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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from

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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2016, 04:40
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A
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from varying distances, which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s.

A. which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s
B. to reveal a degree of cratering similar to the Moon
C. revealing a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon
D. and revealed cratering similar in degree to the Moon
E. that revealed cratering similar in degree to that of the Moon

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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 11:30
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shonakshi wrote:
Not getting why option B is incorrect :? :?


I have a simple explanation.
If you look at the original sentence and concentrate on its meaning--- It says Nothing about the 'purpose' of the 'Photograph' being taken.
The Result just happened simultaneously
Whereas For B-- The Result of 'finding the similarity in craters' is because of deliberately 'Photographing' the landscape.


In short B changes the meaning of A drastically, although it is a grammatically correct sentence.
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2016, 04:46
Gnpth wrote:
In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from varying distances, which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s.

A. which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s ----- modifier issue
B. to reveal a degree of cratering similar to the Moon ------incorrect comparison
C. revealing a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon -----the correct answer
D. and revealed cratering similar in degree to the Moon -------incorrect comparison again ,also there is a change in meaning when It refers to degree to the moon
E. that revealed cratering similar in degree to that of the Moon----The usage of that greatly emphasizes the photograph



Because of the given reasons ---C
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New post 04 Jul 2016, 11:26
Not getting why option B is incorrect :? :?
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New post 04 Jul 2016, 11:45
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shonakshi wrote:
Not getting why option B is incorrect :? :?



In option B the degree of cratering is compared to moon.
The correct comparison should be the degree of cratering of Venus with the degree of cratering of moon
Instead of writing the full sentence we can write that of the moon
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2016, 20:46
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this is really a modifier and comparison question.

Without question, A, B and D can be eliminated because the comparison is not equal. There must be 'that of' that refers back to surface.

Between C and E is much more difficult.
'revealing' is a participial modifier which modifies the entire noun phrase.
'That' is a relative clause that modifies the subject 'area',

therefore the answer choice is C.

Please let me know if I am wrong about the modifier as I may not be entirely correct.
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:19
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OG explaination says in (A) "which" is correct. Says that it is an appositive clause expressing what imaging of mercury found.
This is new to me. Can some one explain how "which" is correct here?
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 12:23
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arpitgarg wrote:
OG explaination says in (A) "which" is correct. Says that it is an appositive clause expressing what imaging of mercury found.
This is new to me. Can some one explain how "which" is correct here?


First, the term "appositive" here does not indicate the commonly accepted meaning: a noun modifying a noun. Some grammarians use the term "appositive relative clause" to indicate what we generally call "non-essential modifiers". (But in GMAT the jargon does not matter.)

Now coming to your query:
This is very odd indeed. This may be one of the rare occasions in which one OG explanation contradicts another. The relative pronoun "which" does not have a noun to refer to - the second part should modify the entire clause and a present participle modifier "revealing..." is correct.

I would seek further advice from the expert of the experts mikemcgarry .
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 00:52
can someone explain why E is wrong ?
Is it just about the tense in option E ?
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 01:00
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deepthit wrote:
can someone explain why E is wrong ?
Is it just about the tense in option E ?


E is wrong because of the wrong usage of 'that'.

Remember, on GMAT that should never be preceded by a comma. 'That' is an essential modifier that should be attached directly to the entity it modifies.
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 01:03
abhimahna wrote:
deepthit wrote:
can someone explain why E is wrong ?
Is it just about the tense in option E ?


E is wrong because of the wrong usage of 'that'.

Remember, on GMAT that should never be preceded by a comma. 'That' is an essential modifier that should be attached directly to the entity it modifies.


Thanks Abhimahna , Thats a great point
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 02:23
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Another problem is that a modifier starting with "that" will be a noun modifier, and must therefore modify the preceding noun. The distances themselves didn't reveal the cratering. C correctly uses an adverbial modifier (", revealing . . . ") to indicate that this revelation is a result of the entire preceding clause.
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2016, 09:16
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Gnpth wrote:
In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from varying distances, which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s.

A. which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s
B. to reveal a degree of cratering similar to the Moon
C. revealing a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon
D. and revealed cratering similar in degree to the Moon
E. that revealed cratering similar in degree to that of the Moon



Hello,

I got this one right, but I have one doubt.

As per my understanding, ing modifier must make sense with the subject and the action of the previous clause. However, in the sentence there is no active subject present. The photograph was taken, but who took the photograph is not clear. So, can we use ing modifer with passive construction ?


sayantanc2k : Could you please explain ?

Thanks !
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2016, 10:02
I think it just an cause and effect relationship... :-D

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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 12:39
karant, the modifier does need to make sense in relation to the preceding clause, but it doesn't need to refer to a person who performed the action. It just explains the result of the action. A large area was photographed, and this revealed the cratering. It doesn't matter who took the photograph. It was probably automated, anyway. :)
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2016, 12:03
DmitryFarber wrote:
karant, the modifier does need to make sense in relation to the preceding clause, but it doesn't need to refer to a person who performed the action. It just explains the result of the action. A large area was photographed, and this revealed the cratering. It doesn't matter who took the photograph. It was probably automated, anyway. :)


DmitryFarber

Thanks for the explanation!

I think I have read, though not sure, somewhere a rule that says avoid sentences that use ing modifier with passive construction.

I correlated the rule with the Emily'Dickson letter question

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

In the incorrect above version, outnumbering does not make sense !

Could you please share few examples in which ing modifier is used with passive voice in the main clause.

However, after your explanation and official question in discussion, it is clear that ing can very much make sense with passive construction.

Thank you
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 11:33
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In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from varying distances, which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s.

Issue: Modifier

Analysis:
1. Since "," is not underlined, it is pretty easy to eliminate wrong answers.
2. ", verb-ing" is used to modify the whole clause preceding "comma" and this is what we need here.


A. which revealed a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon’s
- ", which" modifies the noun immediately preceding the comma. In this case it has been used incorrectly to refer to the action "photographed"

B. to reveal a degree of cratering similar to the Moon
- ", to" is ungrammatical
- "degree of cratering" has been compared to "the Moon", leading to comparison error


C. revealing a degree of cratering similar to that of the Moon

D. and revealed cratering similar in degree to the Moon
- "and revealed ... " clause is missing subject
- "degree of cratering" has been compared to "the Moon", leading to comparison error


E. that revealed cratering similar in degree to that of the Moon
- ", that" is the wrong modifier here.

Answer: C.
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2017, 01:37
in the pattern
main clause +to do

the subject of main clause is the agent of to do. this should be realized.

but in the pattern
main clause+comma +to do
or
to do+comma+ main clause

the agent of to do can be no one in the sentence

an example of this case is the question, from official guide

" to keep it from being stolen, it is burried...." . you can google to find this sentence.
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2017, 04:17
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A. Can be knocked off - Incorrect placement of the Relative Pronoun, ‘which’- Pronoun error. INCORRECT
B. The Pronoun error is rectified in this option. However, it can be knocked off because ‘the degree of cratering is incorrectly compared to the moon. Incorrect- Comparison Error. INCORRECT.
C. Correct usage of the adverbial modifier, ‘revealing’. It correctly refers to the action, ‘was photographed……’ the action revealed a degree of cratering. Correct comparison- cratering similar to that of the moon’ (Correct Answer)-
D. Wrong Comparison… Cratering is compared to ‘Moon”- ( Comparison Error)-INCORRECT
E. ‘That’ appears to modify distances- error similar to that in Option A..INCORRECT
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Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2017, 11:24
C correctly shows the effect of the photographs, so the correct answer is C
Re: In 1974 a large area of the surface of Mercury was photographed from &nbs [#permalink] 22 Mar 2017, 11:24

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