively for government assistance.
_________________
** When even your best effort fails, do you back down from chasing your dreams ??? **
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
P
Joined: 31 Jan 2019
Posts: 397
Location: Switzerland
Concentration: General Management
GPA: 3.9
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Mar 2020, 00:02
1
Hi everyone,

Got 5/6 correct in 13 minutes, including 5:30 minutes to read.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

The author starts with presenting the main topic of the passage: elimination of discrimination in employment and wages. Then the author proceeds to describe a couple of laws issue in 1964/1965 that aimed at eliminating racism in the working world.

Purpose: To present the efforts made by the government in 1964/5 in order to eliminate racism in employment and wages.


P2

In the second paragraph the author presents the proponents of the "continuous change" hypothesis' point of view: they believed that government did not have a great impact on the elimination of racism; instead they claim that schools for black people accounted for the difference.

Purpose: To present the proponents of the "continuous change" hypothesis' point of view.



P3

Here the authors refutes the continuous change theory on the basis of some evidence. First, the increase of expenditures for school cannot be connected with an increase in quality for those schools. Second, the increase of earning potential affected all black people, independently whether they went to such schools or not. Lastly the author reaffirms the importance of the government for the decrease in racism.

Purpose: The purpose is to refute the continuous change theory.



P4

In the last paragraph the author deals with another limitation of the continuous change theory. The theory cannot explain also the acceleration in Black economic progress after 1964 and it is more plausible that the government's actions were responsible for such. Lastly the author discuss the correlation between federal actions and the acceleration in black economic progress.

Purpose: To show another limitation of the continuous change theory and discuss the correlation between federal actions and acceleration in black economic progress.



[b]Main point[/b]

To claim that the acceleration of black economic progress is the consequence of the government action, refuting the continuous change theory.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



1. According to the passage, Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act differs from Executive Order 11. 246 in that Title VII

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1: the United States Congress enacted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, prohibiting employers from making employment decisions on the basis of race. In 1965 President Johnson issued Executive Order 11,246, which prohibited discrimination by United States government contractors and emphasized direct monitoring of minority representation in contractors’ work forces.


(A) monitors employers to ensure minority representation
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) assesses the work forces of government contractors
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) eliminates discriminatory disparities in wages
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) focuses on determining minority representation in government
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) governs hiring practices in a wider variety of workplaces
in line with pre-thinking




----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



2. Which one of the following statements about schooling in the United States during the mid-1940s can be inferred from the passage?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Key here is to find the interested part of the passage.

From P3: Although in the mid-1940s term length at black schools was approaching that in white schools,

We can infer that clack schools had less time available than white schools


(A) School expenditures decreased for white schools.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) The teachers in white schools had more time to cover material during a school year than did teachers in black schools.
in line with pre-thinking

(C) The basic curriculum of white schools was similar to the curriculum at black schools.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) White schools did not change substantially in quality.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) Although the salaries of teachers in black schools increased, they did not keep pace with the salaries of teachers in white schools.
Not in line with pre-thinking


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Pre-thinking

Main point question

To claim that the acceleration of black economic progress is the consequence of the government action, refuting the continuous change theory.


(A) explain why an argument about black economic progress is incomplete
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) describe the impact of education on black economic progress
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) refute an argument about the factors influencing black economic progress
The author indeed refutes the continuous change theory

(D) describe black economic progress before and after the 1960s
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) clarify the current view about the factors influencing black economic progress
Not in line with pre-thinking


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




4. Which one of the following best states the position of proponents of the “continuous change” hypothesis regarding the relationship between law and racial discrimination?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

The proponents believe that the government had little impact of the acceleration of black economic progress


(A) Individuals cannot be forced by legal means to behave in nondiscriminatory ways.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) Discriminatory practices in education have been effectively altered by legal means.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) Legislation alone has had little effect on racially discriminatory behavior.
in line with pre-thinking

(D) Legislation is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve changes in racial altitudes.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) Legislation can only exacerbate conflicts about racially discriminatory behavior.
Not in line with pre-thinking



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




5. The author concedes that “correlating federal intervention and the acceleration of black economic progress might be incorrect” (lines 58-60) primarily in order to

Pre-thinking

Function question

From last paragraph: One could argue (.....) that changing altitudes about employment discrimination sparked both the adoption of new federal policies and the rapid acceleration in black economic progress. Indeed, the shift in national attitude that made possible the enactment of Title VII was in part produced by the persistence of racial discrimination in the southern United States. However, the fact that the law had its greatest effect in the South, in spite of the vigorous resistance of many Southern leaders, suggests its importance for black economic progress.

By looking at the structure of this part of the passage we see that the author anticipates an objection.


(A) strengthen the overall argument by anticipating an objection
in line with pre-thinking

(B) introduce another factor that may have influenced black economic progress
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) concede a point to the continuity theorists
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) change the overall argument in light of the views of the continuity theorists
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) introduce a discussion about the impact of federal intervention on discrimination
Not in line with pre-thinking



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




6. The “continuous change” hypothesis, as it is presented in the passage, can best be applied to which one of the following situations?

Pre-thinking

Parallel situation question

Per the proponents of the theory government had little impact on something.


(A) Homes are found for many low-income families because the government funds a project to build subsidized housing in an economically depressed area.
Government is important here

(B) A depressed economy does not cause the closing of small businesses in a local community because the government provides special grants to aid these businesses.
Government is important here

(C) Unemployed people are able to obtain jobs because private contractors receive tax incentives for constructing office buildings in an area with a high unemployment rate.
Government is important here

(D) A housing shortage is remedied because the changing state of the economy permits private investors to finance construction in a depressed area.
No government, correct

(E) A community’s sanitation needs are met because neighborhood organizations lobby aggressively for government assistance.
Government is important here



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


It's a great day to be alive!
GMAT Club Bot
Re: In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2020, 00:02

In 1964 the United States federal government began attempts to elimina

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne